Arab–Israeli and Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Saturday, 6 January 2018 - 11:00 am (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: Editorial, General, Union for the Mediterranean

© Oncenawhile

© Oncenawhile

(Latest update: 18 November 2019) The Arab–Israeli conflict is the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel. The roots (European colonial period, Ottoman Empire, widespread Antisemitism in Europe, Jews in the Russian Empire, Baron Edmond James de Rothschild (Jewish land purchase in Palestine), Theodor Herzl, Jewish National Fund, timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, World War I, Sykes–Picot Agreement (San Remo conference, Mandate for Palestine, UN Charter, Chapter XII – International Trusteeship System, Article 80 (commonly known as the “Palestine Article” used by both conflict parties, Israel and Palestine, to create the wildest interpretations, speculations and conspiracy theories to assert the respective alleged right to the total land area), McMahon–Hussein Correspondence), Balfour Declaration, World War II, The Holocaust (International Holocaust Remembrance Day), Évian Conference, Mandatory Palestine, Forced displacement, and United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine) of the modern Arab–Israeli conflict (or the history of collective failure) are bound in the rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 19th century. Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their historical homeland is also regarded by the Pan-Arab movement as historically and currently belonging to the Palestinians, and in the Pan-Islamic context, as Muslim lands. The sectarian conflict between Palestinian Jews and Arabs emerged in the early 20th century, peaking into a full-scale civil war in 1947 and transforming into the First Arab–Israeli War in May 1948 following the Israeli Declaration of Independence (Nakba). Large-scale hostilities mostly ended with the cease-fire agreements after the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War. Peace agreements were signed between Israel and Egypt in 1979, resulting in Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula and abolishment of the military governance system in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in favor of Israeli Civil Administration and consequent unilateral, internationally not recognized, annexation of the Syrian Golan Heights and East Jerusalem. Even when the text is about 123 pages long, it is just a summary. The multitude of links point out that there is a lot more to learn in detail. At first, it is a timeline of the major developments in the region and it leads to today’s challenges. The starting point is the view of the international community, especially the European Union and North America, on the conflict, enriched with excursions into the ideas, convictions, believes, and thoughts of the direct and indirect involved parties to the conflict.


Timetable of wars and violent events

The nature of the conflict has shifted over the years from the large-scale, regional Arab–Israeli conflict to a more local Israeli–Palestinian conflict, which peaked during the 1982 Lebanon War. The interim Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994, within the context of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. The same year Israel and Jordan reached a peace accord. In 1988 the Palestinian Authority recognized the state of Israel. A cease-fire has been largely maintained between Israel and Baathist Syria, as well as with Lebanon since 2006. However, developments in the course of the Syrian Civil War reshuffled the situation near Israel’s northern border, putting the Syrian Arab Republic, Hezbollah (whose military arm is classified by the Western community as a terrorist organization – The Guardian, 25 February 2019: UK to outlaw Hezbollah’s political wing) and the Syrian opposition at odds with each other and complicating their relations with Israel. The conflict between Israel and Hamas-ruled Gaza, which resulted in the 2014 cease-fire, is usually also considered part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and therefore the Arab–Israeli conflict. Its 2006–2012 phase is, however, also attributed to the Iran–Israel proxy conflict in the region (Government of Syria and Hezbollah are being supported by Iran). Since 2012, Iran (predominantly Shia) has cut ties with the Sunni Hamas movement on account of the Syrian Civil War. Despite the peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan, interim peace accords with Palestine and the generally existing cease-fire, the Arab world and Israel remain at odds with each other over many issues.

National movements
The roots of the modern Arab–Israeli conflict lie in the rise of Zionism and the reactionary Arab nationalism that arose in response to Zionism towards the end of the 19th century (at that time, Zionism was still a liberal, political, religious, nationalist movement with a clear democratic orientation, which has only experienced a major right-wing, racist, nationalist spin during the past decades and is therefore discussed controversially in the diaspora, in particular because the Zionist movement in Israel isn’t only claiming to speak for all Jews worldwide, but also to determine who is a Jew and how Jews have to live. As expected, this is received well only in parts of the diaspora). Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their historical homeland is also regarded by the Pan-Arab movement as historically and presently belonging to the Palestinian Arabs. Before World War I, the Middle East, including Palestine (later Mandatory Palestine), had been under the control of the Ottoman Empire for nearly 400 years. During the closing years of their empire, the Ottomans began to espouse their Turkish ethnic identity, asserting the primacy of Turks within the empire, leading to discrimination against the Arabs. The promise of liberation from the Ottomans led many Jews and Arabs to support the allied powers during World War I, leading to the emergence of widespread Arab nationalism. Both Arab nationalism and Zionism had their formulative beginning in Europe. The Zionist Congress was established in Basel in 1897, while the “Arab Club” was established in Paris in 1906. In the late 19th century European and Middle Eastern Jewish communities began to increasingly immigrate to Palestine and purchase land from the local Ottoman landlords. The population of the late 19th century in Palestine reached 600,000 – mostly Muslim Arabs, but also significant minorities of Jews, Christians, Druze and some Samaritans and Bahai’s. At that time, Jerusalem did not extend beyond the walled area and had a population of only a few tens of thousands. Collective farms, known as kibbutzim, were established, as was the first entirely Jewish city in modern times, Tel Aviv. During 1915–16, as World War I was underway, the British High Commissioner in Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon, secretly corresponded with Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, the patriarch of the Hashemite family and Ottoman governor of Mecca and Medina. McMahon convinced Husayn to lead an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which was aligned with Germany against Britain and France in the war. McMahon promised that if the Arabs supported Britain in the war, the British government would support the establishment of an independent Arab state under Hashemite rule in the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire, including Palestine. The Arab revolt, led by Thomas Edward Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”) and Husayn’s son Faysal, was successful in defeating the Ottomans, and Britain took control over much of this area. A very relaxed phase reached the relationships, as Baron Edmond James de Rothschild 1882 began to buy land in Palestine. All parties were satisfied with the solution, especially as Rothschild pushed ahead with his own goals, while the Arabs laughed that they had sold another piece of desert to the “batty European”. This could have gone on happily and endlessly, if there had not been fundamental upheavals in Europe and finally the Holocaust.


Following the Camp David Accords of the late 1970s, Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty in March 1979. Under its terms, the Sinai Peninsula returned to Egyptian hands, and the Gaza Strip remained under Israeli control, to be included in a future State of Palestine. The agreement also provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal and recognition of the Straits of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba as international waterways (Foreign Policy, 15 January 2019: Club Med: Israel, Egypt, and Others Form New Natural Gas Group, Al Jazeera, 17 June 2019: Egypt in $500m settlement with Israel Electric Corp, Times of Israel, 17 June 2019: Egypt agrees to pay Israel $500 million to end gas dispute, Bloomberg, 24 July 2019: Israel Gas Partners to Change Egypt Deal to Avert Supply Halt, Arab News, 25 July 2019: Israel to start exporting natural gas to Egypt in November — minister, Israel Hayom, 7 August 2019: At summit, Israel, US, Greece, Cyprus agree to boost energy cooperation, Reuters, 8 September 2019: Pipeline operator EMG signs terminal deal for Israel-Egypt gas exports, Reuters, 9 September 2019: Plans for Israeli gas exports to Egypt on track: Egyptian minister, The Wall Street Journal, 12 September 2019: Security Threats Delay Egypt-Israel Gas Deal, Says U.S. Official, Bloomberg, 2 October 2019: Israeli Gas Shares Soar After Egypt Planned Supply Boost).

In October 1994, Israel and Jordan signed a peace agreement, which stipulated mutual cooperation, an end of hostilities, the fixing of the Israel-Jordan border, and a resolution of other issues. The conflict between them had cost roughly 18.3 billion dollars. Its signing is also closely linked with the efforts to create peace between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) representing the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). It was signed at the southern border crossing of Arabah on 26 October 1994 and made Jordan only the second Arab country (after Egypt) to sign a peace accord with Israel (BBC, 21 October 2018: Jordan seeks to end Israel land lease, Al Jazeera, 30 October 2019: Jordan recalls ambassador in Israel to protest citizen detentions, Jerusalem Post, 9 November 2019: Israel to lose Naharayim, Tzofar to Jordan on Sunday, Haaretz, 9 November 2019: Twenty Five Years After Peace Treaty: Jordan Resumes Control of Enclaves Leased to Israel, Times of Israel, 9 November 2019: Gate closes at ‘Isle of Peace’ park as border lands to return to Jordan).

Israel and Iraq have been implacable foes since 1948. Iraq sent its troops to participate in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and later backed Egypt and Syria in the 1967 Six-Day War and in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War. In June 1981, Israel attacked and destroyed newly built Iraqi nuclear facilities in Operation Opera. During the Gulf War in 1991, Iraq fired 39 Scud missiles into Israel, in the hopes of uniting the Arab world against the coalition which sought to liberate Kuwait. At the behest of the United States, Israel did not respond to this attack in order to prevent a greater outbreak of war (BBC, 25 October 2019: Iraq protests: 40 dead as mass unrest descends into violence, The Guardian, 25 October 2019: At least 40 killed and dozens injured in Baghdad amid protests sweeping Iraq, Arab News, 25 October 2019: At least 40 dead in renewed Iraq protests, 11 die setting fire to armed faction HQ, Al Jazeera, 25 October 2019: Dozens killed as fierce anti-government protests sweep Iraq, The National, 25 October 2019: More deaths as Iraqis resume anti-government protests, France24, 26 October 2019: Deadly protests flare again in Iraq after day of bloodshed, Arab News, 27 October 2019: Iraqis defy bloody crackdown, protest for third day, The National, 28 October 2019: Iraq protests continue despite mounting death toll, Saudi Gazette, 28 October 2019: 2 die, 112 hurt as Iraq declares Baghdad curfew amid protests, Al Jazeera, 29 October 2019: Iraqi protesters pack Baghdad’s Tahrir square, The National, 31 October 2019: Iranian general met Iraqi security officials as Baghdad and Kerbala continue to rage, Arab News, 31 October 2019: Iran’s theory on events in Iraq, Lebanon, The National, 31 October 2019: Iraqi Prime Minister Abdul Mahdi willing to resign, says Barham Salih, France24, 1 November 2019: Iraq’s top clerics warn of foreign interference amid largest anti-government demonstrations yet, The National, 1 November 2019: As Iraq protests enter month two, on the streets people vow to remain peaceful, Al Jazeera, 10 November 2019: Iraq gov’t urged to rein in security forces to end ‘bloodbath’, Gulf Times, 17 November 2019: Strikes resume in Iraq to bolster anti-regime protests).

In 1970, following an extended civil war, King Hussein expelled the Palestine Liberation Organization from Jordan. September 1970 is known as the Black September in Arab history and sometimes is referred to as the “era of regrettable events”. It was a month when Hashemite King Hussein of Jordan moved to quash the autonomy of Palestinian organisations and restore his monarchy’s rule over the country. The violence resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people, the vast majority Palestinians. Armed conflict lasted until July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO and thousands of Palestinian fighters to Lebanon. The PLO resettled in Lebanon, from which it staged raids into Israel. In 1978, Israel launched Operation Litani, in which it together with the South Lebanon Army forced the PLO to retreat north of the Litani river. In 1981 another conflict between Israel and the PLO broke out, which ended with a ceasefire agreement that did not solve the core of the conflict. In June 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon. Within two months the PLO agreed to withdraw thence. In March 1983, Israel and Lebanon signed a ceasefire agreement. However, Syria pressured President Amine Gemayel into nullifying the truce in March 1984. By 1985, Israeli forces withdrew to a 15 km wide southern strip of Lebanon, following which the conflict continued on a lower scale, with relatively low casualties on both sides. In 1993 and 1996, Israel launched major operations against the Shiite militia of Hezbollah, which had become an emergent threat. In May 2000, the newly elected government of Ehud Barak authorized a withdrawal from Southern Lebanon, fulfilling an election promise to do so well ahead of a declared deadline. The hasty withdrawal lead to the immediate collapse of the South Lebanon Army, and many members either got arrested or fled to Israel. In 2006, as a response to a Hezbollah cross-border raid, Israel launched air strikes on Hezbollah strongholds in Southern Lebanon, starting the 2006 Lebanon War. The inconclusive war lasted for 34 days, and resulted in the creation of a buffer zone in Southern Lebanon and the deployment of Lebanese troops south of the Litani river for the first time since the 1960s. The Israeli government under Ehud Olmert was harshly criticized for its handling of the war in the Winograd Commission (see Israeli–Lebanese conflict, Israel–Lebanon relations, and Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon).

The 1970s were marked by a large number of major, international terrorist attacks, including the Lod Airport massacre and the Munich Olympics Massacre in 1972, and the Entebbe Hostage Taking in 1976, with over 100 Jewish hostages of different nationalities kidnapped and held in Uganda. In December 1987, the First Intifada began. The First Intifada was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule in the Palestinian territories. The rebellion began in the Jabalia refugee camp and quickly spread throughout Gaza and the West Bank. Palestinian actions ranged from civil disobedience to violence. In addition to general strikes, boycotts on Israeli products, graffiti and barricades, Palestinian demonstrations that included stone-throwing by youths against the Israel Defense Forces brought the Intifada international attention. The Israeli army’s heavy handed response to the demonstrations, with live ammunition, beatings and mass arrests, brought international condemnation. The PLO, which until then had never been recognised as the leaders of the Palestinian people by Israel, was invited to peace negotiations the following year, after it recognized Israel and renounced terrorism. In mid-1993, Israeli and Palestinian representatives engaged in peace talks in Oslo. As a result, in September 1993, Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords, known as the Declaration of Principles or Oslo I; in side letters, Israel recognized the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people while the PLO recognized the right of the state of Israel to exist and renounced terrorism, violence and its desire for the destruction of Israel. The Oslo II agreement was signed in 1995 and detailed the division of the West Bank into Areas A, B, and C. Area A was land under full Palestinian civilian control. In Area A, Palestinians were also responsible for internal security. The Oslo agreements remain important documents in Israeli-Palestinian relations (see Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the film “The Oslo Diaries” by Mor Loushy and Daniel Sivan).

The Second Intifada forced Israel to rethink its relationship and policies towards the Palestinians. Following a series of suicide bombings and attacks, the Israeli army launched Operation Defensive Shield. It was the largest military operation conducted by Israel since the Six-Day War (“Censored Voices” by Mor Loushy and Daniel Sivan). As violence between the Israeli army and Palestinian militants intensified, Israel expanded its security apparatus around the West Bank by re-taking many parts of land in Area A. Israel established a complicated system of roadblocks and checkpoints around major Palestinian areas to deter violence and protect Israeli settlements. However, since 2008, the IDF has slowly transferred authority to Palestinian security forces. Israel’s then prime minister Ariel Sharon began a policy of disengagement from Gaza from the Gaza Strip in 2003. This policy was fully implemented in August 2005. Sharon’s announcement to disengage from Gaza came as a tremendous shock to his critics both on the left and on the right. A year previously, he had commented that the fate of the most far-flung settlements in Gaza, Netzararem and Kfar Darom, was regarded in the same light as that of Tel Aviv. The formal announcements to evacuate seventeen Gaza settlements and another four in the West Bank in February 2004 represented the first reversal for the settler movement since 1968. It divided his party. It was strongly supported by Trade and Industry Minister Ehud Olmert and Tzipi Livni, the Minister for Immigration and Absorption, but Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom and Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu strongly condemned it. It was also uncertain whether this was simply the beginning of further evacuation. On 16 March 2003, Rachel Corrie, an American peace activist was crushed to death by an Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) bulldozer in Rafah during a non-violent protest of the Israeli demolition of Palestinian homes. Corrie stood in confrontation with the bulldozers for three hours wearing a bright orange jacket and carrying a megaphone. Although the Israeli government has denied responsibility in the incident and ruled her death as an accident, several eye-witness reports say that the Israeli soldier operating the bulldozer deliberately ran her over. In June 2006, Hamas militants infiltrated an army post near the Israeli side of the Gaza Strip and abducted Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit. Two IDF soldiers were killed in the attack, while Shalit was wounded after his tank was hit with an RPG. Three days later Israel launched Operation Summer Rains to secure the release of Shalit. He was held hostage by Hamas, who barred the International Red Cross from seeing him, until 18 October 2011, when he was exchanged for 1,027 Palestinian prisoners. In July 2006, Hezbollah fighters crossed the border from Lebanon into Israel, attacked and killed eight Israeli soldiers, and abducted two others as hostages, setting off the 2006 Lebanon War which caused much destruction in Lebanon. A UN-sponsored ceasefire went into effect on 14 August 2006, officially ending the conflict. The conflict killed over a thousand Lebanese and over 150 Israelis, severely damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure, and displaced approximately one million Lebanese and 300,000–500,000 Israelis, although most were able to return to their homes. After the ceasefire, some parts of Southern Lebanon remained uninhabitable due to Israeli unexploded cluster bomblets. In the aftermath of the Battle of Gaza, where Hamas seized control of the Gaza Strip in a violent civil war with rival Fatah, Israel placed restrictions on its border with Gaza borders and ended economic cooperation with the Palestinian leadership based there. Israel and Egypt have imposed a blockade of the Gaza Strip since 2007. Israel maintains the blockade is necessary to limit Palestinian rocket attacks from Gaza and to prevent Hamas from smuggling advanced rockets and weapons capable of hitting its cities. On 6 September 2007, in Operation Orchard, Israel bombed an eastern Syrian complex which was allegedly a nuclear reactor being built with assistance from North Korea. Israel had also bombed Syria in 2003. In April 2008, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad told a Qatari newspaper that Syria and Israel had been discussing a peace treaty for a year, with Turkey as a go-between. This was confirmed in May 2008 by a spokesman for Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. As well as a peace treaty, the future of the Syrian Golan Heights is being discussed. President Assad said “there would be no direct negotiations with Israel until a new US president takes office.” Speaking in Jerusalem on 26 August 2008, then United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice criticized Israel’s increased settlement construction in the West Bank as detrimental to the peace process. Rice’s comments came amid reports that Israeli construction in the disputed territory had increased by a factor of 1.8 over 2007 levels. A fragile six-month truce between Hamas and Israel expired on 19 December 2008; attempts at extending the truce failed amid accusations of breaches from both sides. Following the expiration, Israel launched a raid on a tunnel suspected of being used to kidnap Israeli soldiers which killed several Hamas fighters. Following this, Hamas resumed rocket and mortar attacks on Israeli cities, most notably firing over 60 rockets on 24 December. On 27 December 2008, Israel launched Operation Cast Lead against Hamas. Numerous human rights organizations accused Israel and Hamas of committing war crimes (United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict (Goldstone Report)). In 2009 Israel placed a 10-month settlement freeze on the West Bank. Hillary Clinton praised the freeze as an “unprecedented” gesture that could “help revive Middle East talks.” A raid was carried out by Israeli naval forces on six ships of the Gaza Freedom Flotilla in May 2010. After the ships refused to dock at Port Ashdod. On the MV Mavi Marmara, activists clashed with the Israeli boarding party. During the fighting, nine activists were killed by Israeli special forces. Widespread international condemnation of and reaction to the raid followed, Israel–Turkey relations were strained, and Israel subsequently eased its blockade on the Gaza Strip. Several dozen other passengers and seven Israeli soldiers were injured, with some of the commandos suffering from gunshot wounds (The National, 9 July 2019: Israeli court rules Palestinian Authority responsible for Second Intifada attacks).

Following the latest round of peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, 13 Palestinian militant movements led by Hamas initiated a terror campaign designed to derail and disrupt the negotiations. Attacks on Israelis have increased since August 2010, after 4 Israeli civilians were killed by Hamas militants. Palestinian militants have increased the frequency of rocket attacks aimed at Israelis. On 2 August, Hamas militants launched seven Katyusha rockets at Eilat and Aqaba in Jordan, killing one Jordanian civilian and wounding 4 others. Intermittent fighting continued since then, including 680 rocket attacks on Israel in 2011. On 14 November 2012, Israel killed Ahmed Jabari, a leader of Hamas’s military wing, launching Operation Pillar of Cloud. Hamas and Israel agreed to an Egyptian-mediated ceasefire on 21 November. The Palestinian Centre for Human Rights said that 158 Palestinians were killed during the operation, of which: 102 were civilians, 55 were militants and one was a policeman; 30 were children and 13 were women. B’Tselem stated that according to its initial findings, which covered only the period between 14 and 19 November 102 Palestinians were killed in the Gaza Strip, 40 of them civilians. According to Israeli figures, 120 combatants and 57 civilians were killed. International outcry ensued, with many criticizing Israel for what much of the international community perceived as a disproportionately violent response. Protests took place on hundreds of college campuses across the U.S., and in front of the Israeli consulate in New York. Additional protests took place throughout the Middle East, throughout Europe, and in parts of South America. Following an escalation of rocket attacks by Hamas, Israel started Operation Protective Edge in the Gaza Strip on 8 July 2014.

Consensus in Europe and North America is, that Israel within the 1967 borders is non-negotiable (Times of Israel, 14 February 2019: Is it really legitimate to talk about legitimacy?). This position has prevailed in most of the rest of the international community as well. Such a basic agreement between the two parties to the dispute is only partially given yet. In all other challenges, of which there are many, significant national and international differences in interests are evident. Of course, it is easier to classify and assess the conflict when not affected personally or emotionally, especially because of the differentiation in countries, states, policies, governments, populations and religions is easier. The closer you get to the action, the more emotional it becomes, and the differentiation hardly succeeds or is going lost at all. Even in this blog post it become clear how difficult it is to keep a semi-neutral observer role in order to include as many voices and views as possible, so that all readers can find themselves at one point or the other and at the same time familiarize themselves with the views of others. This has already been achieved on many points, while we are still working on others. This can also be seen by the selection of the media reports. There are, of course, hundreds of reports on every single topic, of which only a small portion is linked, which reflect the views of the respective journalists/authors and give a good impression of how different the views and evaluations are. All in all, however, this is not scientific work, but rather a summary of the conflicts in the region and the approach to the topics from different perspectives, as well as the attempt to make the complexity of the conflicts more comprehensible and accessible, also against the background that the realities of life in Europe and North America are quite different from those in the Levant, which is not conducive to mutual understanding in the sometimes opposing worlds of thought.

State borders
The territory of a future State of Palestine and its border with Israel are unclear and even controversial among Israelis and Palestinians themselves. With the Arabs rejecting the UN Partition Plan of 1947 (Resolution 181) and Israel annexing much of the Palestinian territories during the Palestinian War, the area originally planned for a Palestinian state was reduced enormously. From 1960 to about 1989, according to internal and official documents, the PLO sought a Palestinian state that included Jordan, Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. The PLO gave up the demand for a state in Israel in the Oslo Accords and officially recognized Israel’s right to exist in 1988 (UN Security Council Resolution 242 – at the same time proclaiming the Palestinian Declaration of Independence), while international law doesn’t provide a “right for existence of states” (if there would be a right to exist, there wouldn’t be that many wars around the world, because they wouldn’t make any sense in principle). However, the word creation has served Israel well, especially as a vehicle was needed to create an alternative to the “Territorial Integrity of States” which explicitly refers to “the inviolability of the territory and borders of sovereign states”. Israel and Palestine, Israel and Syria and Israel and Lebanon doesn’t have such borders yet (United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194), so that it will take some time before nationally and internationally recognized borders will be given (it is astonishing that although the “right to exist” of Israel is mantra-like prayed, the fact, that the Palestinians have declared their independence in 1988 is often missed out. Both countries are only majority recognized by the UN as states, or conversely: If one country got granted the right to exist, this must be granted to the other country as well or, consequently, deny the existence to both. There is no solution in between (double standard)). Today, the PLO is seeking a state in the territory of the entire West Bank and the Gaza Strip with East Jerusalem as its capital, and is with solution in line with the international community. Parts of Fatah as well as the Islamist, classified by Israel and by parts of the Western community as terrorist organizations, Hamas (international positions) and Islamic Jihad (Times of Israel, 1 April 2019: Reports: Islamic Jihad planning large Gaza attack to derail ceasefire talks) continued to demand the “liberation of the whole of Palestine” including the territory of Israel, with it its elimination. In its recently revised charter, Hamas has distanced itself from this goal and is now referring to the 1967 borders, with the state of Israel still not recognized as such. On the Israeli side, there are calls from settlers and other right-wing extremist, radical and nationalist terrorist organizations (in Israel, referred to as “Taliban with Kippah“) for Eretz Israel, that is, the violent annexation of Gaza, the West Bank (the so-called, internationally unacknowledged, but supported by Christian Zionists (Second Coming of Christ), Judea and Samaria (Judea is the historical core settlement area of the Jews) and the Syrian Golan Heights to create a “Greater Israel”. The demolition of the Bedouin village Khan al-Ahmar in September 2018 has created further conditions for the full partition of the West Bank into two disjointed parts (on both sides of Highway 1) to illegally settle on more Palestinian lands and at the same time prevent the implementation of the 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence permanently and at any cost, thereby continuing the Netanyahu government’s endless sabotage of a peace treaty and the two-state solution (Israel National News, 29 May 2017: “Netanyahu no longer supports two-state solution”, BBC, 26 September 2018: Trump: Two-state Middle East solution would work best, NPR, 30 September 2018: Netanyahu’s Not-Quite-2-State Solution, Bloomberg, 15 November 2018: Netanyahu’s Opposition Keeps the Two-State Solution Alive and Times of Israel, 5 March 2019: What if a desperate Netanyahu embraces West Bank annexation?), driving the country more and more into international isolation and turning it into a theocracy. As a result, Netanyahu’s Israel has developed at a remarkable pace backwards and thus becoming increasingly similar to neighboring countries.

Important players in the region are the Gulf States, which are aiming for the two-state solution within the 1967 borders (Arab Peace Initiative), as well as the Western community. Without these players, solving the given challenges will not be possible (Jerusalem Post, 24 March 2019: Stronger Evangelical-Muslim relations will be key in achieving Middle East peace). To signal willingness to negotiate, Saudi Arabia surprisingly announced in May 2017 that it would allow Israeli companies to do business in the country (as part of the Saudi Vision 2030 (Arab News: Road to 2030, Al Arabiya, 15 August 2019: Saudi Arabia’s reforming business landscape)). Another milestone followed in March 2018: for the first time in history, Saudi airspace was opened for commercial passenger flights of Air India to Israel. On 2 April 2018, the reform-oriented (The Washington Post, 1 March 2018: Are Saudi Arabia’s reforms for real? A recent visit says yes.) Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman announced in an interview with The Atlantic (Saudi Crown Prince: Iran’s Supreme Leader ‘Makes Hitler Look Good’) that “the Palestinians and the Israelis have the right to their own land.” This is the first time ever, that a Saudi Arabian high profile awards Israel the right to exist. A statement that seemed to be unthinkable a year ago (New York Times, 3 April 2018: Saudi Prince Says Israelis Have Right to ‘Their Own Land’, BBC, 3 April 2018: Israel and Saudi Arabia: The relationship emerging into the open,, 3 April 2018: Saudi Crown Prince recognises Israel’s right to exist, Deutsche Welle, 3 April 2018: What is the Saudi prince’s strategy in recognizing Israel?, Haaretz, 1 May 2018: Palestinians Should ‘Shut Up’ or Make Peace, Saudi Crown Prince Told Jewish Leaders, Haaretz, 5 August 2018: Why Younger Saudis Won’t Fund, Facilitate or Fight for a Palestinian State, The New York Times, 23 November 2017: Saudi Arabia’s Arab Spring, at Last: The crown prince has big plans for his society., The Washington Post, 7 August 2018: Saudi Arabia cannot afford to pick fights with Canada, The Guardian, 12 August 2018: The bizarre spat with Canada shows Mohammed bin Salman’s true colours, The Washington Post, 26 October 2018: Israel’s Netanyahu pays surprise visit to Oman, Middle East Eye, 26 October 2018: Netanyahu makes surprise trip to Oman and meets with Sultan Qaboos, Reuters, 26 October 2018: Israeli PM Netanyahu makes rare visit to Oman, Al Jazeera, 26 October 2018: Israel’s Netanyahu meets Sultan Qaboos in surprise Oman trip, Bloomberg, 28 October 2018: Netanyahu’s Oman Visit Sets Off Israeli Cabinet Rush to Gulf, The Washington Post, 1 November 2018: Saudi crown prince described journalist as a dangerous Islamist in call with White House, officials say, The Atlantic, 1 November 2018: Progress Without Peace in the Middle East and BBC, 6 November 2018: Israel-Arab ties warm up after long deep freeze). Even if the Gulf States and Israel officially exclude mutual diplomatic missions, there has been unofficial backroom diplomacy for years, advocated and supported by the respective country leaders. Otherwise these talks wouldn’t be held at all (Jerusalem Post, 6 August 2019: Israelis and Arabs say one thing in public and another behind closed doors). That’s why sometimes Arab delegations stroll through West Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, or observers wonder which conversation partners meet in the business and conference centers of the hotels in Abu Dhabi and Dubai.

Today, the state of Israel is recognized by 169 of the 193 United Nations states, and since 1988 by the Palestinians. Today, the state of Palestine is recognized by 136 137 states (The Washington Post, 7 November 2017: Map: The countries that recognize Palestine as a state, Times of Israel, 30 July 2019: Tiny island nation St. Kitts and Nevis recognizes Palestinian state). Israel isn’t among them (or as Israreli writer Amos Oz wrote: “Israel is a refugee camp, Palestine too. The conflict is a tragic clash between the right and the right … both nations don’t have another place to go. They cannot unite into a big happy family, because they are not family, and they are not happy – these are two miserable, different families. A historical compromise must be made: a two-state solution.”).

April 2019 Israeli legislative election
Early legislative elections were held on 9 April 2019 to elect the 120 members of the 21st Knesset. Elections had been due in November 2019, but were brought forward following a dispute between members of the current government over a bill on national service for the ultra-Orthodox population, as well as impending corruption charges against incumbent Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Netanyahu’s Likud tied with Blue and White alliance of Benny Gantz, both winning 35 seats. The balance of power was held by smaller parties, with right-wing and religious parties that have previously sat in coalition with Likud, which would have allowed Netanyahu to form the next government. Due to continuation of the disagreements over the national service of the ultra-Orthodox, a snap election was called, and is set to be held on 17 September 2019. Media coverage: The Jerusalem Post, 24 December 2018: Netanyahu’s coalition collapses; Israel heading to elections in April, Al Jazeera, 24 December 2018: Israel to hold early elections in April, The Guardian, 24 December 2018: Israeli government agrees to hold early elections in April and i24 News, 24 December 2018: Israel announces dissolution of government, snap elections in April (like Trump on Twitter and Putin with his RT channel, besides his “advertisement agency” Israel HaYom, Netanyahu now has his own fake news TV channel, named “Likud TV”, streamed on Facebook – Times of Israel, 4 February 2019: With fake media outlet Likud TV, Netanyahu sets up nakedly self-serving soapbox, matching to the upcoming elections) Times of Israel, 20 February 2019: Netanyahu’s despicable push to bring racists into Israel’s political mainstream, Haaretz, 20 February 2019: Top Posts for Merging With Kahanists: Netanyahu, Far-right Party Reach Deal, France24, 20 February 2019: Israel PM deal seeks to boost ultra-right in April vote, Haaretz, 21 February 2019: Netanyahu Just Destroyed One of Israel’s Key National Security Assets, The Guardian, 21 February 2019: Benjamin Netanyahu strikes deal with hardline parties ahead of Israel elections, Haaretz, 21 February 2019: Netanyahu Now Endorses Jewish Fascism. U.S. Jews, Cut Your Ties With Him Now, Times of Israel, 22 February 2019: AIPAC slams ‘racist and reprehensible’ extremist party wooed by Netanyahu, Haaretz, 22 February 2019: ‘Racist and Reprehensible’: AIPAC Slams Kahanist Party Backed by Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 23 February 2019: Lapid: Netanyahu puts politics before country, harms Israel’s image, Times of Israel, 23 February 2019: After AIPAC rebuke, Netanyahu defends aiding Kahanists: ‘Hypocrisy by the left’, Haaretz, 24 February 2019: For U.S. Jewry, Kahanist Caper Casts Netanyahu as Prince of Darkness and Trump on Steroids, Times of Israel, 24 February 2019: The desecration of Israel, Times of Israel, 24 February 2019: Ex-AIPAC official: By backing extremists, Netanyahu ‘overstepped the line’, Times of Israel, 25 February 2019: US Reform leader: Netanyahu’s deal with extremists is like ‘welcoming’ the KKK, The Guardian, 25 February 2019: Pro-Israel US group condemns Netanyahu pact with extremists, Times of Israel, 28 February 2019: High Court rejects Likud petition to prevent AG announcing Netanyahu indictment, France24, 28 February 2019: Israeli Justice Ministry confirms intention to indict Netanyahu and The New York Times, 28 February 2019: Prosecutor Moves to Indict Netanyahu on Corruption Charges (which is why he is no longer referred to as “Prime Minister” but as “Crime Minister” in Israel), The Guardian, 28 February 2019: Netanyahu to be indicted on corruption charges, Israeli attorney general says, The New York Times, 28 February 2019: Netanyahu Indictment Closer as Israeli Prosecutor Seeks Charges, Times of Israel, 28 February 2019: Gantz appeals to Netanyahu to put Israel’s interests first and ‘resign’, Times of Israel, 28 February 2019: Netanyahu’s illicit dealings benefited tycoon by $500 million, AG alleges, Times of Israel, 28 February 2019: ‘You knew you were taking a bribe’: The specifics of Netanyahu’s alleged crimes, The New York Times, 1 March 2019: Time for Netanyahu to Go, Times of Israel, 1 March 2019: Poll shows two-thirds of Israelis think Netanyahu should resign if indicted, Times of Israel, 2 March 2019: Bret Stephens calls Netanyahu the ‘Nixon of Israel,’ says he should resign, The New York Times, 2 March 2019: Can Israel Survive Without Netanyahu? Israelis Imagine the Future, Times of Israel, 3 March 2019: Is Netanyahu a crook? Allegedly. A threat to democracy? That verdict is sadly in, Haaretz, 4 March 2019: Netanyahu Is Going Down, but What About His Powerful Accomplice?, Times of Israel, 6 March 2019: Right-wing ally of Netanyahu proposes bill to save him from prosecution, Times of Israel, 7 March 2019: Police recommend bribery charges for Likud’s David Bitan, Times of Israel, 7 March 2019: Lapid: If Netanyahu is reelected, he’ll legislate to place himself above the law, Times of Israel, 30 June 2019: Mandelblit warns against ‘real erosion’ of Israel’s founding legal principles, Haaretz, 7 March 2019: Yair Lapid Outlines Four Demands for Peace With Palestinians, The Washington Post, 7 March 2019: Israeli electoral committee bans Arab candidates, allows extreme right to run, Haaretz, 7 March 2019: The Israeli Elections Committee Embraced Jewish Supremacists and Expelled Arab Radicals. So What Else Is New?, Times of Israel, 8 March 2019: Benny Gantz’s tall order: Convincing Israel that he can replace Netanyahu, The Guardian, 10 March 2019: Benjamin Netanyahu says Israel is ‘not a state of all its citizens’, The New York Yimes, 10 March 2019: Netanyahu-Trump Partnership Is Stronger Than Ever. Are These Its Final Days?, Times of Israel, 10 March 2019: Amid Likud’s ‘Bibi or Tibi’ campaign, ADL slams ‘demonization’ of Israeli Arabs, Times of Israel, 10 March 2019: There are no second-class citizens, Rivlin says, in implicit swipe at Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 11 March 2019: For Netanyahu, all Israelis are equal, but some are more equal than others, NPR, 11 March 2019: Netanyahu Says Israel Is ‘Nation-State Of The Jewish People And Them Alone’, Jewish News, 12 March 2019: Jerusalem’s cable car: Moving in the wrong direction, ynet, 12 March 2019: The Likud is the real threat to Israel, Times of Israel, 12 March 2019: Yair Netanyahu put on leave from NGO job a day after deriding Rivlin (the most important lines of the articel are “Throughout the election campaign we have been careful to be respectful toward the Netanyahu family, but now we are calling on Mr. Benjamin Netanyahu: Control the mouth and keyboard of your son Yair,” a statement from party leader Benny Gantz said. “Your incitement toward our president crosses every possible line. Israel comes before anything else, the Netanyahu family doesn’t.”), Haaretz, 14 March 2019: J Street to Offer Competing Free Trip to Israel for Those Fed Up With Birthright, Times of Israel, 14 March 2019: Clouds gather as Israel emerges from economic ‘golden decade’, Jerusalem Post, 14 March 2019: 71% of Israeli Jews find Israeli control over the Palestinains as immoral, The Guardian, 14 March 2019: The fall of the Israeli peace movement and why leftists continue to fight, Haaretz, 14 March 2019: What a Netanyahu Election Victory Will Mean for American Jewry, Haaretz, 16 March 2019: To Defeat Gantz, Netanyahu Instructs His Party to Lie, Netanyahu’s next low point (though he can barely go lower anyway, he manages to beat himself again): Times of Israel, 17 March 2019: Cyber entrepreneur says Netanyahu behind ‘Iranian hack’ of Gantz, Times of Israel, 18 March 2019: Gantz calls for state commission of inquiry into submarine scandal, Times of Israel, 18 March 2019: Gantz: Ignore phone hack, Netanyahu guilty of ‘worst scandal in Israeli history’, The Washington Post, 20 March 2019: Under investigation and up for reelection, Netanyahu’s kinship with Trump has never been clearer, Haaretz, 20 March 2019: Pocket Money, Loans and Millions for Legal Advice: Has Netanyahu’s Wallet Finally Been Found?, Times of Israel, 20 March 2019: Pompeo in region to counter Iran, boost Netanyahu, Haaretz, 20 March 2019: Pompeo Arrives in Israel to Discuss Iran Threat, Energy and Regional Issues, Times of Israel, 20 March 2019: State prosecutors said mulling criminal probe of Netanyahu in submarine case, Times of Israel, 21 March 2019: Gantz is target of most fake news for 8th week running — report, Times of Israel, 21.03.2019: Netanyahu and the submarine scandal: Everything you need to know, Jerusalem Post, 22 March 2019: UNHRC voted 26-16 against Israel’s ‘occupation’ of the Golan Heights, Times of Israel, 22.03.2019: Supreme Court orders state witness in submarines case kept in custody, Jerusalem Post, 22 March 2019: Trumpet recruits Netanyoohoo as 2020 running mate in US elex, The Guardian, 23 March 2019: Israel’s Netanyahu to play Trump card in tight election, Haaretz, 22 March 2019: U.S. Media Finally Discovers Netanyahu-Trump Similarities – and pro-Israel Groups Are Worried, The New York Times, 23 March 2019: Israel Lobby Convenes in Washington Amid Fraying Bipartisanship and Rising Tension, Times of Israel, 24 March 2019: Incredulous Gantz bashes Netanyahu for okaying sub sale to Egypt on his own, Haaretz, 24 March 2019: AIPAC Is More Divisive Than Ever. As Confab Kicks Off, Here’s How to Fix It, Haaretz, 25 March 2019: Cleared of Collusion With Russia, Trump Can Now Collude Shamelessly With Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 25 March 2019: With some of Rabin’s awkward charisma, Gantz passes the AIPAC test, Times of Israel, 25 March 2019: At AIPAC, Gantz vows to rid Israel’s leadership of racism, corruption, The Washington Post, 26 March 2019: On Israel, Charles Schumer rises to the occasion, Haaretz, 27 March 2019: It’s a Grave Mistake to Entrust American Evangelicals With Israel’s Future, Haaretz, 28 March 2019: Bank of Israel Warns of Long-term Decline in Economic Growth, Times of Israel, 31 March 2019: Gantz says Netanyahu rancor could spark ‘civil war’, Haaretz, 1 April 2019: Network of Fake Social Media Accounts Boosting Netanyahu Ahead of Election, Report Says, The New York Times, 1 April 2019: Twitter Network Uses Fake Accounts to Promote Netanyahu, Israel Watchdog Finds, Times of Israel, 1 April 2019: Gantz claims Netanyahu trying to ‘steal elections’ as fake news network revealed, Times of Israel, 2 April 2019: Twitter said to take down most fake pro-Netanyahu accounts flagged in report, The Guardian, 3 April 2019: I fought South African apartheid. I see the same brutal policies in Israel, Times of Israel, 3 April 2019: Benny Gantz to ToI: Future of Israel as a democracy is at stake in this election, Jerusalem Post, 3 April 2019: Former Generals call for national inquiry into submarine corruption, Haaretz, 3 April 2019: Under a Decade of Netanyahu Rule the Israeli Economy Has Gone Backwards, Daily Herald, 3 April 2019: Palestinians Are Nowhere to Be Found in Israel’s Election, Times of Israel, 4 April 2019: Report: PM ‘likely benefited’ from sales by cousin’s company to Gaddafi’s Libya, Jewish News, 4 April 2019: Hidden danger behind the new US approach, Haaretz, 4 April 2019: Netanyahu Deserves to Win the Election. And We Israelis Deserve Him, Times of Israel, 4 April 2019: Who knows?, The Guardian, 5 April 2019: Best of the worst? Israel’s left looks to Gantz as election nears, The Washington Post, 5 April 2019: Israel’s Netanyahu, a political Houdini, is facing his toughest escape act yet, Times of Israel, 5 April 2019: Up to 1 in 5 Israelis said exposed to fake news smearing Gantz, Times of Israel, 5 April 2019: With Israeli election looming, liberal US Jews set their ire on Netanyahu, France24, 6 April 2019: Israeli political parties seek to integrate former generals into their ranks, Haaretz, 6 April 2019: Three Days Until Israeli Election: Netanyahu Hits the Panic Button, The Guardian, 7 April 2019: Netanyahu vows to annex Jewish settlements in occupied West Bank, Haaretz, 7 April 2019: With Gantz as Election Rival, Netanyahu Competes Against an Old Version of Himself, The New York Times, 7 April 2019: As Israel Charts a Future, Color and Chaos Abound in Its Election, Times of Israel, 7 April 2019: The simple, agonizing question for voters Tuesday: Is Netanyahu good for Israel?, The Guardian, 7 April 2019: Netanyahu’s fearmongering is working. Israelis have forgotten how to hope, Haaretz, 7 April 2019: Netanyahu Owned Shares in More Than One of His Cousin’s Companies, France24, 7 April 2019: Israeli extreme right set to become kingmaker, The Guardian, 7 April 2019: Benjamin Netanyahu’s proposal would bury the two-state solution, The Guardian, 7 April 2019: The Observer view on Benjamin Netanyahu and Israel’s elections, Times of Israel, 7 April 2019: Bibi, Trump and the Death of ‘Truth’, Times of Israel, 7 April 2019: The case for Gantz – and a return to decency, Times of Israel, 7 April 2019: Likud cancels Sunday right-wing rally in Jerusalem over fears of poor turnout, The New York Times, 7 April 2019: Will the Israeli ‘King’ Be Recrowned?, The Guardian, 8 April 2019: The secret of Netanyahu’s success? A simple tale of good versus evil, Haaretz, 8 April 2019: Non-Jews Are About to Lose the Right to Vote in Israel, Times of Israel, 8 April 2019: Day before election, Gantz says ‘the right is not in danger – Netanyahu is’. Both, Trump’s recognition of West Jerusalem as an Israeli capital forced by Netanyahu and the recognition of the Syrian Golan Heights as belonging to Israel, have only one consequence, namely that the entire international community has developed the exact opposite point of view, after Netanyahu had forced the member states of the international community to clearly define their own points of view on the two topics. By doing so, Netanyahu ensures the further isolation of Israel (at the same time, of course, he has significantly weakened Israel’s standing in the world, as it becomes increasingly clear that his claim that “Israel belongs to the West” collapses like a house of cards. On all major issues of the recent past, “the West” (with the exception of the USA) from Canada to Australia took opposing positions to his. Instead, he courtes semi-autocrats, autocrats and dictators around the globe and call them “true friends of Israel”. In light of the 2019 election results, 57% of Israelis seems to like this Israeli policy and approach. This will not have a positive impact on Netanyahu’s Israel. It is to be expected a development as recently in Turkey, of course, with Judaism and not Islam as the center). After Netanyahu has already gotten a black eye in the total misjudgment that Trump’s announcement to recognize West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and thus sets the world community on the same path, he will also succeed in getting the next black eye in regard to the Syrian Golan Heights: Haaretz vom 21.03.2019: Trump: Time for U.S. to Recognize Israel’s Sovereignty Over Golan Heights, Times of Israel vom 21.03.2019: Trump says time has come for US to ‘recognize Israel’s sovereignty’ over Golan, The New York Times vom 21.03.2019: Trump Wants U.S. to Recognize Israeli Sovereignty Over the Golan Heights, The Washingotn Post vom 21.03.2019: Trump endorses Israeli control of the disputed Golan Heights, France24, 21 March 2019: Trump says US recognises Israeli sovereignty over Golan Heights, The Guardian, 22 March 2019: Trump provokes global anger by recognising Israel’s claim to Golan Heights, Times of Israel, 22 March 2019: Trump tweet does little for Golan, but much for Netanyahu, critics charge, France24, 22 March 2019: France says Israeli sovereignty over Golan breaks international law, Reuters, 22 March 2019: EU holds position on Golan Heights despite Trump: Tusk, Times of Israel, 22 March 2019: EU says it will not follow Trump in recognizing Israeli sovereignty over Golan, The Guardian, 23 March 2019: Israel’s Netanyahu to play Trump card in tight election, France24, 24 March 2019: Netanyahu in Washington with Golan Heights recognition on tap, France24, 25 March 2019: Trump signs US recognition of Israeli sovereignty over Golan Heights, Times of Israel, 25 March 2019: Alongside PM, Trump signs proclamation recognizing Israeli sovereignty on Golan, France, 26 March 2019: Trump’s Golan move unites Gulf States and Iran in condemnation, The New York Times, 26 March 2019: Golan Heights Recognition by U.S. Sets Precedent for Annexation, Netanyahu Says, Times of Israel, 26 March 2019: Israel says US Golan recognition helps pave way for keeping other captured lands, Haaretz, 26 March 2019: If You’re Still Voting Netanyahu After This Rocket, You’re Thinking Like Hamas, The Guardian, 26 March 2019: Israel-Hamas relations: a predictable but fatal dance, The Guardian, 27 March 2019: Trump’s Golan Heights proclamation is a cynical, dangerous move, Times of Israel, 27 March 2019: All EU countries say no to recognition of Israeli Golan Heights, Times of Israel, 27 March 2019: European envoys said sent to White House, State Department to protest Golan move, Jerusalem Post, 27 March 2019: All 28 EU member states reject Israeli souvereignty over Golan, Haaretz, 27 March 2019: Two-state Solution: U.S. Jews Won’t Budge. Will It Cost Them Their Relationship With Israel?, Haaretz, 27 March 2019: Why Golan Recognition Can’t Pave Way for Israel to Annex West Bank, Haaretz, 27 March 2019: EU States Unanimously Announce: We Do Not Recognize Israeli Sovereignty Over Golan Heights, Times of Israel, 28 March 2019: US slammed at UN Security Council for recognizing Golan as Israeli, The Guardian, 22 May 2019: Israel plans to name settlement on occupied land after Trump (at least the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force can finally be ended). So you can get popcorn ready to watch and laugh at Netanyahu’s latest election comedy stunt, especially since it is completely unimportant what Netanyahu dictates Trump to the pen, because it is not more than ineffective symbolism anyway. Among other things (United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 and United Nations Security Council Resolution 497), this was ensured by the intellectually and strategically overwhelmingly superior and prudent US President Barack Obama, who helped to pass Resolution 2334 on 23 December 2016 in the United Nations Security Council, declaring East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip as “non-Israeli”, creating a hurdle insurmountable to Netanyahu and Trump. The only option for the two hasardeurs to overcome the hurdle would be to bring in their own resolution to the Security Council, which would not only neutralize Resolution 2334, but even turn it in the opposite direction. One can probably bet a larger amount of money without hesitation that such a project would be crowned by a crushing defeat. Palestine and Syria should actually cheerfully thank Obama for this even today. In addition, of course, international law explicitly prohibits the annexation of foreign territory. If Netanyahu wants to develop Israel into a pariah state, he is very well on the way. Times of Israel, 28 March 2019: Ex-Mossad chief: Netanyahu’s version on Egypt submarine deal ‘makes no sense’, Haaretz, 29 March 2019: Netanyahu’s Likud Lags Behind Gantz-Lapid Alliance, New Election Poll Shows, Jerusalem Post, 31 March 2019: Bank of Israel: Rising expenditure, reduced taxes endangers economy – with the 2019 Israeli parliamentary elections scheduled for April 9, one can only hope that former IDF Chief of Staff Aluf Benny Gantz will be able to win the election and then begin with the recovery of the deeply damaged and weakend democracy by Netanyahu over the past decades, and, as a result, will more likely be able to activate international support than is the case during the Netanyahu government (even in the US, the approval ratings for Israeli policy have been on the decline for years – Times of Israel, 7 March 2019: New poll: Americans’ support for Israel falls to lowest point in a decade and Times of Israel, 11 March 2019: Omar furor reflects increasingly polarized US debate over Israel). After the killing of Yitzhak Rabin (Times of Israel, 31 March 2019: Gantz accuses Netanyahu of role in incitement ahead of Rabin murder), Israel deserve to have another smart, serious, law-abiding and internationally welcomed statesman (and not only when he finally gets back on the plane to fly off) for Prime Minister, and with it the exact opposite of Netanyahu and his Likud, to not further damage the national and international image and perception of Israel. Following the saying “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again, but expecting different results.”, it now looks (a few days before the election and despite the charges of fraud and embezzlement awaiting Netanyahu, as well as suspected election interference through the use of bots), as if the Likud government will get another term in order to promote the further erosion of democracy and the rule of law, deepening the right-wing radicalization, xenophobia and continued terrorist activities in East Jerusalem and the West Bank. Overall, the election campaign in recent weeks has become a head-to-head race in a directional election, so that voters are now faced with the task of deciding in which direction the Israeli state should develop: Should Neteanjahu’s Likud continue the further de-democratization and the development of a Jewish theocracy, or should the Blue and White coalition, led by Benny Gantz and Yair Lapid, lead the country into a process of re-democratization, including the return to lawfulness and the fight against corruption (in which Netanyahu for personal reasons, especially because of his own entanglements in numerous crooked businesses, isn’t interested at all)? The answers of the voters will be given soon. Subsequently, the certainly not easy coalition talks to form the future government will start. If the Likud should be re-elected, it would probably be likely that there will be new elections in about a year, because then the lawsuits in several cases against Netanyahu will go on trial, although he is apparently just about to tinker with an immunity law against his prosecution (Haaretz, 8 April 2019: Who Is Running in Israel’s Election? The Full List of Parties and Candidates, France24, 9 April 2019: Polls open in high-stakes election in Israel, The Guardian, 9 April 2019: Israel election: voters go to polls as Netanyahu seeks fifth term, The New York Times, 9 April 2019: In Trump, Netanyahu Sees an Ally Who Helps Him Push the Envelope, The Wahington Post, 9 April 2019: Israeli elections to decide Netanyahu’s fate as voters cast ballots, Haaretz, 9 April 2019: Israel Election 2019: ‘Arab Turnout at Historic Low’; Netanyahu Defends Hidden Cameras in Arab Polling Stations, Haaretz, 9 April 2019: Israel Votes: Everything You Need to Know About Netanyahu’s Corruption Scandal, The Guardian, 12 April 2019: Trump and his imitators are out to nobble the world’s referees, Times of Israel, 12 April 2019: Nine Jewish groups ask Trump to restrain Netanyahu on West Bank annexation, Times of Israel, 14 April 2019: Gantz warns next government will distance country from law and democracy, Times of Israel, 11 June 2019: Democrat Buttigieg warns he would cut Israel aid over West Bank annexation). The election result shows two things: Benny Gantz won the showdown in direct competition with Netanyahu, proving that there is indeed a serious, democratic and liberal alternative to the dubious and racist Netanyahu. Israel will remember it in a year, namely when Netanyahu is expected to stand trial. At the same time, “Blue and White” could not win the election altogether, because Netanyahu had already forged a coalition with nationalists, fascists and extremists before the elections, so that in the future two extremists (Israeli and US commentators compare them to the KKK) will hold ministerial posts. The erosion of democracy and the rule of law will therefore increase in speed. Neighboring states will rejoice that Israel is developing into another theocracy in the region, so that they themselves have no reason to develop their countries towards democracy and still call themselves “one of the many democracies in the Levant”. It will be a mammoth task for the future successor of Netanyahu to get Israel back on track, if at all possible (when religious fanatics are in power, the downward spiral can drag on for decades). Turkish President Erdoğan will also be pleased with the election results, as members of his Justice and Development Party has been voicing concern for some time that Israel could join the EU before Turkey (in real life, no country in the Levant will actually become an EU Member State unless Turkey has already become member). After all, his country is on the list of potential EU Member States, even when the accession talks are frozen and a timely membership is currently excluded. Netanyahu’s Israel isn’t even able to enter the list of potential candidate countries (France24, 9 April 2019: Netanyahu poised to claim victory in Israeli election, The Guardian, 10 April 2019: Israeli election: Netanyahu appears on track for victory despite tied result, France24, 10 April 2019: Right-wing world leaders congratulate Netanyahu on likely election victory, The New York Tims, 10 April 2019: It’s Netanyahu’s Israel Now, Times of Israel, 10 April 2019: Blue and White concedes race, vows to battle Netanyahu from opposition, The Washington Post, 10 April 2019: In tightly fought election, Netanyahu appears set to clinch fifth term in office, Times of Israel, 10 Apri 2019: Top Palestinian official: Israelis voted to maintain status quo, want apartheid, The Guardian, 10 April 2019: ‘The future is dark’: Palestinians react to Israel’s election, Times of Israel, 10 Apri 2019: Netanyahu won, everyone else lost: 5 takeaways from the 2019 elections, The Guardian, 11 April 2019: The Trump-Netanyahu relationship is sowing disaster for both countries, Haaretz, 12 April 2019: AIPAC-affiliated Democrats Warn Netanyahu Against West Bank Annexation, Times of Israel, 13 April 2019: Some of Israel’s best American friends worried by Netanyahu’s annexation talk, The Washington Post, 14 April 2019: Netanyahu was a cautious leader — until Trump came along, The Guardian, 15 April 2019: Europe urged to reject US Middle East plan if it is unfair to Palestinians, Times of Israel, 15 April 2019: German leader calls Netanyahu, stresses need for two-state solution, Times of Israel, 15 April 2019: Trump peace plan likely won’t include Palestinian state — report, Times of Israel, 15 April 2019: The people have spoken. They want to live in Netanyahu’s Israel (2019 electin results), The Washingotn Post, 14 April 2019: Trump peace package for Middle East likely to stop short of Palestinian statehood, Jerusalem Post, 17 April 2019: EU rejects Israeli annexation talk, warns of Middle East chaos, Times of Israel, 17 April 2019: President officially taps Netanyahu to form next government, The Atlantic, 19 April 2019: The French Ambassador Is Retiring Today. Here’s What He Really Thinks About Washington., Times of Israel, 20 April 2019: French envoy to US: Trump plan ‘very close to what Israel wants, 99% doomed’, Haaretz, 21 April 2019: Israel Already an Apartheid State Says Outgoing French Ambassador, Discussing Trump’s Peace Plan, The Guardian, 22 April 2019: Is Benjamin Netanyahu about to go rogue in Jerusalem? All the signs are there,, 23 April 2019: Netanyahu calls for new Golan settlement named for Trump, Jerusalem Post, 12 May 2019: Location found in Golan Heights for town to be named after Trump (a nice idea to give the Syrians a clue as to where they can start reconquering their national territory), Times of Israel, 24 April 2019: With immunity gambit, Netanyahu endangers his legacy and our democracy, The Guardian, 24 April 2019: Israelis are not all rightwing. But our leftist parties have lost faith in themselves, Times of Israel, 24 April 2019: Poll: Most Americans like Israelis – but not their government, Times of Israel, 29 April 2019: Mandelblit: The rule of law trumps Netanyahu’s win at the polls, Times of Israel, 13 May 2019: Netanyahu said to plan bill to override High Court, safeguard his immunity, Jerusalem Post, 13 May 2019: Gantz compares ‘threat to democracy’ from Netanyahu to Israel’s enemies, Times of Israel, 13 May 2019: In first Knesset speech, Gantz warns of ‘threat to democratic system’, Times of Israel, 16 May 2019: Full text: The criminal allegations against Netanyahu, as set out by Israel’s AG, Times of Israel, 16 May 2019: Opposition lambastes Netanyahu after report says he will push for immunity law, Haaretz, 16 May 2019: If the U.S. Goes to War With Iran, Netanyahu Will Be the Prime Suspect, Times of Israel, 19 May 2019: Veteran former Likud MK blasts Netanyahu’s ‘corrupt’ immunity bid, Haaretz, 20 May 2019: Netanyahu Is Seeking a Free Hand to Commit Crimes, Times of Israel, 23 May 2019: Former justice minister for Likud warns of Netanyahu ‘dictatorship’, Times of Israel, 25 May 2019: Thousands gather for mass rally to ‘safeguard Israeli democracy’ from Netanyahu, Haaretz, 25 May 2019: Tens of Thousands of Israelis Protest Netanyahu’s Immunity Bills in Opposition’s First Rally, Times of Israel, 25 May 2019: At rally, Gantz and Lapid vow they won’t let Netanyahu turn Israel into Turkey, Haaretz, 26 May 2019: In the Face of Netanyahu’s Threat to Democracy, Israel’s Opposition Makes Rare Show of Unity, Times of Israel, 26 May 2019: Ex-justice, AG: If Netanyahu is above the law, Israel is not a civilized country, The Guardian, 27 May 2019: Netanyahu threatens to call fresh election as coalition talks falter, France24, 29 May 2019: Israel moves towards election rerun as deadline looms, Times of Israel, 28 May 2019: Israel is already in a constitutional crisis, leading law scholar warns, The Washington Post, 29 May 2019: Israel will hold unprecedented second election after Netanyahu fails to form governing coalition, The Guardian, 29 May 2019: Israel to hold new elections after Netanyahu coalition talks fail, DW, 29 May 2019: Israeli parliament votes to hold new election in September, France24, 29 May 2019: Israel faces new election as Netanyahu fails to form coalition, The New York Times, 30 May 2019: Israel in Uncharted Territory as Netanyahu Fails to Form a Coalition, Times of Israel, 30 May 2019: Knesset votes for new elections on September 17 after PM fails to form coalition, Times of Israel, 30 May 2019: The final results of April’s election are in: No one won, Netanyahu lost, Haaretz, 30 May 2019: Netanyahu Just Suffered One of the Biggest Losses of His Political Career, Times of Israel, 31 May 2019: Behind closed doors, Likud officials blame Netanyahu and think about what’s next, France24, 31 May 2019: Great survivor Netanyahu facing fight for political future, The New York Times, 1 June 2019: Is This the End for Netanyahu?, i24News: Israel Elections 2019.

September 2019 Israeli legislative election
Snap legislative elections are due to be held in on 17 September 2019 to elect the 120 members of the 22nd Knesset. Following the prior elections in April, incumbent and Prime Minister-designate Benjamin Netanyahu failed to form a governing coalition, the first such failure in Israeli history. On 30 May, the Knesset voted to dissolve itself and trigger new elections, in order to prevent Blue and White party leader Benny Gantz from being appointed Prime Minister-designate. This election was the first time that the Knesset voted to dissolve itself before a government had been formed. Media coverage: Israel Hayom, 11 May 2019: Israel’s economic ship is heading toward an iceberg, Haaretz, 6 June 2019: Neither Israel’s nor Germany’s Slide Into Fascism Was Accidental, Haaretz, 12 June 2019: Right Wing Starts to Sour on Netanyahu, but Can’t Replace Him, Times of Israel, 13 June 2019: As election campaign begins, cracks emerge in right-wing loyalty to Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 13 June 2019: Supreme Court chief accuses new justice minister of leading Israel to ‘anarchy’, Times of Israel, 16 June 2019: No plans, no budget: ‘Trump Heights’ inauguration slammed as a PR stunt, The Guardian, 17 June 2019: ‘Trump Heights’: Israeli settlement in Golan named after US president (Jerusalem Post, 9 November 2019: Israel’s Trump Heights receives 1st inhabitants), Jerusalem Post, 20 June 2019: Ex-Mossad chief: Netanyahu voters ‘ignorant’ – PM: Left is condescending, Times of Israel, 20 June 2019: Ex-Mossad head: Netanyahu voters are ‘ignorant,’ have no moral standards, Times of Israel, 24 June 2019: Netanyahu offered Gantz rotating premiership in bid to avert elections – report, Times of Israel, 25 June 2019: Netanyahu says he’s considering proposal to cancel September election, Times of Israel, 25 June 2019: Opposition seethes as Netanyahu mulls bid to nix September elections, Palestine Chronicle, 25 June 2019: Fearing Poor Performance, Netanyahu May Try to Avoid New Elections, Haaretz, 26 June 2019: The Only Reason Netanyahu Would Try to Nix the New Election, Times of Israel, 26 June 2019: Netanyahu, Gantz deny reports of unity government, rotation deal, Times of Israel, 26 June 2019: Gantz on Likud bid to avert elections: PM pressed the button — no way back, Haaretz, 26 June 2019: ‘Netanyahu’s Regime Must Be Toppled’: Ehud Barak Makes Comeback With New Israeli Political Party, Haaretz, 27 June 2019: Gaza, Iran, or Is It Hezbollah? Netanyahu Using Intel Warnings to Justify Nixing Election, Jerusalem Post, 8 July 2019: Syria has right to recover the Golan Heights from Israel, envoy tells UNHRC, Arab News, 9 July 2019: Barak’s return a sad reflection of state of Israeli left, Times of Israel, 9 July 2019: Barak says ex-general ‘told the truth’ when he likened Israel to pre-war Germany (Times of Israel, 5 May 2016: Deputy IDF chief: Israeli societal trends akin to pre-Holocaust Europe, Israel Hayom, 26 September 2019: Mr. President, don’t apologize in my name), Times of Israel, 9 July 2019: ‘Feh!’ Top Holocaust scholar pans Netanyahu for warm ties with Poland, Hungary, Haaretz, 10 July 2019: Netanyahu Dirties Up Ehud Barak Over Jeffrey Epstein Scandal So He Looks Cleaner, Jerusalem Post, 19 July 2019: Netanyahu becomes Israel’s longest-serving Prime Minister on Saturday, Haaretz, 19 July 2019: 13 Years, 128 Days and Counting: Netanyahu Surpasses Ben-Gurion. But What’s His Legacy?, Times of Israel, 21 July 2019: Netanyahu’s Israel: Divided over the legacy of its longest serving PM, Times of Israel, 22 July 2019: Is Netanyahu an economic wizard? The numbers beg to differ, Times of Israel, 23 July 2019: Netanyahu said once again pushing right-wing union with racist party, Times of Israel, 26 July 2019: Russians are coming… to the polls. Israeli politicians are finally waking up, Arab News, 27 July 2019: Amid all the politicking, Israel’s policy-free election, Haaretz, 29 July 2019: Israel’s Parties Are Contracting to Bring About Netanyahu’s Downfall, Jerusalem Post, 31 July 2019: Gantz promised not to uproot any settlements in the Jordan Valley, Times of Israel, 31 July 2019: Bahraini king said to decline Netanyahu request to meet in Manama in August, Times of Israel, 30 July 2019: A general’s warning: Yair Golan says only Democratic Camp can mend Israel’s ills, Haaretz, 2 August 2019: Israel’s Do-over Election: A Guide to All the Parties and Who Holds the Keys to the Next Government, Times of Israel, 2 August 2019: Election lists close with rifts on left and right, leaving Liberman as kingmaker, Palestine Chronicle, 1 August 2019: ‘Clear and Decisive Win’: Why Netanyahu Needs a War on Gaza More Than Ever Before, Times of Israel, 1 August 2019: Gantz appears to open, then abruptly closes, door to government with Netanyahu, Haaretz, 3 August 2019: Israel’s Do-over Election: A Guide to All the Parties and Who Holds the Keys to the Next Government, Times of Israel, 3 August 2019: New poll: Most voters oppose unity government with Liberman, Haaretz, 3 August 2019: Jordanian King Rejected Request by Netanyahu for Meeting, Report Says, Times of Israel, 4 August 2019: Netanyahu alleges ‘plot’ to unseat him by Liberman, Lapid and right-wing figures, Israel Hayom, 4 August 2019: With elections afoot, can anyone break the political stalemate?, Times of Israel, 4 August 2019: Top 40 Likud candidates sign pledge not to oust Netanyahu after elections, Times of Israel, 5 July 2019: Netanyahu accuses Lapid of ‘anti-Semitism’ in campaign spot on ultra-Orthodox, Times of Israel, 5 July 2019: Most Israelis say PM tough on defense, but question his personal integrity, Jerusalem Post, 6 August 2019: The five Israeli politicians facing criminal charges, Palestine Chronicle, 6 August 2019: Israel’s Right-Wing Candidates Sign Pledge to Annex 60% of West Bank, Haaretz, 7 August 2019: Netanyahu Vows He Won’t Establish Unity Government After Israeli Election, Times of Israel, 7 August 2019: Smotrich: PM wants a left-wing government, only we can keep him to the right, Times of Israel, 7 August 2019: Netanyahu pans Smotrich’s dream for Torah law in Israel as ‘pure BS’, Times of Israel, 8 August 2019: IDF raids Palestinian village as troops hunt for terrorists who killed student, France24, 8 August 2019: Israel raids West Bank village after soldier found stabbed, Haaretz, 8 August 2019: After West Bank Murder, Netanyahu Vows to Build ‘In All Parts of Our Historic Homeland’, Jerusalem Post, 8 August 2019: In response to West Bank terror, Netanyahu hints at annexation of Area C, Times of Israel, 8 August 2019: Lawmakers blame government policies, push for annexation after student killed, Haaretz, 8 August 2019: Another Radical-right Netanyahu Government Would Decimate Israel’s Ties With American Jews, Haaretz, 11 August 2019: Israel Is Now a Key Battleground in the Global Clash Between Liberal Democracy and Its Enemies, Haaretz, 11 August 2019: Tokyo in Shock: Netanyahu Called Off Japan Visit He Asked for Days Ahead of Trip, Times of Israel, 12 August 2019: Reeling from the last election’s failures, Netanyahu turns on the right, The National, 12 August 2019: Israeli right-wing’s poll threat forced Netanyahu backtrack on Al Aqsa, Haaretz, 12 August 2019: Joint Left-wing Slate Seeks to Woo Voters With Specter of Gantz Joining Netanyahu’s Government, Haaretz, 13 August 2019: Netanyahu Is Running Out of Natural Partners, Haaretz, 13 August 2019: In Netanyahu’s Israel, Democracy Is Dying in Broad Daylight, Haaretz, 14 August 2019: The War for Israel’s Russian Vote Shifts Into High Gear – and Lieberman Is Still Winning, Haaretz, 14 August 2019: Netanyahu Forms New Strategy to Win Israel’s Election, CNN, 15 August 2019: Israel bars Democratic congresswomen from entering country (in view of the upcoming elections in September, Netanyahu’s stunt, ordered by Trump, was, of course, to be expected. The fact that Netanyahu can not deal well with opinions that do not coincide with his own, has become clear for some years in his dealings with the Israeli press (The Guardian, 1 May 2013: Israel downgraded in press freedom report), cultural workers (Haaretz, 1 August 2018: Rethink Policy of Linking Funds for Arts to Settlement Performances, Israel Top Court Says), educational institutions and NGOs (The Guardian, 12 July 2016: Israel passes law to force NGOs to reveal foreign funding). However, applying this procedure to politicians of friendly states, especially the USA, which is a vital partner, represents even for his standards a new low. It should be remembered that politicians of the structurally anti-Semitic German AfD can easily enter the country (but of course they are white and on top of that Islamophobe, just like Netanyahu himself). From a strategic point of view, there is also the question of how sensible it is to prove that political opponents are subject to entry bans and, in addition, to arm them with even more arguments against Israel, which Netanyahu has just done, instead of inviting them to the country to give them the opportunity to learn more about Israel’s points of view, no matter if they are willing to make these points of view their own or not. One day Israel will rely on these voices in one vote or another in US Congress and then don’t get them because of own initiatives and actions. It is becoming increasingly clear that Israel’s greatest enemy is not to be found outside of core Israel, but in the middle of West Jerusalem, in the main office of the Prime Minister’s Office.. Among many other topics, he does not care about the topics “intellect, strategy, security and Israel”. Important for him is himself only and alone), Times of Israel, 15 August 2019: Banned congresswomen call decision ‘insult to democracy’ and a sign of weakness, The Guardian, 15 August 2019: Israel bars entry to US politicians Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib, Irish Times, 15 August 2019: Two US congresswomen denied entry to Israel after Trump plea, Al Jazeera, 15 August 2019: Amid outcry, US congresswomen slam Israel’s move to deny entry (Al Jazeera, 5 August 2019: Israel fears a visit by Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib), The Guardian, 15 August 2019: Israel’s decision to block congresswomen Omar and Tlaib draws widespread criticism, France24, 15 August 2019: Israel to bar visit by two US congresswomen who support boycott, Arab News, 15 August 2019: Israel bars visit by US Democratic lawmakers Ilhan Omar, Rashida Tlaib, Arab News, 15 August 2019: Palestinians must focus on winning the argument internationally, Washington Post, 15 August 2019:Israel’s ban of Reps. Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib is a grave misstep, Washington Post, 15 August 2019: Did Trump and Israel get played by Omar and Tlaib? Some conservatives think so., Times of Israel, 15 August 2019: Barring Tlaib and Omar, Israel inexcusably abandons the diplomatic battlefield, Washington Post, 15 August 2019: Israel barring Omar and Tlaib is good for Democrats and bad for Republicans, Haaretz, 15 August 2019: Nixing Tlaib and Omar Visit, Netanyahu Harms Israel to Assuage Trump’s Ego, Times of Israel, 15 August 2019: Barring Tlaib and Omar, Israel inexcusably abandons the diplomatic battlefield, Haaretz, 15 August 2019: AIPAC, pro-Israel U.S. Lawmakers Rebuke Netanyahu Over Omar-Tlaib Ban, Times of Israel, 15 August 2019: Pelosi: Barring lawmakers beneath Israel’s dignity; Rubio: Decision is a mistake, France24, 15 August 2019: US lawmaker Tlaib rejects Israeli offer to visit West Bank, cites ‘oppressive’ conditions set, Times of Israel, 15 August 2019: AIPAC and other Israel-backers rebuke Israeli decision to bar Omar and Tlaib, Jerusalem Post, 15 August 2019: Israel’s history of blocking entry to anti-Israel activists and others, Palestine Chronicle, 16 August 2019: Tlaib Won’t Visit West Bank under ‘Oppressive’ Israeli Conditions (VIDEOS), Times of Israel, 16 August 2019: Contradicting PM, Omar insists she was planning to meet Israel officials on trip, The New York Times, 16 August 2019: If You Think Trump Is Helping Israel, You’re a Fool, BBC, 16 August 2019: Israel bars Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib from visiting, Haaretz, 16 August 2019: Trump and Netanyahu Just Broke the Special Relationship Between America and Israel, Jerusalem Post, 16 August 2019: Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar outmaneuver Israel – analysis, Israel Hayom, 16 August 2019: Israel should have ignored Trump’s pressure on Omar and Tlaib, Times of Israel, 16 August 2019: The day Israel humiliated its US friends in Congress, Israel Hayom, 16 August 2019: Netanyahu had no choice, Times of Israel, 16 August 2019: Joe Lieberman says Israel made ‘serious mistake’ in banning Tlaib and Omar, The Guardian, 17 August 2019: Trump and Netanyahu are playing a bigoted game of chicken, Times of Israel, 17 August 2019: Pelosi: We can’t let ‘weakness’ of Trump, Netanyahu harm US-Israel ties, Haaretz, 17 August 2019: Fierce Backlash to Tlaib Travel Ban Is a Time Bomb for the U.S.-Israel ‘Special Relationship’, Jerusalem Post, 17 August 2019: Social media users compare ban of Tlaib, Omar, to apartheid S.Africa, Times of Israel, 17 August 2019: The day Netanyahu helped anti-Israel Democrats gain resonance and credibility, Haaretz, 17 August 2019: Netanyahu’s Singular Knack for Turning Friends Into Bitter Enemies, Jerusalem Post, 17 August 2019: Netanyahu’s vs. Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar’s calculations, Times of Israel, 17 August 2019: House Democrats said weighing censure of Israeli, US envoys over entry ban, Times of Israel, 17 August 2019: Tlaib’s grandmother wishes ‘ruin’ on Trump after he mocks her on Twitter, Haaretz, 18 August 2019: Meet Donald Trump’s Most Desperate Sycophant: Benjamin Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 18 August 2019: Feminist icon Steinem says she won’t visit Israel while ‘bully’ Netanyahu is PM, CNN, 18 August 2019: Trump has used Israel for political points — and there may be consequences, Jerusalem Post, 18 August 2019: Netanyahu – damned for bad ties with Obama, damned for good ties with Trump, Haaretz, 18 August 2019: On Israel, Omar and Tlaib Do Not Speak for Party, Says Jewish Democrat Max Rose, Haaretz, 20 August 2019: ‘Furious and Confused’: Liberal U.S. Jews Fume Over Israel’s Tlaib-Omar Rejection, Haaretz, 19 August 2019: Tlaib and Omar Make Things Clear About South Africa’s Successor, CNN, 20 August 2019: Jewish leaders outraged by Trump saying Jews disloyal if they vote for Democrats, The Guardian, 20 August 2019: Trump uses antisemitic trope to question loyalty of Jewish Democrats – live, Haaretz, 20 August 2019: Trump: Jews Voting Democrat Are Disloyal or Ignorant, Times of Israel, 20 August 2019: Jewish groups: Trump spreads anti-Semitic trope by accusing Jews of ‘disloyalty’, Haaretz, 20 August 2019: Gaza Emigration Ploy Suggests Netanyahu Hell-bent on Torching Israel’s Image Abroad, The Guardian, 21 August 2019: Jew-baiting is part of the Trump playbook. It’s a feature, not a bug, Haaretz, 21 August 2019: After Trump ‘Disloyalty’ Remark, Israeli President Tells Pelosi Israel Must Not Become Partisan Issue, The Guardian, 21 August 2019: Trump’s tweets about ‘disloyal’ Jews are laced with centuries of antisemitism, Times of Israel, 21 August 2019: With eyes on ‘erasing’ Green Line, Yamina introduces plan to fix housing crisis, Jerusalem Post, 21 August 2019: Jewish ‘disloyalty’ comments ‘unwelcome and downright dangerous’, Haaretz, 21 August 2019: Trump’s Vile ‘Disloyalty’ Smear Refle, Times of Israel, 21 August 2019: Dreadful symbiosis sees Israel and Jews pulled into volcanic core of US politics, Haaretz, 21 August 2019: Trump Has Made It Official: He Is the Greatest anti-Semite of Our Age, Jerusalem Post, 21 August 2019: One Jewish people, two different realities – analysis, Times of Israel, 21 August 2019: Before ban, ex-US envoy tried to set up meetings for Omar with Israelis, Times of Israel, 21 August 2019: Israel is neither Bibi nor the United States,, 21 August 2019: Jewish Dems rage over Trump’s ‘disloyalty’ comments, Al Jazeera, 21 August 2019: Jews tweet ‘disloyal to Trump’ after Trump calls them disloyal, Times of Israel, 21 August 2019: Trump tweets claim Israelis ‘love him like he is the second coming of God’, Times of Israel, 21 August 2019: As Trump questions loyalty of US Jews, Netanyahu is silent, Israel Hayom, 22 August 2019: American Jewry’s implosion, i24 News, 22 August 2019: Trump: Jews who vote as Democrats ‘greatly disloyal’ or lacking knowledge, Israel Hayom, 22 August 2019: US and Israel sign agreement to strengthen partnership, Times of Israel, 22 August 2019: Blue and White MKs rule out center-left coalition with Arab lawmakers, Israel Hayom, 22 August 2019: For Trump, hurting Israel means hurting America, Times of Israel, 22 August 2019: Right-wing parties, left-wing parties ink vote-sharing agreements, Israel Hayom, 22 August 2019: Israel’s self-inflicted black eye, Israel Hayom, 22 August 2019: Trump’s ‘disloyal’ jab may boost base, not Jews, Times of Israel, 23 August 2019: Poll: Likud tied with Blue and White, neither has clear path to majority, Israel Hayom, 23 August 2019: The real turning point in US-Israel relations, Haaretz, 23 August 2019: Of Courage and Cowardice in Israel’s Election Campaign, Israel Hayom, 23 August 2019: Poll: Majority of Israelis plan on repeating April election vote, Jerusalem Post, 25 August 2019: German Jews slam Merkel’s FM for belittling Palestinian terrorist attack (Auswärtiges Amt, 23 August 2019: Der heutige Anschlag auf drei Israelis, einem Vater mit zwei Kindern, im Westjordanland macht uns tief betroffen. Wir verurteilen solche Gewaltakte mit allem Nachdruck & setzen uns dafür ein, dass die Spirale aus Gewalt und Hass überwunden wird.), Times of Israel, 24 August 2019: Dems Schneider, Sherman: Defending Israel harder under Trump-Netanyahu alliance, Haaretz, 24 August 2019: Netanyahu Is Going for Broke, Times of Israel, 24 August 2019: Barak says Netanyahu cowed by Trump ‘like a puppy’, Times of Israel, 25 August 2019: Given cold shoulder, Joint List head attacks ‘racist’ Blue and White, Haaretz, 25 August 2019: The Most Urgent Thing Is Removing Netanyahu. But What Happens the Day After?, Haaretz, 26 August 2019: We Must Choose the Lesser of Two Evils, Times of Israel, 26 August 2019: Israel alarmed by possible Trump-Rouhani talks, fears he’ll let Iran off hook (making Israel a partisan issue comes with a price tag. Even the blindest Netanjahu fan should now understand that the PM is a greater security risk for Israel than all external threats together), Haaretz, 26 August 2019: Israel Fears Trump Might Sit Down With the Iranians – and Be Outmaneuvered, Times of Israel, 27 August 2019: Former US envoy: Trump harming Israel for his own gain, The Washington Post, 27 August 2019: The hype over possible U.S.-Iran talks obscured something much more ominous, Al Jazeera, 27 August 2019: How will the Joint List fare in Israel’s snap election?, Haaretz, 27 August 2019: Trump’s Soft-pedal Outreach to Iran Is a Preview of Netanyahu’s Worst Nightmares, Times of Israel, 27 August 2019: The first Israel-Iran war, Israel Hayom, 28 August 2019: Israel’s shadow war with Iran bursts into the open, Haaretz, 28 August 2019: Netantyahu Okayed Sale of Submarines to Egypt to Get Israel a Discount, Report Says, Jerusalem Post, 28 August 2019: Editor’s notes: What is happening to Gantz?, Jerusalem Post, 29 August 2019: Blue and White sources: Gantz will have blocking majority against PM, Haaretz, 29 August 2019: In Deal With Far-right Leader, Netanyahu Edges Closer to Reelection. Next Up: The Kahanists, Israel Hayom, 29 August 2019: Lieberman won’t support right-wing government, PM tells Russian voters, Haaretz, 29 August 2019: A Leak That Leaves No Doubts About Netanyahu’s Illicit Deals With Media Tycoon, Israel Hayom, 29 August 2019: Is Israel on the verge of an all-out war?, Israel Hayom, 30 August 2019: The hot potatoes of the election, CNN, 30 August 2019: Israel is making the case for war, in public, against Lebanon, Israel Hayom, 30 August 2019: Pompeo: Israel can rely on diplomatic, legal, military support in any war with Iran, Times of Israel, 30 August 2019: Netanyahu tells Macron ‘now is precisely not the time to talk to Iran’, The Guardian, 31 August 2019: Israel risks becoming the fall guy in Donald Trump’s ‘shadow war’ with Iran, Haaretz, 31 August 2019: Four Bleeding Middle Eastern Fronts Awaiting Trump’s Next Tweet, Arab News, 31 August 2019: Playing with fire may burn more than Netanyahu’s fingers, Times of Israel, 30 August 2019: Liberman says his party is recruiting poll watchers for Haredi and Arab towns, The National, 31 August 2019: Lebanon is in the eye of the storm in the latest round of Iran-Israeli clashes, Jerusalem Post, 31 August 2019: Bennett backs immunity, giving PM majority if he gets 61 seats, Haaretz, 31 August 2019: First Drone War Pulls Israel’s Conflict With Iran Out of the Shadows, Times of Israel, 31 August 2019: IDF sends artillery to northern border as tensions with Hezbollah rise, Haaretz, 31 August 2019: Netanyahu Ratchets Up Attack on Production Company, Journalist Reporting His Corruption Probes, The Guardian, 1 September 2019: Israel and Hezbollah trade cross-border fire for first time in years, BBC, 1 September 2019: Hezbollah fires rockets into Israel from Lebanon, Haaretz, 1 September 2019: It’s Now Clear: Netanyahu Won’t Rest Until a Journalist’s Blood Is Spilled, France24, 1 September 2019: Hezbollah launch anti-tank missiles toward Israel, Tel Aviv fires back, Al Jazeera, 1 September 2019: Israel, Hezbollah exchange fire at Lebanon border, Haaretz, 1 September 2019: Netanyahu Seeks to Silence Critical Media by Hitting Their Revenues, Arab News, 1 September 2019: Hezbollah and Israel exchange fire on the Lebanese border, The National, 1 September 2019: Hezbollah raises spectre of war with Israel in retaliatory cross-border attack, Haaretz, 1 September 2019: Hezbollah Missiles Hit Israeli Base, Military Vehicle on Lebanese Border; No Casualties, Israel Hayom, 1 September 2019: Netanyahu reaffirms pledge to annex parts of Judea and Samaria (West Bank), Al Aarabiya, 1 September 2019: Israel says exchange of fire with Hezbollah likely over, Times of Israel, 2 September 2019: Netanyahu accuses Channel 12 owners of ‘terror attack against democracy’, Times of Israel, 2 September 2019: Gantz blasts Netanyahu for loose lips during Hezbollah flareup, Haaretz, 2 September 2019: Israel, Hezbollah Find Way Out of Escalation, but a Critical Dilemma Remains, Times of Israel, 2 September 2019: IDF chief to UNIFIL: Stop Hezbollah’s missile program, or we will, Palestine Chronicle, 2 September 2019: Palestinian Officials Slam Netanyahu’s Pledge to Annex West Bank, Times of Israel, 2 September 2019: Netanyahu has chosen to go to war with the media, Times of Israel, 2 September 2019: Hailing ‘bold, brave’ attack, Nasrallah vows: ‘No more red lines against Israel’, Haaretz, 3 September 2019: Israel Pats Itself on Back, but Almost Got Dragged Into War Due to Operational Failure, Gulf News, 2 September 2019: Israel, Hezbollah should not jeopardise innocent lives, Times of Israel, 2 September 2019: Attorney general says media can publish leaks from cases against Netanyahu, Al Jazeera, 3 September 2019: Netanyahu’s calculus: Bombs speak louder than words, Haaretz, 3 September 2019: Gantz’s Sleeper Campaign Could Be the Secret Weapon That Fells Netanyahu, France24, 3 September 2019: Israel-Hezbollah clashes ‘play positively’ for Netanyahu’s re-election campaign, Arab News, 3 September 2019: Netanyahu’s election gamble may be costly for Israel , Haaretz, 3 September 2019: Israel Needs an Old-fashioned Leader, Times of Israel, 3 September 2019: Worrying days for Israel when Hezbollah is a key source of credible information, Haaretz, 3 September 2019: The Israeli Election – Through the Eyes of Palestinians Who Can’t Vote, Israel Hayom, 3 September 2019: Dangerous bedfellows, Times of Israel, 3 September 2019: Gantz: No 2nd disengagement, the public will decide on any diplomatic deal, The Guardian, 4 September 2019: Benjamin Netanyahu to meet Boris Johnson on surprise visit to London, Times of Israel, 4 September 2019: Israel said again mulling raid on Iran; thinks Trump, unlike Obama, won’t oppose, The New York Times, 4 September 2019: The Secret History of the Push to Strike Iran, Haaretz, 4 September 2019: ‘Bibi-sitting’ and Drones Out of Azerbaijan: Report Reveals How Close Israel Came to Striking Iran, The National, 4 September 2019: Lebanon, Hezbollah and the danger of throwing the baby out with the bathwater, Times of Israel, 4 September 2019: Lebanese PM: We’re not responsible for Hezbollah; it’s a ‘regional problem’, Haaretz, 5 September 2019: As Bibi Meets Boris — Tory Rebels Prove Morally Superior to Likudniks, Times of Israel, 5 September 2019: PM’s wife, son insisted tycoon’s wife delete all messages from them – report, Haaretz, 5 September 2019: Israel’s Watchdog Proves Himself a Spineless Servant of Netanyahu, Jerusalem Post, 5 September 2019: Grapevine: Corruption allegations not a priority for Israeli voters, The National, 5 September 2019: Hezbollah and Israel have stepped back from the brink this time but the trajectory is deeply troubling, Times of Israel, 5 September 2019: ‘Miriam Adelson: Sara Netanyahu said it would be my fault if Iran nuked Israel’, Haaretz, 5 September 2019: Iran Overture and Greenblatt Departure Cloud Trump-Netanyahu Paradise, Jerusalem Post, 5 September 2019: Gantz: State comptroller works for Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 5 September 2019: Gantz derides Netanyahu’s jet-setting diplomacy as futile, self-serving, Haaretz, 6 September 2019: Casting Doubt on Election’s Integrity, Netanyahu Commits the Worst ‘Terror Attack on Democracy’, Haaretz, 6 September 2019: Poodles of the Autocracy, Times of Israel, 7 September 2019: Yair Netanyahu more dangerous than Rabin assassin Yigal Amir, says Labor head, Jerusalem Post, 7 September 2019: Gantz makes appeal to Arab voters: You are equal, influential, Times of Israel, 7 September 2019: Liberman says Likud planning to violently sabotage vote on election day, The Guardian, 7 September 2019: Israelis return to the polls in the election that nobody wanted, Jerusalem Post, 7 September 2019: PA: Greenblatt resignation is Trump’s “opportunity to rethink” peace plan, Jerusalem Post, 7 September 2019: Moshe Ya’alon: Blue and White will not enter coalition led by Netanyahu, Jerusalem Post, 7 September 2019: Why American Jews should care about voter surpression in Israel, Haaretz, 8 September 2019: Netanyahu on Son’s Tweets About Assassinated Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin: ‘His Opinions Are His Alone’, Times of Israel, 8 September 2019: Barak says passage of Likud-backed Camera Bill would mark ‘the end of democracy’, Times of Israel, 8 September 2019: Is Israel lost without Netanyahu, or are we losing Israel with him?, Times of Israel, 8 September 2019: Foreign Ministry forced to freeze most diplomatic activity due to lack of funds, Haaretz, 9 September 2019: Nine Days to Elections: Netanyahu Deploys Trump’s ‘Election Fraud’ Canard, to Devastating Effect, Times of Israel, 9 September 2019: Trouble in paradise? Trump conspicuously absent from Netanyahu’s re-election bid, Times of Israel, 9 September 2019: Averting shutdown, Foreign Ministry gets emergency cash injection, Jerusalem Post, 9 September 2019: Blue and White leads by one mandate, Otzma Yehudit passes threshold – poll, Times of Israel, 9 September 2019: The dark motivations behind Netanyahu’s bid to put cameras into polling stations, The National, 9 September 2019: With strikes against Iran, Benjamin Netanyahu risks jeopardising his closest alliance, Haaretz, 9 September 2019: Netanyauh’s Camera Bill Is a Gun at Israeli Democracy’s Head, Jerusalem Post, 9 September 2019: Gantz and Lapid: Netanyahu using national security for election campaign, Haaretz, 9 September 2019: Slain Prime Minister Rabin Is Suddenly the Star of Israel’s Mudslinging Election, Israel Hayom, 9 September 2019: An election diversion par excellence, Haaretz, 9 September 2019: Reigning Supremacist: The House of Netanyahu and the Jews Bibi Hates, Jerusalem Post, 9 September 2019: Gantz: I would have let Omar and Tlaib into Israel, The Guardian, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu vows to annex large parts of occupied West Bank, BBC, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu pledges to annex occupied Jordan Valley, CNN, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu says Israel will annex parts of West Bank, Al Jazeera, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu announces post-election plan to annex Jordan Valley, Arab News, 10 September 2019: Israel’s Netanyahu vows to annex West Bank’s Jordan Valley if re-elected, The National, 10 September 2019: Benjamin Netanyahu says he intends to annex Jordan Valley, Haaretz, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu Says Israel Will Annex Jordan Valley if Reelected, Times of Israel, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu’s Jordan Valley vow: Harbinger of US support or indication of failure? (if you watch the film “Peace Talks – The Oslo Diaries” by Mor Loushy and Daniel Sivan, it becomes clear how Netanyahu changed Israel during his tenures to the worse), Irish Times, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu vows to annex large parts of occupied West Bank, NPR, 11 September 2019: Benjamin Netanyahu Vows To Annex Part Of West Bank If He Wins Reelection, Al Jazeera, 11 September 2019: What are areas A, B, and C of the occupied West Bank?, The Washington Post, 11 September 2019: In the Jordan Valley, Palestinians fear further displacement after Netanyahu’s annexation pledge, CNN, 11 September 2019: Netanyahu says Israel will annex parts of West Bank if he’s re-elected, Al Jazeera, 11 September 2019: Netanyahu annexation pledge denounced as ‘dangerous’ and ‘racist’, Arab News, 11 September 2019: Netanyahu’s plan to annex Jordan Valley widely opposed, Amman says peace treaty could be ‘at stake’, Gulf News, 11 September 2019: UAE denounces Netanyahu’s electoral pledge to annex occupied West Bank, The National, 11 September 2019: UAE and Saudi Arabia condemn Netanyahu’s ‘dangerous escalation’ after annexation pledge, Al Arabiya, 11 September 2019: Moscow: Netanyahu’s plans could lead to ‘sharp escalation of tensions’, The Guardian, 11 September 2019: Arab leaders denounce Netanyahu’s plan to annex Palestinian territories, Haaretz, 11 September 2019: U.S. Jewish Groups Slam Netanyahu’s Vow to Annex Jordan Valley: ‘Israelis Won’t Live in Democracy’, Times of Israel, 11 September 2019: Trump said mulling easing Iran sanctions to secure Rouhani meeting, The Guardian, 11 September 2019: The Guardian view on Netanyahu’s land grab: a prison, not a peace, Palestine Chronicle, 11 September 2019: Abbas Threatens to End All Agreements if Israel Annexes Palestinian Land, Haaretz, 11 September 2019: While Netanyahu Makes Annexation Promises, Reality (Almost) Hits Him on the Head, Haaretz, 11 September 2019: The 15-second Video That Could Kill Netanyahu’s Rock-star Election Campaign, Times of Israel, 11 September 2019: Netanyahu blasts Blue and White for celebrating after rocket forces him offstage, Haaretz, 11 September 2019: Netanyahu’s Terrible, Horrible, No Good Very Bad Day, The Guardian, 12 September 2019: Facebook penalises Netanyahu page over hate speech violation, Politico, 12 September 2019: Israel accused of planting mysterious spy devices near the White House (well, maybe not exactly the message Netanyahu might want to send out to his voters, about a week before the upcoming Israeli elections and it’s just another big sign that the “bromance” between Netanyahu and Trump is coming to its end. It’s not even relevant if the report is true or false, as everybody is actually believing that the paranoid Israeli leader has ordered the spy action, anyway. As Netanyahu has made Israel a partisan issue (Trump and the Republicans) in the US, he has now trapped himself finally between a rock and a hard place), The Daily Beast, 12 September 2019: Trump Ignored Evidence Israel Planted Cellphone Spying Devices Near White House: Politico, Haaretz, 12 September 2019: Israel Reportedly Planted Mysterious Spy Devices Near White House; Netanyahu: Total Lie, BBC, 12 September 2019: Netanyahu denies Politico report Israel is spying on US, The Guardian, 12 September 2019: Israel accused of planting spying devices near White House, Haaretz, 12 September 2019: This Is Israel’s Last Ever Zionist Election, Times of Israel, 12 September 2019: Why the man who comes second in Israel’s election could end up prime minister, Haaretz, 12 September 2019: ‘Adelson to Netanyahu: I Keep Writing in Your Favor, I Lose $50m a Year, You Keep Shouting at Me’, Haaretz, 13 September 2019: Netanyahu’s Plan to Escape Trial, in His Own Words: ‘Time for Them to Be Frightened’, Al Jazeera, 13 September 2019: Palestinians in Israel: Netanyahu’s racism makes us want to vote, Israel Hayom, 13 September 2019: Poll predicts 62 seats for left-wing coalition with Lieberman,, 14 September 2019: Trump touts defense treaty discussions with Netanyahu days before Israeli election (just remember what Trump thought about the insights of the US intelligence services about Russia’s interference in the US presidential elections in order to come to own conclusions about the spying action in Washington, D.C., or in other words: If you truly believe Trump’s words, we have a bridge in New York to sell to you (George C. Parker)), Jerusalem Post, 14 September 2019: Netanyahu: ‘Gantz’s advisor was behind White House spying leak’, Times of Israel, 14 September 2019: Iranian FM mocks US following disputed report of Israeli spying in Washington, Haaretz, 14 September 2019: Trump Says He Talked Defense Treaty With Netanyahu, to Be Discussed After Israel’s Election, The Guardian, 14 September 2019: Trump floats possible defense treaty days ahead of Israeli elections, Arab News, 14 September 2019: Trump discusses possible mutual defense treaty with Israel’s Netanyahu, Haaretz, 14 September 2019: The Only Real Question Still Looming Over Israel’s Repeat Election, Jerusalem Post, 14 September 2019: Russia prevents Israeli airstrikes in Syria, Haaretz, 14 September 2019: Three Days to Election, Master Wizard Netanyahu Ramps Up Efforts to Mesmerize Israeli Voters, Times of Israel, 14 September 2019: Prominent Bahraini royal to ToI: Netanyahu is an obstacle to better relations, Haaretz, 14 September 2019: Netanyahu’s West Bank Annexation Move Illegal, European States Say, The New York Times, 14 September 2019: Netanyahu’s Fate May Depend on Israeli Arab Voters. Will They Turn Out?, Haaretz, 15 September 2019: Two Days to Election, Netanyahu Government Green Lights Legalizing Jordan Valley Outpost, Times of Israel, 15 September 2019: A failure to inspire: How lackluster rivals let Netanyahu dominate the campaign, Times of Israel, 15 September 2019: With cameras banned, new right-wing patrol seeks to ‘prevent Arab voter fraud’, Haaretz, 15 September 2019: LISTEN: A Watershed Election for Netanyahu – and Israeli Democracy, Israel Hayom, 15 September 2019: Netanyahu: Defense treaty with US won’t compromise our freedom, Times of Israel, 16 September 2019: Netanyahu: After Jordan Valley and settlements, I’ll annex other ‘vital areas’, CNN, 15 September 2019: Netanyahu is endangering the future of a two-state solution, France24, 16 September 2019: Netanyahu, Gantz spur supporters on eve of tense Israeli polls, CNN, 16 September 2019: Trump may no longer be the gift that keeps on giving for Netanyahu, The Guardian, 16 September 2019: Israel elections: why is the country going to the polls again?, France24, 16 September 2019: Netanyahu in tight race against Benny Gantz as Israel prepares to vote in run-off, Times of Israel, 16 September 2019: Will Israel’s Arab citizens turn out to vote?, CNN, 16 September 2019: In the face of Netanyahu’s annexation plans, his centrist rivals remain silent, Al Jazeera, 16 September 2019: ‘Desperate to be re-elected’: Will Netanyahu win Israel vote?, Arab News, 16 September 2019: Israeli PM vows to annex ‘all the settlements’ in West Bank, Haaretz, 16 September 2019: Israel Election: Tell Us Which Minority You Hate, and We’ll Tell You Who to Vote For, Gulf News, 16 September 2019: Israel elections mean nothing to Palestine, The National, 16 September 2019: Israelis return to the polls with Benjamin Netanyahu’s fate still uncertain, Jerusalem Post, 16 September 2019: Netanyahu vows to annex Hebron, Kiryat Arba after election, Haaretz, 16 September 2019: On Election Day, It’s the Prince of Darkness vs. Israel’s Very Soul, Times of Israel, 16 September 2019: Gantz assails Netanyahu over reports he sought to go to war before elections, BBC, 16 September 2019: Israel election a referendum on Netanyahu, France24, 16 September 2019: Benny Gantz: the thorn in Netanyahu’s side, Haaretz, 16 September 2019: 1000, 2000, 4000: Can Netanyahu Escape the Corruption Cases Against Him?, The Guardian, 17 September 2019: For Palestinians, Israel’s elections promise nothing but defeat, France24, 17 September 2019: Israel votes with Netanyahu’s political survival at stake, BBC, 17 September 2019: Israel election: Netanyahu in tough fight in this year’s second vote, The Guardian, 17 September 2019: Israel election: voters head to the polls for second time this year, Arab News, 17 September 2019: Europe lacks the backbone to challenge Israeli annexation, Times of Israel, 17 September 2019: Netanyahu far from 61 seats, Liberman poised to be, Haaretz, 17 September 2019: In ‘Emergency’ Move, Netanyahu Repeatedly Breaks Election Laws Hours Before Polls Close, The New York Times, 17 September 2019: Updates: Israel Election Exit Polls Show Tight Race, Times of Israel, 17 September 2019: Tel Aviv beachgoers hope their ‘bubble’ big enough to burst Bibi’s chances, Haaretz, 17 September 2019: Israel Election 2019: Netanyahu Fails to Secure Ruling Majority, Gantz in the Lead, Exit Polls Show, Times of Israel, 17 September 2019: All TV exit polls see no clear election winner; Netanyahu bloc short of majority, Haaretz, 17 September 2019: Who Is Benny Gantz, the Former General Who Just Overtook Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 17 September 2019: Eyeing coalition with post-Netanyahu Likud, Blue and White says longtime PM lost, Haaretz, 17 September 2019: Exit Polls Prove Netanyahu’s Spell Has Been Broken, Palestine Chronicle, 17 September 2019: Apartheid Made Official: Deal of the Century is a Ploy and Annexation is the New Reality,, 17 September 2019: Israel’s Netanyahu appears to suffer election setback, Haaretz, 18 September 2019: In Defeat, Netanyahu Looks to Iran and Trump for Salvation, Times of Israel, 18 September 2019: Gantz, in morning-after comments, wishes Israel a ‘good unity government’, Haaretz, 18 September 2019: ‘Netanyahu Failed, We Succeeded’: Gantz Says Talks Underway to Form Unity Government, France24, 18 September 2019: Netanyahu neck-and-neck with rival Gantz in Israeli election, exit polls show, BBC, 18 September 2019: Israel election: Netanyahu and rival Gantz headed for deadlock, CNN, 18 September 2019: Netanyahu faces uncertain future as he trails in Israeli election re-run, The Guardian, 18 September 2019: Netanyahu and Gantz both vow to form next government, The New York Times, 18 September 2019: Netanyahu Is in Trouble, and Other Takeaways From the Israeli Election, The Washington Post, 18 September 2019: Israel’s election results could be the glimmer of dawn after a nightmare, Al Jazeera, 18 September 2019: Israel election: Partial results show rivals heading for deadlock, Arab News, 18 September 2019: Israeli racism defeated as voters back Arab Joint List, Haaretz, 18 September 2019: How Arab Voters Helped Deprive Netanyahu of Victory, Times of Israel, 18 September 2019: With 95% of vote counted, Blue and White leads by one seat, deadlock persists, The National, 18 September 2019: Israelis have given their verdict: Benjamin Netanyahu could be on his way out,, 18 September 2019: Netanyahu alliance fails to win majority in repeat election, Haaretz, 18 September 2019: Israel Election Results: With Indictment Around the Corner, Netanyahu Is at the Mercy of the Attorney General, Times of Israel, 18 September 2019: Trump says he hasn’t spoken to Netanyahu: ‘Our relationship is with Israel’, France24, 19 September 2019: Netanyahu rival Gantz says he should take PM job in unity government (regardless of how the coalition talks might turn out, Benny Gantz and his liberal political alliance Blue and White have won the elections. By contrast, the April election outcome was tied. Israeli voters are beginning to notice, that the current Prime Minister isn’t as good for the country than he would like to persuade himself and his followers. In many ways a very gratifying development), The Guardian, 19 September 2019: Netanyahu struggles to hold on to power as Gantz claims victory, Haaretz, 19 September 2019: Israel Election Results: Netanyahu’s Loss Creates an Opening for Trump — and for American Jewry, Times of Israel, 19 September 2019: Gantz says he should lead unity government, rejects coalition led by right, CNN, 19 September 2019: Israeli leaders warn of possible third election amid political deadlock, The Washington Post, 19 September 2019: Who is Benny Gantz? The former military chief could be Israel’s next prime minister., Haaretz, 19 September 2019: From Liberals in Tel Aviv to Radical Settlers: How Israelis Voted in the Election, Times of Israel, 19 September 2019: As Netanyahu’s position weakens, liberal US Jews root for an end to his reign, Haaretz, 19 September 2019: Israel Election Results: Netanyahu Clings to Power With Bluff and Bluster – but His Days Are Numbered, France24, 20 September 2019: Israel vote count gives Gantz party slim lead, confirms deadlock, Al Jazeera, 19 September 2019: Israel after Netanyahu?, Palestine Chronicle, 19 September 2019: Israelis Have Shown Netanyahu the Door. Can He Inflict More Damage before He Exits?, Jerusalem Post, 19 September 2019: US-Israel ties: ‘The relations are between our countries’, Haaretz, 20 September 2019: With Israel’s Election Results, Netanyahu Is Reminded That Trump Hates Losers, Times of Israel, 20 September 2019: Results aren’t even official, but already nightmare 3rd election scenario looms, Times of Israel, 21 September 2019: Joint List meets, fails to decide on recommending Gantz for prime minister, Haaretz, 21 September 2019: Israel Election Results: Arab Alliance Expected to Recommend Gantz for Prime Minister, Party Sources Say, Jerusalem Post, 21 September 2019: Gantz on verge of getting more recommendations, The Guardian, 21 September 2019: Israel: Wounded Netanyahu in desperate battle for political survival after poll blow, The New York Times, 22 September 2019: Ayman Odeh: We Are Ending Netanyahu’s Grip on Israel, France24, 22 September 2019: Israel’s potential kingmaker says not backing Netanyahu or Gantz, The Guardian, 22 September 2019: Israeli Arab parties back Gantz for PM in bid to oust Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 22 September 2019: After withholding nomination for PM, Liberman to meet Gantz, Haaretz, 22 September 2019: Israel Election Results: Why the Arab Alliance’s Endorsement of Gantz Is a Big Deal, Times of Israel, 23 September 2019: Minister slams academy as film on Rabin’s killer set to be Israeli Oscars entry (the impacts are obviously coming closer), Israel Hayom, 23 September 2019: Israel at a crossroads: What does the Sept. 17 actually mean?, Haaretz, 23 September 2019: By Backing Gantz, Arab Slate Signals Its Public Seeks to Influence National Agenda, Times of Israel, 23 September 2019: Liberman meets Gantz, says unity government a certainty, The New York Times, 23 September 2019: Benny Gantz Can’t Heal the Rift Between U.S. Jews and Israel, Israel Hayom, 23 September 2019: Rivlin ups the pressure, invites PM and Gantz for unity talks, Haaretz, 23 September 2019: Trump Envoy Greenblatt Meets Gantz as Release of Peace Plan Remains Uncertain, Times of Israel, 23 September 2019: Outgoing Trump peace envoy meets Gantz amid political deadlock, Jerusalem Post, 23 September 2019: How the indicting Bibi train could still go off the rails – analysis, Times of Israel, 24 September 2019: Lost in transition: Will government break down amid enduring political logjam?, Haaretz, 24 September 2019: Rivlin Stalls Decision on Who Forms Government as Gantz, Netanyahu Teams Begin Unity Talks, Times of Israel, 25 September 2019: Rivlin said set Wednesday night to tap Netanyahu to try to form coalition, The Guardian, 25 September 2019: Israel’s president chooses Netanyahu to form government, France24, 25 September 2019: Israeli president asks Netanyahu to form new government, Haaretz, 25 September 2019: President Rivlin Tasks Netanyahu With Forming Government as Unity Talks With Gantz Fail, The New York Times, 25 September 2019: Netanyahu Is Nominated to Form Israel’s Next Government, Al Jazeera, 25 September 2019: Israel president tasks Benjamin Netanyahu to form new government, Arab News, 25 September 2019: Israel president tasks Netanyahu to form new govt: statement, Haaretz, 25 September 2019: Can Trump, Evangelicals and Right-wing Jews Really Relate to a post-Netanyahu Israel?, Times of Israel, 25 September 2019: Netanyahu may be weakened, but authoritarian threat isn’t, warns Russia expert, Times of Israel, 25 September 2019: Elections Committee publishes final results, hands them to president, Times of Israel, 25 September 2019: Mission impossible? Why Netanyahu, asked to form a coalition, isn’t smiling, Haaretz, 25 September 2019: Netanyahu’s Mandate Is Meaningless, but He Will Continue Campaigning, Times of Israel, 25 September 2019: Gantz insists he can’t join government with PM who is facing indictment, Times of Israel, 26 September 2019: With ‘paritetic’ proposal, Rivlin looks to the past for a power-sharing model, Palestine Chronicle, 25 September 2019: Netanyahu on Steroids: What a Gantz-led Government Means for Palestine, Israel Hayom, 26 September 2019: Ending the deadlock: 5 scenarios, Times of Israel, 26 September 2019: Ex-IDF chief: We’ve jeopardized national security by admitting to Syria strikes, Israel Hayom, 27 September 2019: Poll: Most Israelis want a unity government, don’t want an election, Ynet News, 27 September 2019: Netanyahu is holding us hostage, Gantz could change that, Times of Israel, 27 September 2019: Poll: 52% want Netanyahu to stand down as Likud leader to enable unity coalition, Israel Hayom, 27 September 2019: Israel’s flailing democracy, The New York Times, 29 September 2019: How an Israeli Unity Government Could Shrink the Conflict, Arab News, 29 September 2019: Netanyahu, Gantz trade blame over breakdown in Israel coalition talks, The Guardian, 29 September 2019: Crunch time for Netanyahu as talks with rival politicians break down, Times of Israel, 1 October 2019: As PM’s hearing set to begin, defense team hopes to nullify charge sheet, Haaretz, 1 October 2019: Israel Election: Gantz’s Party Nixes Negotiation Meeting With Netanyahu’s Likud Over Unity Government, Times of Israel, 1 October 2019: Gantz cancels Wednesday meet with Netanyahu: ‘Likud not acting in good faith’, Jerusalem Post, 1 October 2019: Barak: Netanyahu, in his current conditions, knows no bounds, Israel Hayom, 2 October 2019: Netanyahu tries to avert indictment as he fights for political life, Haaretz, 2 October 2019: 3 Cases, 4 Days and Dozens of Lawyers: Netanyahu’s Pre-indictment Hearing Begins Wednesday, Israel Hayom, 2 October 2019: Netanyahu’s legal woes: How much trouble is he in?, Al Jazeera, 2 October 2019: Israel’s PM Netanyahu corruption: Pre-indictment hearing to begin, Jerusalem Post, 3 October 2019: Netanyahu pre-indictment hearing for case 4000 ends after 11 hours, Haaretz, 3 October 2019: Netanyahu Considers Snap Primary to Dispel ‘Rebellion Illusion’; Likud Rival: I’m Ready, Times of Israel, 3 October 2019: Incoming MK Yair Golan again compares right-wing to Nazis, drawing ire, Haaretz, 3 October 2019: Israel Election Results: As New Knesset Sworn In, President Rivlin Says ‘Populism Was Shown a Red Card’, Times of Israel, 3 October 2019: At Knesset swearing-in, Rivlin urges lawmakers to shed politics of division, Jerusalem Post, 3 October 2019: Rivlin: Israel is in crisis, needs government now, Israel Hayom, 4 October 2019: Netanyahu’s fate and the future of Israeli democracy, Haaretz, 5 October 2019: Israeli Arabs Plan More Protests Against Police’s Failure to Stem Violence in the Community, Times of Israel, 5 October 2019: Arab leaders plan protests throughout October over police inaction on violence, Arab News, 5 October 2019: Israel swings in the wind as Netanyahu tries to save his skin, Haaretz, 5 October 2019: Trump’s Impeachment Meltdown Accelerates Collapse of Netanyahu’s Iran Strategy, Israel Hayom, 6 October 2019: Israel’s fractured democracy and its repercussions, Jerusalem Post, 7 October 2019: Submarine affair breaks back into political calendar with a splash, Israel Hayom, 7 October 2019: Netanyahu’s pre-indictment hearing wraps up, Times of Israel, 7 October 2019: Netanyahu hearings end, but defense gets two more weeks for written submissions, Haaretz, 7 October 2019: Israel Is Terrified of Netanyahu’s Magic Wearing Off, Haaretz, 6 October 2019: Half of Israelis Oppose Unity Government Headed by Netanyahu, Poll Finds, Haaretz, 10 October 2019: Trump’s Kurdish Treachery Casts Netanyahu as Lone Rider on Paper Tiger, Times of Israel, 11 October 2019: Amid Case 4000 doubts, AG said aiming to decide on Netanyahu charges in 5 weeks, Palestine Chronicle, 11 October 2019: A Placebo Not the Cure: Why Removing Trump and Netanyahu Won’t Relieve the Illness, Times of Israel, 12 October 2019: Rivlin unlikely to grant Netanyahu more time to form government: report, Haaretz, 12 October 2019: Why Netanyahu Has to Stay Silent About Trump’s Abandonment of the Kurds, Haaretz, 14 October 2019: The Problem Isn’t Just Bibi: It’s the Bibism With Which He Has Infected Israeli Politics, Haaretz, 15 October 2019: Yes, Netanyahu’s Iran Policy Has Failed and Tehran Will Strike Back, Haaretz, 16 October 2019: Democracy Is Still Under Siege, Despite Orbán and Netanyahu’s Election Defeats, Times of Israel, 17 October 2019: Netanyahu floats new offer for unity government, Gantz swiftly rejects it, Israel Hayom, 18 October 2019: Israel coalition stalemate: Gantz dismisses PM’s last-ditch offer, Haaretz, 18 October 2019: Don’t Be Tempted, Gantz, Times of Israel, 21 October 2019: Blue and White, Liberman hit back at Netanyahu for ‘secret scheme’ video, The Guardian, 21 October 2019: Israel’s Benjamin Netanyahu fails to form government, Haaretz, 21 October 2019: Long After Netanyahu’s Gone, Likud and the Right Will Suffer From Post-Cult Trauma Syndrome, BBC, 21 October 2019: Israeli PM Netanyahu fails to form a government ahead of deadline, CNN, 21 October 2019: Israel’s Netanyahu gives up on forming new coalition, The New York Times, 21 October 2019: Netanyahu Fails to Form a Government. Israel Turns to Gantz., Times of Israel, 21 October 2019: Netanyahu tells president he can’t form government; now it’s Gantz’s turn to try, Haaretz, 21 October 2019: Netanyahu Tells President He Can’t Form Government; Rivlin to Tap Gantz, CNN, 21 October 2019: Netanyahu fails again to form new Israeli government, opening door for political rival, CNN, 22 October 2019: Netanyahu fails again to form new Israeli government, opening door for political rival (even though the chances of forming a government by Benny Gantz are slim, it is just another step of Netanyahu’s decline), Times of Israel, 22 October 2019: Gantz to be tasked with forming government at official ceremony Wednesday, France24, 23 October 2019: Israeli president tasks Benny Gantz with forming government, Jerusalem Post, 23 October 2019: Encountering peace: The unlikely possible scenario, Haaretz, 23 October 2019: 37 Days After the Fact, Israel Saw Today the First Real Manifestation of Netanyahu’s Election Defeat, Times of Israel, 23 October 2019: Charged with forming coalition, Gantz asks Netanyahu to join, vows to heal rifts, Times of Israel, 24 October 2019: Courting Blue and White, Joint List opposes Zionism but supports ‘compromise’, Jerusalem Post, 25 October 2019: Benny Gantz’s speech: Feigned statesmanship with deadly serious flaw, Haaretz, 25 October 2019: Gantz, Drive Netanyahu Crazy and Save the Day, Times of Israel, 24 October 2019: State prosecutors seek to keep bribery charge in Netanyahu indictment – report, Times of Israel, 25 October 2019: Netanyahu must be questioned in submarine graft case, ex-prosecutor says, Haaretz, 26 October 2019: Netanyahu Recordings Reveal Threats to Publisher: ‘I’ll Come After You With Everything I’ve Got’, Haaretz, 27 October 2019: Netanyahu Appoints Himself Israel’s Diaspora Minister, Times of Israel, 27 October 2019: Dramatic recordings shine light on alleged Netanyahu bid to deal with newspaper, Jerusalem Post, 28 October 2019: Poll: Most Likud voters support forgoing right-wing bloc, Haaretz, 28 October 2019: Netanyahu Goes After the Police for Seizing Advisers’ Phones: This Is a Terror Attack on Democracy, Times of Israel, 28 October 2019: Kushner meets Blue and White heads seeking to unseat Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 29 October 2019: In probe transcripts, PM’s son accuses Likud rival of rape, ex-aide of murder, Jerusalem Post, 28 October 2019: Bernie Sanders: Netanyahu’s government has been racist, Haaretz, 29 October 2019: In Israel, a New Consensus on What Being Jewish Really Means, Times of Israel, 29 October 2019: Gantz: I’ll always prefer diplomacy to thwart Iran, but all options on the table, Israel Hayom, 29 October 2019: Gantz promises area for mixed-gender prayer at Western Wall, Haaretz, 29 October 2019: Mr. Crybaby Netanyahu and His Loyal Legions of Whimpering Whiners, Times of Israel, 31 October 2019: Liberman appears to rule out minority government: ‘Unity only option’, Jerusalem Post, 31 October 2019: Third election looking likely with coalition talks at a deadlock, Times of Israel, 31 October 2019: Arab MKs meet with Gantz, call for ‘real diplomatic process’ with Palestinians, Jerusalem Post, 31 October 2019: Netanyahu will be to blame if Israel heads to third elections – poll, Jerusalem Post, 31 October 2019: Gantz: I’m determind to have broad unity government, not third elections, Haaretz, 1 November 2019: Netanyahu’s Uninhibited Attacks Signal He’s Seeking Another Election, Gantz Says, Times of Israel, 2 November 2019: Gantz at Rabin memorial rally: Israel will never surrender to hatred, Haaretz, 2 November 2019: Gantz at Rabin Memorial: Hate Has Again Been Weaponized by Boundless Politicians, Times of Israel, 31 October 2019: Poll: 1 in 5 Israelis think Rabin’s killer should be pardoned, Haaretz, 3 November 2019: Enough With the Israeli Right’s Self-pity, Times of Israel, 3 November 2019: Hearing Gantz at memorial rally, participants say he’s no Rabin, but could be, Haaretz, 3 November 2019: Gantz, the Perfect Heir to Rabin, Haaretz, 3 November 2019: Netanyahu Alone Responsible for Dragging Israel Into Third Election, Lieberman Says, Times of Israel, 3 November 2019: Bennett warns a third election will ‘collapse’ the right, Haaretz, 3 November 2019: Gantz Is Rabin’s Latest Successor. But His Coronation Comes With a Warning, Times of Israel, 4 November 2019: Netanyahu says those who opposed Oslo peace deal not to blame for Rabin killing (of course, he says so, as he was the guy who spewed the hatred and incitement towards Rabin and the Oslo accord, which lead to Rabin’s assassination. It’s time to take the responsibility for his past misdeeds,which he can not deny anyway, no matter how hard he tries. It’s all in the records and archivs), Haaretz, 4 November 2019: How Rabin Conspiracy Theories Went Mainstream – and Other Bizarre Tales From Netanyahu’s Israel, Haaretz, 4 November 2019: U.S. Jews Treat Israeli Arab Leaders as Equals. Decent Israelis Should Try It, Times of Israel, 7 November 2019: In transcripts, media outlet CEO takes orders on news coverage from PM spokesman, Jerusalem Post, 9 November 2019: MKs react to appointment of Bennett as Defense Minister, Times of Israel, 9 November 2019: Blue and White slams ‘cynical’ Bennett appointment to suit PM’s personal agenda, Haaretz, 10 November 2019: In Appointing Bennett as Defense Chief, Netanyahu Only Has One Thing on His Mind, Jerusalem Post, 10 November 2019: Netanyahu: Yitzhak Rabin was wrong, but he was not a traitor, Times of Israel, 10 November 2019: On anniversary of Rabin’s murder, Rivlin warns of ‘violent’ political climate, Haaretz, 10 November 2019: When It Comes to Rabin’s Murder, Some Israeli Schools Avoid the Topic Altogether, Jerusalem Post, 10 November 2019: Gantz signals turn towards minority government without Netanyahu, Times of Israel, 11 November 2019: Netanyahu clashes with Rabin’s grandson at memorials for slain PM, Times of Israel, 12 November 2019: By design or not, Gaza escalation increases chance of unity government, Haaretz, 13 November 2019: Netanyahu Exploits Gaza Flare-up to Blast Joint List and Isolate Israeli Arabs, Times of Israel, 15 November 2019: 5 days before deadline, Gantz’s chances of forming coalition seen as fading away, Jerusalem Post, 15 November 2019: Gantz blasts Netanyahu for not giving in on bloc, Jerusalem Post, 15 November 2019: Netanyahu warns Gantz minority coalition, done deal, Haaretz, 17 November 2019: With Three Days Left to Deadline, Netanyahu Rival Gantz Scrambles to Form Gov’t, Times of Israel, 17 November 2019: Trump said ‘frustrated’ with Netanyahu as deadlock delays peace plan, Haaretz, 17 November 2019: Is Gantz Really About to Become Prime Minister? Panicking Bibi Thinks He Might, Times of Israel, 17 November 2019: Blue and White, Yisrael Beytenu report ‘real progress’ in coalition talks, Jerusalem Post, 17 November 2019: Netanyahu: Government backed by Joint List an existential threat to Israel (this was exactly the rhetoric path he took to pave the way to the killing of Rabin), Haaretz, 17 November 2019: With Race-baiting Rabble-rousers Like Netanyahu, Who Needs BDS?, Haaretz, 18 November 2019: Netanyahu Is Worse Than Kahane (Kahanism), Times of Israel: 2019 Israeli elections, Haaretz: Israel election 2019, i24 News: Israel Elections 2019, Jerusalem Post: Israel Elections, BBC: Israeli elections 2019.

Right of return
Among the parties particularly controversial is the right of return for the Palestinian refugees, who lost their homes and their property in the wake of the founding of Israel and were not allowed to return. The Palestinians demand the right of return (supported by UN General Assembly resolution 194) for all former refugees (about 800,000) and Palestinians today counted as refugees (about 6 million, Palestinian claims 8.5 million). Israel denies this, referring to the Israeli Law of Return for Jews from all over the world (the Likud coalition has recently passed legal restrictions on this), as well as the Jews expelled from the Arab lands during Israel’s founding: a right of return for both Jews and Palestinians would lead to the dissolution of the state of Israel in its current conception as a Jewish dominated state (which would also apply to the counter-concept of Eretz Israel by Israeli settlers’ and other right-wing extremist, radical and nationalist terrorist organizations), a right of return or compensation for the Arab Jews is unthinkable. The Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, despite their affiliation to the Palestinian Territories, are still mostly counted as refugees by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) and are in most cases stateless. The same applies to the Palestinians, who still live in refugee camps in Lebanon and Syria. Despite the difficult living conditions in the refugee camps and the areas occupied by Israel, there is a sustained increase in population, especially in the latter. From 1967 to 2002, the number of Palestinians in the areas increased from 450,000 to 3.3 million. The birth rate in the Gaza Strip has been among the highest in the world for years. About half of all inhabitants of the occupied territories and refugee camps are under 15 years old (Foreign Policy, 25 June 2018: Shadow Government: Kushner’s Peace Plan Is a Disaster Waiting to Happen, Foreign Policy, 3 August 2018: Trump and Israel Seek End to Refugee Status for Millions of Palestinians, Haaretz, 23 October 2018: Israeli Foreign Ministry Official: If Trump Delays Peace Plan, France Will Offer Alternative, The Guardian, 1 January 2019: Why Trump’s Middle East peace plan is just a sideshow and Times of Israel, 7 January 2019: Justice ministry rejects Netanyahu’s criticism of corruption probes, Times of Israel, 7 January 2019: Justice ministry rejects Netanyahu’s criticism of corruption probes, Times of Israel, 28 February 2019: High Court rejects Likud petition to prevent AG announcing Netanyahu indictment, France24, 28 February 2019: Israeli Justice Ministry confirms intention to indict Netanyahu, The New York Times, 28 February 2019: Prosecutor Moves to Indict Netanyahu on Corruption Charges, Times of Israel: Netanyahu criminal investigations – full coverage (which is why he is no longer referred to as “Prime Minister” but as “Crime Minister” in Israel), The New York Times, 28 February 2019: Trump Ordered Officials to Give Jared Kushner a Security Clearance (The Washington Post, 1 April 2019: White House whistleblower says 25 security clearance denials were reversed during Trump administration), The Washington Post, 20 March 2019: Under investigation and up for reelection, Netanyahu’s kinship with Trump has never been clearer, Haaretz, 20 March 2019: Pocket Money, Loans and Millions for Legal Advice: Has Netanyahu’s Wallet Finally Been Found?, Times of Israel vom 20.03.2019: State prosecutors said mulling criminal probe of Netanyahu in submarine case and Jerusalem Post, 22 March 2019: Trumpet recruits Netanyoohoo as 2020 running mate in US elex).

Israeli settlements in Palestinian territories
The third issue is the persistence of Israeli settlements established by Israel since 1967 in the occupied territories, where over 600,000 Israeli Jews live today and have skyrocketed in recent years. These settlements are internationally regarded as contrary to international law, whereby the military occupation as such is legitimate, since there is no peace agreement between the parties to date. The colonization of foreign territory violates international law (Geneva Conventions). The West Bank was divided into three zones (A: 18%, B: 20% and C: 62% of the territory behind the Green Line) as a result of the 1995 Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in which the Palestinian Authority and the Israeli military each have different powers. Jewish settlers established numerous Israeli settlements after the occupation especially in the C area, for which Palestinian land was partially confiscated. Thus, in the C area of today, there were about 1,200 Jewish-Israeli settlers in 1972, 110,000 in 1993 and 310,000 in 2010, which were settled in 124 settlements and about 100 outposts by the Israeli settlement policy. About 150,000 Palestinians live in the C areas. Israel controls the entire infrastructure and suppresses Palestinian development. This settlement policy is vehemently criticized by the Palestinians and the international community. The Israelis’ hope that the dissolution of various settlement areas, such as the complete eviction of Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005, would decisively advance the peace process (land for peace), was not fulfilled. The Gaza Strip became the center of power for Islamist Hamas, much as the Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon in the late 1980s did not bring peace, but the strengthening of the radical Islamic Hizbullah, which justified its fight against Israel with an internationally unacknowledged agreement between Syria and Lebanon over unsuccessful land transfer (Shebaa farms). At the end of January 2009, the Israeli daily Haaretz published a secret settlement database, which was held back by Defense Minister Ehud Barak because of its political explosiveness. The database shows that 75% of all settlements in the West Bank have been built to a significant extent without authorization or even against Israeli law. In more than 30 settlements, buildings and infrastructure (roads, schools, synagogues, yeshivas and police stations) were built on private property of Palestinians. Many different sources speak of “occupied Palestinian territories” when they refer to Palestine or parts of it. An interesting, ground-breaking and at the same time surprising turn experienced the problem on 23 December 2016 under the UN Resolution 2334, which declared all Israeli settlements (East Jerusalem, West Bank and Golan Heights – The Guardian, 23 December 2016: US abstention allows UN to demand end to Israeli settlements, The Guardian, 24 December 2016: Israel rejects ‘shameful’ UN resolution amid criticism of Netanyahu, The New York Times, 24 December 2016: Netanyahu Promises Retribution for ‘Biased’ U.N. Resolution, Foreign Policy Journal, 28 December 2016: The Significance of UN Resolution 2334 on Israeli Settlements, Times of Israel: UN Security Council Resolution 2334, Jerusalem Post: UN Security Council Resolution 2334, The Guardian, 16 November 2018: US to oppose UN motion condemning Israeli control of Golan Heights, The Washington Post, 16 November 2018: Syrian and Israeli diplomats clash at U.N. over Golan Heights, Reuters, 16 November 2018: U.S. opposes U.N. Golan resolution, wins Israeli praise and The Guardian, 30 December 2018: ‘It was terror’: Palestinians decry rise in attacks by Israeli settlers) as well as the Gaza Strip “non-Israeli” and thus the Jewish settlers indirectly to Palestinians or Syrians, which means that Palestine is now home to the second largest Jewish community in Western Asia, even in front of Iran. In 2017, the occupation by Israel last for 50 years (Six-Day War). During numerous demonstrations and events, this was addressed internationally and in Israel and Palestine itself and an end was demanded so that two equal, peaceful, free, socially and economically prosperous states can coexist. Meanwhile, however, both societies are deeply affected by the conflict, with all conceivable negative aspects, but also some positive side effects (common peace efforts, cultural, social and sporting projects (grassroots movements) and many more).

Water supply
The Middle East consists of 95% desert areas and has low freshwater resources. Only a few rivers carry water throughout the year, and the number of underground aquifers and aquifers is limited. Overall, only 1% of the world’s freshwater resources are available to the Greater Middle East (around 5% of the world’s population), which corresponds to a per-capita availability of 761 cubic meters / year (by comparison, the average global availability is 6895 cubic meters per capita per year). Based on estimates of the population of Israel and the occupied territories, the amount of fresh water is just over 200 cubic meters per capita per year. The situation in the Gaza Strip is particularly critical due to high population growth. This results in a water supply of only 27-38 cubic meters per capita per year. Across the Middle East, access to freshwater holds potential for conflict. Similarly, possible cooperative solutions are an important basis for the development of the entire region. The fundamental conflict, the Jordan Water Question, was solved as early as 1953 as part of the Johnston Plan, a UN compromise proposal to which the neighboring states abide. The agreement was never officially ratified at the instigation of the Arab League, as any contractual agreement was considered recognition of Israel. The water question started a very early unofficial and intensive bilateral dialogue between Jordan and Israel. In contrast, the Syrian intention to use the waters of the Jordan by diversion of rivers Banyas and Hasbani for itself exclusively, is viewed as a trigger of the Six-Day War.

Another unsolved problem is the future status of Jerusalem, which both sides claims as the future capital but is actually annexed by the state of Israel. The Middle East conflict has a strong religious component for many people involved on both sides, and certainly for some observers. Jerusalem is a holy city for Christians, Jews and Muslims. The Temple Mount, on which the temple of Jerusalem stood until 70 AD, and the western boundary wall of the plateau on which the temple stood – the so-called Wailing Wall, which is the most important shrine of Judaism today – for religious reasons many Jewish Israelis don’t want give out of hand. With the return to the Holy Land and the conquest of Jerusalem in 1967, they see the fulfilling of the promises of the Torah and are waiting for the return of Messiah (surprisingly, Jerusalem isn’t even mentioned once in the Torah). The settlement of holy places like al-Khalīl/Hebron in the West Bank would not have been possible to that extent without religious motivation. The Dome of the Rock, located in East Jerusalem, is a special sanctuary for Muslims. For radical Muslims, the very existence of Israel is a problem, because an area that once belonged to the sphere of influence of Islam can’t be handed over to “non-believers” (radical Muslims call Jews “non-believers” and Christians “crusaders”. In some cases, Christians and Jews are equally named “people of the book” (the Bible)). The most important concern of the Muslim Palestinians is to make sure that Jerusalem will become the capital of their own state with the Temple Mount as the center. These claims are based on the early Homayadian tradition that, according to Sura 17, verse 1-2 of the Koran, the meeting of Muhammad with Allah in company of the Archangel Gabriel and the Ascension of Muhammad at the site of today’s Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount should have taken place (it should be noted that all religious textsBible, Quran and Torah – have significant biological, geographical and physical weak points). In the conflict area, therefore, the conflict and its possible solutions appear differently depending on the application of the principles of the right of self-determination of the population residing there today, solely on the basis of demographic circumstances or by applying historical or historical-religious considerations. Since there is not even agreement on the applicable criteria on both sides and that each side postulates the principles which serve them most in the argument, the long-lasting and tenacious conflict can be explained. It is even further fueled by constantly creating new facts on the ground. As an example, the construction of new Israeli settlements in the West Bank is often mentioned. On the other hand, fears are voiced by the Israeli side that the overall significantly higher birth rate of the Arabs would change the existing demographic situation in the long run and lead to an Arab overweight. However, this is often counteracted by the equally high birth rate in the Jewish settlements in the West Bank. These and other arguments make it difficult to find a consensus solution to build two equal states side by side (international positions on Jerusalem and United States recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel).

Interesting about the “capital dispute” is that Jerusalem has been a whole lot in its long history, but hardly ever the capital of anything, but for millennians little more than a collection of huts. It is indisputable that the place has a long history as a religious center of various faiths – long before Christians, Jews and Muslims stayed in the region (the Old City in Palestinian East Jerusalem is the historic Jerusalem). Only during the British Mandate, the British headquarters was relocated to Jerusalem, so that the place became the capital of the mandate area. In this respect, the dispute between Israelis and Palestinians about the “capital” is unnecessary because it belongs equally to both parties or neither party.

For some time now, the Jerusalem suburb Abu Dis in the West Bank has been repeatedly discussed by Israeli and US representatives as an alternative capital of Palestine, instead of East Jerusalem. The offices of the authorities and administrations of the Palestinian National Authority, which are entrusted with Jerusalem-related tasks, are already located there today. Understandably, the Palestinians categorically reject this idea.

There are further concerns on the Israeli side as to whether a future Palestinian government can guarantee the security of Israel and its citizens. In the past, there were repeated attacks from the Gaza Strip, were rockets where shot that hit Israeli territory. In addition, there were Israelis killed during suicide attacks that had been prepared in the Palestinian territories. On the other hand, terrorist attacks in the West Bank by radical Israeli settlers, the so-called Hilltop Youth and other Jewish-Israeli terrorist structures, against the Palestinian population repeatedly happened and still happen. There are also increasing attacks of members of the Israeli military against the Palestinian civilian population.

Cultural identity
According to one theory, there is a threat of an impending loss of identity on both sides, that is standing in the way of a solution in the near future. In addition to the religious and territorial aspects, both population groups need each other’s enemy image for their own identity/nation building process.

Peace process
The Middle East peace process refers to diplomatic efforts to find a peaceful solution to the Middle East conflict (Arab–Israeli conflict, Road map for peace, List of Middle East peace proposals, Arab Peace Initiative), in particular the initiatives to end the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians, mediated by the United States and the Middle East Quartet. However, critics often sees the term as a mere political buzzword due to the alleged insolubility of the conflict or a lack of political will to implement a peaceful solution. These people may want to have a look at the living counter-evidence Abie Nathan, whose ideas would have brought peace to the region decades ago – if in particular politicians, activists, but as well the extremists of the various camps would have listened. Ultimately, however, with the sinking of his ship “Peace” off the coast of Ashdod, he charted the path of failed Israeli (not exactly peaceful or rational) efforts to resolve the conflict and further annexations of Palestinian land under Netanyahu. In retrospect, at no time before or after the Oslo peace process (Oslo Accords), which was negotiated between Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat during Bill Clinton‘s term of office, was a peace agreement closer (The Washington Post, 12 September 2018: A Middle East mirage – Twenty-five years ago, Israelis and Palestinians reached out for peace. But it escaped them.). The efforts ended abruptly when Yitzhak Rabin was shot dead after a peace event in th ecountry’s capitol Tel Aviv by an Israeli, who was obviously encouraged by Netanyahu’s massiv hate campaign against Rabin and his peace efforts (Haaretz, 22 October 2018: Analysis: Netanyahu’s Current Politics Reopen 23-year-old Wound of Rabin’s Assassination and Hotel New York). At the time, Netanyahu’s Greater Israel Party (Likud) was rightfully equated with the Palestinian Hamas (Haaretz, 17 September 2018: Israel’s Irreconcilable Differences With U.S. Jews and the Democratic Party May Soon Lead to Final Divorce). To date, both parties have further radicalized themselves. Surprisingly, with the help of several 100 million in PR and image campaigns, Netanyahu somehow managed to persuade parts of the international public to consider only Hamas (or at least parts of it) as a terrorist organization, although the Likud has neither changed its staff nor its ideology, and that Netanyahu’s role in the assassination of Rabin is either hushed up to the present day or highly emotionally debated, but hasn’t been legally processed at any time. The Rabin Square in Tel Aviv is a reminder of this. Shortly after, Netanyahu’s first term began, which has since severely and consistently massively worsened the starting point and conditions for peace agreements and the two-state solution. His efforts go hand in hand with the consistent erosion of Israel’s democracy (The New York Times, 19 July 2018: Israel Passes Law Anchoring Itself as Nation-State of the Jewish People (which is more a law for Jewish nationalists than a national law. Those Jews who do not live permanently in Israel and continue to work for a democratic Israel will be arbitrarily prevented from entering the country. The “home of all Jews” was abandoned more than a year ago in favor of unconditional nationalism and a harsher version of the law is already on the way – The New York Times, 22 July 2018: Israel Picks Identity Over Democracy. More Nations May Follow., BBC, 19 July 2018: Jewish nation state: Israel approves controversial bill, The Guardian, 19 July 2018: EU leads criticism after Israel passes Jewish ‘nation state’ law, The Guardian, 26 July 2018: Israeli cartoonist fired over ‘Animal Farm’ Netanyahu caricature, New York Times, 26 July 2018: Did Israel Just Stop Trying to Be a Democracy?, Haaretz, 30 July 2018: The Apartheid Prime Minister, Haaretz, 30 July 2018: Israeli Druze Commander Quits Army Over Nation-state Law in Open Letter to Netanyahu, Haaretz, 5 August 2018: Why It’s Now Every American Jew’s Duty to Oppose Israel’s Government, Haaretz, 7 August 2018: Israel’s War on Democracy Is Here – and the Justice Minister’s Leading the Charge, Jewish News, 7 August 2018: Vivien Duffield: I’ll be more ‘choosy’ in backing Israel after ‘apartheid’ law, The New York Times, 13 August 2018: Israel, This Is Not Who We Are, Haaretz, 14 August 2018: Peter Beinart and the Crisis of Israel’s Illiberal Zionism, Haaretz, 17 August 2018: When Jewish Billionaires Get Buyer’s Remorse Over Israel, Haaretz, 23 August 2018: Israel’s Message to the Liberal Diaspora Jews Who Support It: Shape Up or Stay Out, Haaretz, 30 September 2018: The Right-wing Think Tank That Quietly ‘Runs the Knesset’, Huffington Post, 13 December 2018: Natalie Portman Slams Israel’s Nation-State Law As ‘Racist,’ ‘Wrong’, Wikipedia Nationality Bill, which contradicts the content and spirit of the Balfour Declaration and the Israeli Declaration of Independence – Haaretz, 29 March 2019: Annul the Nation-state Law, Jerusalem Post, 8 June 2019: Conversion. Joining a religion or joining a nation?). Astonishingly, in Israel there is talk of an “Orbánization” of the country these days, although Viktor Orbán is successfully destroying Hungary’s democratic pillars only since 2010, while Benjamin Netanyahu has been doing so in Israel since 1996. In that sense, the “Orbánization” of the Visegrád Group and Israel is actually a “Netanyahuization”.

How fragile the whole process is was made clear, after the apparently inconsiderated announcement of the 45th US President in early December 2017, to unilaterally recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and relocate the US Embassy from Tel Aviv, where all international embassies are located at (United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 and Times of Israel, 17 January 2019: Embassy tactic? No more mere ‘honorary consuls’ in Jerusalem, Israel tells world), to West Jerusalem (therefore, the U.S. Consulate General in West Jerusalem will be upgraded in the middle of May 2018 to the Provisional U.S. Embassy until the new building will be completed one day (so far, not even a property corresponding to the requirements has been found. In addition, not thought-through or straight out stupid ideas usually result in high costs: CNN, 18 July 2018: US Embassy in Jerusalem to cost $20 million more than Trump’s estimate, Times of Israel, 4 March 2018: US closes Jerusalem consulate, demoting Palestinian mission and France24, 4 March 2019: US downgrades its Palestinian diplomatic mission). Most of the embassy staff will remain in Tel Aviv until the new building will be opened. Only the ambassador himself and few of his personal staff will work in the provisional embassy. The Consulate General building complex is located in the Arnona neighborhood and bisect by the City Line, which has survived to this day due to the repeatedly annulled Jerusalem Law by the UN, as part of the Green Line and thus partly in what was defined in 1949 as No Man’s LandThe New York Times, 5 December 2017: U.S. to Recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s Capital, Trump Says, Alarming Middle East Leaders, Middle East Monitor, 13 December 2017: Palestine: What’s next after the collapse of the two-state project?). Within hours there were historically significant communications from the other governments of the international community. In rare coincidence, they made clear that they do not support the unilateral partisanship of the US administration, that they will not relocate their embassies, and that the current Israeli and US administrations (and the micro states Guatemala, Honduras, Togo, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, and Nauru extorted by Trump to join (Reuters, 16 May 2018: Guatemala opens embassy in Jerusalem, two days after U.S. move and Haaretz, 14 May 2019: Evangelicals and Empty Promises: A Year After Trump’s Embassy Move, Only One Country Has Followed U.S. to Jerusalem)) are completely isolated on this issue. Unisono, it was announced that the “status of Jerusalem is a firm and inseparable part of the future peace agreement between Israelis and Palestinians (The New York Times, 27 January 2018: It’s Time for Mahmoud Abbas to Go) and must be negotiated between these parties.” Even NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg, United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres and the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini felt the need to publish statements (Haaretz, 20 March 2019: Hungarian Foreign Minister: Embassy in Israel Will Not Be Moved to Jerusalem, Times of Israel, 20 March 2019: EU reiterates opposition to diplomatic missions in Jerusalem, Jerusalem Post, 24 March 2019: Romania at AIPAC: We will move our embassy to Jerusalem and Times of Israel, 24 March 2019: Romanian president rebuffs ‘ignorant’ PM over pledge to move embassy, Times of Israel, 30 July 2019: Foreign Ministry’s NIS 50m plan aims to help nations move embassies to Jerusalem). Ultimately, the American announcement addresses the wrong parties (radicals, extremists and terrorists on the Palestinian and the Israeli side and the evangelicals in the US (Christians United for Israel and Times of Israel, 23 July 2018: Netanyahu vows ‘complete solidarity’ with Christians persecuted in Iran)) and at the same time, the current US administration unnecessarily and without necessity disqualified itself as a mediator between the parties. The peace process has thereby suffered considerable damage. At the same time, Iran, China and Russia will be able to achieve further land gains in an attempt to fill the power vacuum left by the US in Western Asia. The Arab and Muslim world is in turmoil, which will probably have a negative impact on future cooperation with the US and Israel. For the first time since 1945, the US administration opened Pandora’s box by creating a dangerous precedent under international law that opens the door to conquest campaigns, which will, e.g., facilitate the repeated violations of international law by Russian President Vladimir Putin while annexing the Ukrainian Crimea and the Georgian country parts Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and the annexation of the Northern part of Cyprus by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. In response to the unilateral recognition of West Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, consisting of 57 member stats, unilaterally recognized East Jerusalem as Palestine’s capital in mid-December (Al Jazeera, 14 December 2017: OIC declares East Jerusalem as Palestinian capital). Further escalation steps are expected (The New York Times, 18 December 2017: U.S. Vetoes U.N. Resolution Condemning Move on Jerusalem, The Guardian 21 December 2017: UN votes resoundingly to reject Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as capital, The Washington Post, 14 January 2018: Palestinian leader attacks Trump, calling his peace deal the ‘slap of the century’, CNN, 16 January 2018: Palestinian leaders advise suspending recognition of Israel, The Guardian, 22 January 2018: US to open Jerusalem embassy sooner than expected, says Pence, Reuters, 22 January 2018 Abbas wins renewed EU backing for Palestinian capital in East Jerusalem, Haaretz, 31.01.2018: ‘Happy to Hear Israel Wants Two States’: German FM Meets Netanyahu 10 Months After Crisis Over Sit-down With Leftist NGOs, Hareetz, 31 January 2018: German FM After Meeting Netanyahu: Is Israel Prepared to Pay the Price of Perpetual Occupation? and The Guardian, 23 February 2018: US brings forward Jerusalem embassy opening to May). Meanwhile, some former and active members of the Israeli security structure (intelligence and military) have expressed their opposition to Trump’s decisions. The basic attitude is: “Only a two-state solution secures peace for Israel and the region, while protecting Israel from itself and continued democratic decline.” If it weren’t that tragic, one would have to laugh loudly about the recent remarks of the 45th US President on aid to the Palestinians because of the unbelievable impudence and distorted realities, after all it was he himself who had massively harmed the peace process: The Guardian, 25 January 2018: Trump threatens to cut aid to Palestinians for ‘disrespecting’ Pence, Politico, 25 January 2018: Trump on Palestinian aid: ‘The money is on the table’, The Guardian, 1 September 2018: Palestinian anger over US decision to end funding for UN agency, The Guardian, 8 September 2018: Trump axes $25m in aid for Palestinians in East Jerusalem hospitals, The Wall Street Journal, 10 September2018: Trump Administration to Close Palestine Liberation Organization Office in Washington – National security adviser John Bolton also plans to threaten sanctions against International Criminal Court, in a Monday speech, The Guardian, 10 September 2018: ICC will continue ‘undeterred’ after US threats and The Guardian, 15 Septmeber 2018: US has no plan for Middle East peace, says senior Palestinian. As long as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict isn’t settled and secured by treaties, the international community has no choice but to continue to see Tel Aviv as the capital of Israel de jure, even though the Israeli government see West Jerusalem as Israel’s de facto capital, and this status is at least tolerated by the international community. Only a sustainable, lasting peace solution between and supported by the parties to the dispute, the result can be recognized on an international level, which includes the future status of Jerusalem. International law and international agreements, regulations, resolutions and solutions always top national attempts in the legal hierarchy, whereby the hierarchy in this case (UN partition plan) has contributed to escalating the conflict in the first place. Whatever pranks Trump and Netanyahu are figuring out doesn’t matter on the international level, but has caused considerable turbulences in this case. Since there are negotiators and heads of state on both sides of the parties to the dispute, who are a lot but negotiators or statesmen, the dissolution of the conflict in the next 50 years is becoming increasingly unlikely (Jerusalem Post, 7 June 2019: AIPAC, J Street support restoring Israel-Palestine peace dialogue funding, Times of Israel, 7 June 2019: AIPAC and J Street back restoring funds to Israeli-Palestinian dialogue programs, Times of Israel, 9 July 2019: Get ready for the new wave: Young, passionately Jewish — and anti-Zionist).

The Arab states have stated for some time now, that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a whole is no longer of high priority to them (Jerusalem Post, 18 January 2019: Arab League: Palestinian issue has ‘reduced’ importance). Only the free and unhindered access to the holy places of Muslims isn’t negotiable. The result is a conceivable solution scenario, which would mean the final end of the Palestinian dream of an own state (“A state without land”). At the same time, Israel would face the final decision of either wanting to become a Jewish or a democratic state (ask your girl friend or wife what she thinks of the concept of a “little bit pregnant” – let me guess: It will become a short and loud discussion, that you will lose. However, Netanyahu has already made his choice, denouncing democracy to Israel and instead opting for a Jewish theocracy: France24, 10 March 2019: Netanyahu says Israel ‘not a state of all its citizens’, Haaretz, 10 March 2019: ‘Israel Is the Nation-state of Jews Alone’: Netanyahu Responds to TV Star Who Said Arabs Are Equal Citizens and Times of Israel, 10 March 2019: Amid Likud’s ‘Bibi or Tibi’ campaign, ADL slams ‘demonization’ of Israeli Arabs), especially since both isn’t possible at the same time. The scenario outlined here will not provide peace for another few years or decades, but rather the exact opposite, especially since the Palestinians will certainly not give up their land without fights in various forms. This has already been priced-in by the Netanyahu government, especially since Israel’s prime minister has repeatedly and plainly pledged the population in recent years to “many years of struggle”.

The bottom line is that neither Israelis nor Palestinians are willing or able to make peace. It is up to the respective US presidents to enforce peace between the parties to the dispute, but no US president has dared to take that step yet. This, of course, primarily with regard to the domestic electorate (about 26% of US-Americans are Evangelicals, who are mostly voting in favor of the Republicans. Around 2% – 3% of Americans are Jews, who are mostly voting in favor of the Democrats), which is why, in the first term of office, such a step is out of the question at all and could not be implemented until the end of the second term, because then no more elections need to be won. However, it is questionable whether the successor would or could withstand the political pressure to undo the step, which would undoubtedly be built up by the Israeli side and its lobbyists in the Senate and Congress, in conjunction with the usual unsubstantiated anti-Semitism accusations, threats of all kinds, etc.

At the end of March 2018 and in the course of the so-called “March of Return” demonstrations with 120 dead and more than 2,500 injured, Hamas in the Gaza Strip has adopted a new, technically very simple but very effective tactic to attract attention. During favorable wind directions, incendiary devices are attached to stunt kites and/or balloons, which are driven by the wind towards southern Israel. During the landings, the incendiary devices causes fires in natural parks, forests and on agricultural land. Overall, the economic damage has been limited to a small, single-digit million amount so far. There was no personal injury on the Israeli side. How many Palestinians are killed and injured by Israeli snipers and air force counter attacks isn’t clear yet (, 16 April 2018: Firebombs tied to kites launched from Gaza spark fires in Israel near border, The New York Times, 4 May 2018: Flaming Kites From Gaza Thwarted by Winds, Haaretz, 9 July 2018: Netanyahu: Israel to Close Commercial Gaza Crossing Over Airborne Firebombs, BBC, 20 July 2018: Israel launches Gaza strikes as soldier dies from gunshot, Haaretz, 21 July 2018: Israel, Hamas Make U-turn on the Precipice With Gaza Cease-fire, B’Tselem, 15 October 2018: In 6 months of Gaza protests, Israeli forces fatally shoot 31 Palestinian minors, The Guardian, 22 January 2019: The Guardian view on Israel’s democracy: killing with impunity, lying without consequence?, Times of Israel, 23 January 2019: Israel lambasts The Guardian for accusing it of ‘killing with impunity’, The Guardian, 28 February 2019: UN says Israel’s killings at Gaza protests may amount to war crimes, Times of Israel, 28 February 2019: UN probe accuses Israel of possible crimes against humanity in Gaza border riots, Haaretz, 28 February 2019: UN Council: Israel Intentionally Shot Children and Journalists in Gaza, Times of Israel, 22 March 2019: 23 to 9, UN rights council adopts report accusing Israel of war crimes in Gaza, Times of Israel, 14 June 2019: Gazans launch dozens of fire balloons into Israel as hundreds riot on border, Jerusalem Post, 14 June 2019: Dozens of Palestinians unjured along fence, 10 fires break out along border, Times of Israel, 26 June 2019: Gaza arson balloons spark 19 blazes in south).

After so-called “secret military operations” in the West Bank had already been heavily gone wrong in recent months, the Israelis have tried it now again in the Gaza Strip. As a result, six Palestinians were killed by the attackers and one of the attackers himself. The troop withdrawal was secured by renewed bombardment of Gaza by the Israeli Air Force. It was followed by a classic: The usual whining of the Netanyahu government about that the Palestinians are fighting back, instead of simply standing still so that they can be easily shot dead. The repeatedly and with great fervor expressed irresponsibility and simplicity of the Netanyahu government is quite remarkable. At the same time, the international community was invited to join the fantasy world of the Israelis, who in turn renounced to do so (The Washington Post, 12 November 2018: Botched Israeli army operation in Gaza triggers sharp escalation in violence and The Washington Post, 6 December 2018: Resolution condemning Hamas fails at U.N. in setback for Israel and Trump administration). After all, this has first consequences now: The right-wing extremist on duty, boss of the ultra-nationalistic Yisrael Beiteinu party and Israel’s dubious Secretary of Defense, Avigdor Lieberman (leader of the radical right-wing and national party Israel Our Home (Yisrael Beiteinu) and, at the same time, representative of Russian Israelis), has resigned from his post. As a result, Netanyahu is now Prime Minister, Foreign Minister, Health Minister, Minister of Aliyah and Integration and Defense Minister – as it is already known from Erdogan’s Turkish presidential system (Jerusalem Post, 11 December 2018: Netanyahu and his ministries, The Guardian, 14 November 2018: Israeli defence chief Avigdor Lieberman quits over Gaza truce and The Guardian, 18 November 2018: Netanyahu meets with coalition partner to stop government collapse). It was announced that the Minister of Education Naftali Bennett and the Minister of Justice Ayelet Shaked, both of the right-wing religious settler party The Jewish Home (Times of Israel, 29 December 2018: Bennett, Shaked quit Jewish Home, announce formation of ‘The New Right’), will resign from their posts on Monday, 19. November 2018. These ministries will then be transferred to Netanyahu as well (Times of Israel, 18 November 2018: TV: Jewish Home’s Bennett, Shaked will resign from government on Monday). However, with 27 active ministries and 10 inactive ministries in Israel, there is still room for improvement of his collection. After all, the announced resignations did not materialize, arguing that a successor government would then seriously work on a peace agreement with the Palestinians instead of continuing the flimsy Likud theater, in order to eventually usurp Palestine and attempting to legitimize this through the international community. A second Oslo peace process would be the ultimate nightmare of all right-wing nationalist and right-wing radical Israeli, that is, all parties involved in Netanyahu’s Likud administration. The first peace process ended in fatality for then-Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, when an Israeli, incited, among others by Netanyahu’s hate campaigns against Rabin and the peace process, killed Rabin after a peace rally in Tel Aviv. Since then, Israel’s right-wingers became neither more peaceful nor intelligent. One can imagine, how their trigger fingers already itch at the thought of a great statesman of the format of a Yitzhak Rabin to replace the rather simple-minded nationalist Netanyahu (The Washington Post, 19 November 2018: Netanyahu keeps coalition intact, but Hamas emerges stronger, Israel Hayom, 28 October 2019: From peace between the brave to peace between equals, Israel Hayom, 7 November 2019: Peace cannot be made with anti-Semites).

Trump’s “Deal of the Century”
Trump’s peace plan/Deal of the Century: Haaretz, 20 November 2008: Netanyahu: Economics, Not Politics, Is the Key to Peace, Times of Israel: Trump Peace Plan, The New York Times, 14 May 2015: Confederation Is the Key to Mideast Peace, Jerusalem Post, 15 September 2018: Former minister Yossi Beilin: Oslo peace process was not a failure (look, there are still some sober minds in Israel. The idea of a confederation is most likely the best of all ideas. Sure, the extremists and terrorists on both sides will still fight it (what they will do anyways, as long as they don’t get their ways: All of the land is becoming the State of Israel or the State of Palestine, and if so, then there will be terrorism to the end of all times from the respective other side), but that would be an acceptable price to pay), Al Jazeera, 13 February 2019: Palestine’s other open-air prison, Times of Israel, 25 Febuary 2019: Abbas urges Europeans to play greater role in peace process, recognize Palestine, Foreign Policy, 10 April 2019: Trump Must Not Let Jared Kushner’s Peace Plan See the Light of Day, Reuters, 3 May 2019: Kushner hopes Israel will look at peace plan before any West Bank moves, The Washington Institute, 10 May 2019: Jared Kushner’s Peace Plan Would Be a Disaster, BBC, 17 May 2019: US Israel-Palestinian peace plan ‘a surrender act’ – Palestinian FM, Times of Israel, 19 May 2019: US will push economic side of peace plan at late June ‘workshop’ in Bahrain, Haaretz, 19 May 2019: Trump Peace Plan Economic Component to Be Revealed in June in Bahrain, CNN, 19 May 2019: First on CNN: White House to focus on investment in Middle East as part of peace proposal, Haaretz, 19 May 2019: The Deadly Consequences of a Dead-on-arrival Trump Mideast Peace Plan, The New York Times, 19 May 2019: Trump to Open Middle East Peace Drive With Economic Incentives, The Guardian, 19 May 2019: US to hold Bahrain economic conference to launch Middle East peace plan, The Washington Post, 19 May 2019: Trump administration to release part of its Middle East peace plan in June, Times of Israel, 19 May 2019: US will push economic side of peace plan at late June ‘workshop’ in Bahrain, Jerusalem Post, 20 May 2019: Part of’Deal of the Century’ to be released on June 25 in Bahrain, Haaretz, 20 May 2019: Palestinians Say ‘Plan Won’t Lead to Peace’ After U.S. Announces Bahrain Conference, Jerusalem Post, 20 May 2019: Palestinian PM: We weren’t consulted about U.S.-led economic conference, The Guardian, 20 May 2019: Donald Trump’s peace conference will fail, Palestinians say, Times of Israel, 20 May 2019: Bahrain vows support for Palestinians after economic ‘workshop’ announced, Times of Israel, 20 May 2019: Palestinians reject US economic peace summit in Bahrain, say they won’t attend, Times of Israel, 20 May 2019: (Economic) peace is coming! 7 things to know for May 20, Jerusalem Post, 20 May 2019: Bahrain economic parley signals adjustments to US peace plan – analysis, Washington Post, 20 May 2019: Palestinian leaders say U.S. “Peace to Prosperity” summit slights them, Times of Israel, 20 May 2019: US invites Israel to Bahrain confab on Palestinians – report, Times of Israel, 21 May 2019: Failure to launch? Economic workshop signals little appetite for US peace plan, Times of Israel, 21 May 2019: Drop the cynicism. The Bahrain economic confab is a big step forward, Times of Israel, 21 May 2019: Hebron businessman with ties to settlers may be lone Palestinian at Bahrain meet, Times of Israel, 22 May 2019: UAE, Saudi Arabia to attend US economic peace confab in Bahrain, Jerusalem Post, 22 May 2019: Arab states pressuring Palestinians to attend Bahrain workshop, Haaretz, 30 May 2019: Kushner’s Awful Timing: Netanyahu’s Political Crisis Could Kill Trump’s Peace Plan, The Guardian, 30 May 2019: Political chaos in Israel deals blow to Jared Kushner’s peace plan, Haaretz, 30 May 2019: Kushner’s Awful Timing: Netanyahu’s Political Crisis Could Kill Trump’s Peace Plan, Jerusalem Post, 31 May 2019: Peace proponent Susie Gelman warns Israel against Trump plan, The Washington Post, 2 June 2019: Exclusive: Pompeo delivers unfiltered view of Trump’s Middle East peace plan in off-the-record meeting, Times of Israel, 2 June 2019: In recording, skeptical Pompeo says Trump peace plan could be ‘unexecutable’, Jerusalem Post, 3 June 2019: Trump lowers expectations on Mideast peace plan, Times of Israel, 4 June 2019: Kushner heads to Brussels to brief EU officials on peace plan, CNN, 4 June 2019: Jared Kushner is profoundly clueless, Times of Israel, 6 June 2019: Israel said trying to block bipartisan Senate two-state resolution, Times of Israel, 9 June 2019: French FM: Trump peace plan ‘cannot grant serenity,’ won’t satisfy both sides, Times of Israel, 9 June 2019: Germany, Jordan say two states ‘only solution’ to Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Times of Israel, 10 June 2019: ‘Jordan, Egypt yet to reply, Israel yet to get invite, for June 25 Bahrain meet’, The Guardian, 10 June 2019: Company part-owned by Jared Kushner got $90m from unknown offshore investors since 2017, Times of Israel, 11 June 2019: US says Jordan, Egypt and Morocco to attend economic workshop in Bahrain, Palestine Cronicle, 13 June 2019: The Race to Fail Palestine: the Two-State Compromise and Trump’s ‘Deal of the Century’, Times of Israel, 17 June 2019: White House confirms Israeli officials not invited to Bahrain workshop, Al Jazeera, 18 June 2019: Palestine: The Arab ‘deal of the century’, Times of Israel, 19 June 2019: EU ‘ready to work’ with US on peace plan, as long as it aims at two states, Times of Israel, 19 June 2019: The path between the Trump peace plan and applying Israeli law to settlements, Times of Israel, 19 June 2019: A who’s who of next week’s peace summit in Bahrain,, 20 June 2019: Iran crisis steals attention from Trump’s Israel-Palestinian peace plans, Palestine Cronicle, 21 June 2019: Forget Trump’s ‘Deal of the Century’: Israel Was always on Course to Annexation, Jerusalem Post, 22 June 2019: Abbas: Trump’s plan won’t pass, Al Jazeera, 22 June 2019: US ambassador to Israel: Bahrain workshop will create momentum, Jerusalem Post, 22 June 2019: Saudi official says ‘Deal of the Century’ leads to full Palestinian statehood,, 22 June 2019: White House unveils ‘economic vision’ for Palestinians in first part of peace plan, Reuters, 22 June 2019: White House’s Kushner unveils economic portion of Middle East peace plan, Times of Israel, 22 June 2019: Kushner reveals peace plan to inject $50 billion into Middle East economies, Arab News, 22 June 2019: White House’s Jared Kushner unveils economic portion of upcoming Middle East peace plan, Times of Israel, 23 June 2019: Thousands in Morocco protest US peace confab, burn Israeli flags, Haaretz, 23 June 2019: Economic Side of ‘Deal of the Century’ Holds Some Surprises, but It’s More Vision Than Blueprint, Times of Israel, 23 June 2019: Netanyahu ally rejects US-proposed West Bank-Gaza travel corridor, Palestine Cronicle, 23 June 2019: Former Mossad Chief: ‘Israel Does Not Want Peace’, Haaretz, 23 June 2019: The Billion-dollar Question in Trump’s Peace Plan, Times of Israel, 23 June 2019: A look at some of the details of the economic aspect of the Trump peace plan, The National, 23 June 2019: As Donald Trump’s peace plan teeters, the Palestinians are set for a rare boost, Times of Israel, 23 June 2019: Lebanon slams US plan, says won’t be ‘tempted’ by cash at Palestinians’ expense, Jerusalem Post, 23 June 2019: Palestinian Authority: U.S. economic plan is a new Balfour Declaration, Times of Israel, 23 June 2019: Commentators in Arab world reject US economic plan for Palestinians, Al Jazeera, 23 June 2019: Palestinians reject economic part of US peace plan, France24, 23 June 2019: Jared Kushner’s $50bn economic plan for Middle East criticised as a ‘non-starter’, Times of Israel, 23 June 2019: After aid cuts, US economic plan for Palestinians dismissed as detached, Jerusalem Post, 23 June 2019: Saudi minister: Whatever Palestinians accept, everyone else will accept,, 23 June 2019: ‘Snow job’: Palestinians reject economic portion of White House peace plan, Jerusalem Post, 23 June 2019: Abbas: We are ready to return to the negotiating table, Haaretz, 23 June 2019: Trump’s Peace Plan: As Deep as a Beauty Pageant Speech and Twice as Vain, Jerusalem Post, 24 June 2019: Palestinians launch three-day protests against Bahrain workshop, CNN, 24 June 2019: Jared Kushner, US peace team face credibility test in Bahrain, Al Jazeera, 24 June 2019: ‘Slightly illusory’: Low expectations for US-led Bahrain workshop,, 24 June 2019: Trump’s Peace Plan Is Immoral, Impractical—and Could Blow Up the Middle East, The Guardian, 25 June 2019: Jared Kushner’s economic blueprint for Palestinians faces boycott and derision, Haaretz, 25 June 2019: Bahrain Debacle Marks Crash of Trump Team’s Campaign to Diss Palestinians Into Submission, France24, 25 June 2019: Low expectations as US launches Trump Middle East peace plan, Haaretz, 25 June 2019: It Won’t Bring Peace, but the Bahrain Conference Is Still Important, Times of Israel, 25 June 2019: US plan will not follow lines of Arab Peace Initiative, Kushner says, Times of Israel, 25 June 2019: Opening Bahrain workshop, Kushner says economic progress a precondition to peace, Times of Israel, 25 June 2019: As US holds economic confab, UN chief seeks funds for Palestinian refugees, Times of Israel, 25 June 2019: Marking 40 years of peace with Egypt, Rivlin urges pact with Palestinians, Times of Israel, 25 June 2019: Bahrain remains committed to Palestinians, rabbi with ties to king says, France24, 25 June 2019: Palestinians ‘not willing to give up their misery’, Israeli historian says, Washington Post, 25 June 2019: Kushner presents vision of a Middle East at peace but no details how to get there, Palestine Chronicle, 25 June 2019: Deal of the Century or Eon of Disasters?, France24, 25 June 2019: Palestinians must sign on to investment programme if they want peace, Kushner says, Al Jazeera, 26 June 2019: Kushner says economic plan is a necessary precondition to peace, Arab News, 26 June 2019: Oman to open embassy in Palestinian territories’ West Bank: foreign ministry, Al Jazeera, 26 June 2019: US-led Bahrain meeting on Palestine: All the latest updates, France24, 26 June 2019: Donors pledge $110 million for UN Palestinian agency shunned by US, Arab New, 26 June 2019: Why the Palestinian economy urgently needs a stimulus, Al Jazeera, 26 June 2019: US pushes Bahrain economic plan in absence of Palestinians, Times of Israel, 26 June 2019: Investors at Bahrain workshop say peace is the missing piece in US Mideast plan, Haaretz, 26 June 2019: In Bahrain, Air of Israeli-Arab Normalization and a Message to Iran, Arab New, 26 June 2019: Kushner: Trump wants fair deal for Palestinians, Jerusalem Post, 26 June 2019: Lebanese Prime Minister: We oppose U.S. plan for Mideast, Times of Israel, 26 June 2019: Bahrain FM to Times of Israel: Israel is here to stay, and we want peace with it, Reuters, 26 June 2019: IMF’s Lagarde says West Bank, Gaza growth must be focused on jobs, Haaretz, 26 June 2019: Bahrain Day 2: Kushner Says Palestinians Have No Reason Not to Trust Trump, Times of Israel, 26 June 2019: Wrapping up Bahrain summit, Kushner says door still open to Palestinians on plan, The Guardian, 26 June 2019: Jared Kushner’s ‘deal of the century’ fails to materialise in Bahrain, Al Jazeera, 26 June 2019: ‘Divorced from reality’: Palestinians reject US economic plan, CNBC, 25 June 2019: ‘Waste of time’: Jared Kushner’s Bahrain summit met with skepticism, CNN, 26 June 2019: Palestinian snub of Kushner’s conference highlights failure of admin’s outreach effort, The New York Times, 26 June 2019: In Bahrain, Gaza Is Pitched as a ‘Hot I.P.O.’ Many Palestinians Aren’t Buying It., Times of Israel, 27 June 2019: Palestinians remain unsold on US peace ‘bribe’ after Bahrain meeting, Haaretz, 26 June 2019: In Bahrain, Air of Israeli-Arab Normalization and a Message to Iran, Haaretz, 26 June 2019: While U.S. Talks, Europe Pays: EU Following Bahrain Gathering With Dose of Suspicion, Palestine Chronicle, 27 June 2019: Arab-Israeli Normalization: A Desperate Attempt at Isolating Iran, Haaretz, 27 June 2019: While Jews and Arabs Mingled in Bahrain, Israelis and Palestinians Met a Thousand Miles Away, The New York Times, 28 June 2019: Jared Kushner’s Middle East Development Project, Palestine Chronicle, 28 June 2019: International Consensus Has Stripped Palestinians of Their Legitimate Rights, Times of Israel, 29 June 2019: Gulf states, Israel are closer after Bahrain meet, but full ties still unlikely, Palestine Chronicle, 28 June 2019: Kushner Declines to Support Palestinian Statehood, The New York Times, 29 June 2019: Palestinian Who Attended Trump-Backed Bahrain Conference Is Arrested, Al Jazeera, 30 June 2019: Palestinian businessman freed by PA after Bahrain meeting arrest, Times of Israel: 30 June 2019: Bahrain’s Khalifa says interviews to Israelis ‘nowhere near normalization’, Jerusalem Post, 1 July 2019: Ex-Mossad chief: No peace for region on the horizon, Al Jazeera, 1 July 2019: Israel settlements funded by US Duty Free tycoons, Haaretz, 30 June 2019: U.S. Envoys Break Open Tunnel Running Under Palestinian Village in East Jerusalem, Jerusalem Post, 1 July 2019: Palestinians on pilgrimage road inauguration: Israel falsifying history, Palestine Chronicle, 2 July 2019: Trump’s Peace Plan Has Been Designed to Fail – Exactly Like Its Predecessors, Haaretz, 3 July 2019: A Saudi’s Advice for Kushner: How Your Peace Plan Can Still Avoid Catastrophic Failure, Times of Israel, 3 July 2019: Kushner hints Palestinian refugees won’t return, says, Haaretz, 4 July 2019: Jared Kushner’s Plan for Palestine Is Even Crazier Than You Thought, Times of Israel, 5 July 2019: As Bahrain showed, even Trump’s Arab allies see two-state solution as essential, The National, 6 July 2019: Even if Benjamin Netanyahu is dethroned, the alternative is just as bleak for Palestinians, Die Zeit, 8 July 2019: Gaza Strip: Dreams Live On Behind the Fence (more than 50% of the inhabitants of Palestine (West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem) depend on the help of UNRWA, although according to international law that would be the task of the occupying power Israel. Not to mention the situation in the Gaza Strip, which is changing from a humanitarian crisis in the foreseeable future to a humanitarian catastrophe. Again, the Netanyahu government has failed completely for decades), The National, 8 July 2019: Charity connects children in blockaded Gaza with outside world, Arab News, 8 July 2019: Palestinians must be the authors of their own liberation, Al Jazeera, 9 July 2019: Israel’s separation wall endures, 15 years after ICJ ruling, Times of Israel, 11 July 2019: Move over, Bahrain? Iraq signals interest in better ties with Israel, Times of Israel, 15 July 2019: Calling for two-state solution, Biden says ‘the occupation is a real problem’. How far the Trump administration has itself removed from all realities, is shown in an interview with Jason Greenblatt, Trump’s “Special Representative for International Negotiations”: PBS, 17 July 2019: Why Trump thinks this is the moment to resolve Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Times of Israel, 18 July 2019: Israel is the victim in conflict with Palestinians, says US peace envoy (it is becoming more clear by the day, that the Trump administration is completely out of touch with reality), Haaretz, 21 July 2019: Kushner, Other Senior U.S. Officials to Visit Mideast Next Week for Talks on Economic Chapter of Peace Plan, Arab News, 21 July 2019: Israeli goodwill crucial if US peace plan is to succeed, Times of Israel, 22 July 2019: Senior US team to visit Middle East for talks on Washington’s peace plan, Palestine Chronicle, 21 July 2019: Hamas: Greenblatt’s Comments Shameful and Hostile, Jerusalem Post, 22 July 2019: Palestinians call for ‘blacklisting’ Arab journalists for visiting Israel, Times of Israel, 22 July 2019: Saudi blogger visiting Israel attacked by Palestinians at Temple Mount, Haaretz, 23 July 2019: U.S. Mideast Envoy: Trump Hasn’t Decided When to Release Political Part of Peace Plan, Hope He Decides Soon, Times of Israel, 23 July 2019: US peace plan won’t be based on international consensus, says envoy, Times of Israel, 23 July 2019: Greenblatt: Peace plan won’t be based on ‘fictions of international consensus’ (the international community should continue to be unimpressed by this behaviour and instead let Netanyahu and Trump run against a concrete wall), Jerusalem Post, 24 July 2019: Jared Kushner could be coming for nothing, Times of Israel, 24 July 2019: Bitter arguments in Gulf media over harassment of Saudi blogger in Jerusalem, Arab News, 24 July 2019: Israeli violence against Palestinians largely ignored in US, Palestine Chronicle, 24 July 2019: Greenblatt: Palestinian Capital in Jerusalem Is ‘Aspiration Not a Right’, Palestine News Network, 24 July 2019: Trump’s Mideast envoy under fire at UNSC for attacking intl. law on Palestine issue, Palestine Chronicle, 24 July 2019: Killing Tariq: Why We Must Rethink the Roots of Jewish Settlers Violence, Times of Israel, 25 July 2019: Abbas says Palestinians will stop implementing agreements with Israel, Haaretz, 26 July 2019: Palestinian President Declares End to All Agreements, Security Coordination With Israel, Arab News, 25 July 2019: US blocks UN rebuke of Israeli demolition of Palestinian homes, France24, 26 July 2019: Palestinians will halt all agreements with Israel, says Abbas, BBC, 26 July 2019: Abbas: Palestinians to halt agreements with Israel, The National, 26 July 2019: Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to end agreements with Israel, Al Jazeera, 26 July 2019: PA’s Mahmoud Abbas declares suspension of all deals with Israel, Arab News, 27 July 2019: Palestinians ‘suspend’ agreements in response to Israeli violations, France24, 28 July 2019: US peace plan rings alarm bells in Jordan: analysts, Al Jazeera, 28 July 2019: Israel, the US, and the PA succession conundrum, Haaretz, 30 July 2019: Israel Approves Permits for 715 Palestinian Homes in West Bank Towns, Haaretz, 31 July 2019: Kushner to Land in Israel After Meeting Jordan’s King to Discuss Mideast Peace Plan, BBC, 31 July 2019: Israel backs West Bank homes for settlers and Palestinians, Times of Israel, 31 July 2019: Meeting Kushner, Jordan king says peace plan must include Palestinian state, Times of Israel, 31 July 2019: US ambassador to Israel: Trump peace plan will encourage Palestinian ‘autonomy’, Haaretz, 31 July 2019: Trump Envoy Greenblatt: Israeli-Palestinian Peace ‘Iran’s Worst Nightmare’, Times of Israel, 31 July 2019: US peace envoy: Israeli-Palestinian peace is Iran’s worst nightmare (what is not mentioned here is that it would also be a nightmare for the Netanyahu government, especially since Netanyahu himself has already made it clear several times that during his reign he will absolutely not make peace with Palestine), Times of Israel, 31 July 2019: After okaying Palestinian homes, Netanyahu vows Jewish settlements are ‘forever’, Al Jazeera, 31 July 2019: Israel approves 6,000 new homes for Israeli settlers in West Bank, Haaretz, 31 July 2019: Palestinians Don’t Need Israeli Approval to Build in West Bank, Says Abbas Spokesman, Jerusalem Post, 31 July 2019: Netanyahu pledged to secure U.S. support not to evacuate settlements, Times of Israel, 31 July 2019: White House denies plans for summit with Arab leaders to roll out peace plan, Arab News, 31 July 2019: Jared Kushner meets with Jordan’s King Abdullah for talks on Middle East peace plan, Times of Israel, 31 July 2019: US planning to roll out peace plan at meeting with Arab leaders – report, Bloomberg, 31 July 2019: Trump to Soon Present Peace Plan to Arab Leaders, Yediot Says, Times of Israel, 1 August 2019: Former Shin Bet head warns of ‘bloodshed’ that West Bank annexation would cause, Arab News, 1 August 2019: Egypt calls for Palestinian state during Kushner visit, Palestine Chronicle, 1 August 2019: Netanyahu: Jewish Settlements to Stay Forever, Al Jazeera, 2 August 2019: When the ‘squad’ goes to occupied Palestine, Times of Israel, 3 August 2019: Palestinians prefer ‘wait-and-see’ approach to Trump peace plan — poll, Haaretz, 4 August 2019: Weapons and Ideology: Files Reveal How China Armed and Trained the Palestinians, Times of Israel, 4 August 2019: Goodbye withdrawal, hello sovereignty: The triumph of the settlers, The National, 4 August 2019: Kushner’s real purpose has little to do with a peace plan and everything to do with US domestic politics​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​, Palestine Chronicle, 5 August 2019: New Trend in Israel: Military-Themed Summer Camps for Kids, Jerusalem Post, 6 August 2019: Iran increases Hamas funding in exchange for intel on Israel missiles, The National, 7 August 2019: The new US approach to the Middle East raises more questions than answers, Arab News 7 August 2019: As Palestinians become more desperate, so does their cause, Jerusalem Post, 7 August 2019: EU slams West Bank settler buildings, IDF advances plans for 2,304 homes, Times of Israel, 7 August 2019: EU pans new settlement expansion, says move harms chances for peace, Jerusalem Post, 7 August 2019: Two-State Index drops as tensions rise over demolitions, Times of Israel, 7 August 2019: Abbas meets with Omani delegation on opening West Bank diplomatic mission, Xinhua, 7 August 2019: Palestinian president reiterates anti-U.S. position during meeting with U.S. delegation, Times of Israel, 7 August 2019: In Ramallah, Abbas tells Congress members he won’t accept US ‘dictates’, Israel Hayom, 7 August 2019: Jews and Arabs together against the Nazis, Jerusalem Post, 7 August 2019: U.S. Democrats stand and clap for Netanyahu, The National, 8 August 2019: UN and EU condemn Israel’s ‘effective annexation’ after 2,300 settlements homes approved, Haaretz, 8 August 2019: Stressing They’re Not All in the ‘AOC Camp,’ Democrats Reaffirm Support During Israel Visit, Jerusalem Post, 9 August 2019: Greenblatt hits back at Germany: UN resolutions are not way to make peace, Haaretz, 9 August 2019: The Ignorance of Trump Envoy Greenblatt Is Just the Tip of the Iceberg, Israel Hayom, 9 August 2019: Time to negotiate Israel’s eastern border, Times of Israel: 10 August 2019: US peace envoy: There’s ‘no international consensus’ on Mideast conflict, Israel Hayom: 11 August 2019: Iran: ‘Deal of the century’ a crime against humanity (what is still interesting is, that the Iranian leadership is obviously far more antisemitic than the population itself (up to 50% of Iranians hold anti semitic or anti-Israel sentiments), while the Saudi Arabian leadership is less antisemitic, but over 70% of the Saudi population hold anti-semitic or anti-Israel sentiments), Times of Israel, 12 August 2019: Before elections, PM wants Trump to back Israeli sovereignty over settlements, The National, 12 August 2019: Israeli legislators urge US counterparts to oppose two-state solution, Times of Israel, 22 August 2019: As Saudi bloggers reach out to Israel, some see signals of a regional shift, NPR, 25 August 2019: As U.S. Jews Cool To Israel, Evangelicals Flock There As Tourists, Jerusalem Post, 25 August 2019: PA slams U.S. for removing Palestinians from list of countries, Xinhua, 25 August 2019: Palestine slams U.S. for deleting its name from list of countries, Times of Israel, 26 August 2019: US State Department drops Palestinian territories listing from website, Times of Israel, 27 August 2019: Trump may reveal peace plan before Israeli elections, thinks deal ‘will happen’, Gallup, 27 August 2019: American Jews, Politics and Israel, The National, 4 September 2019: Israel’s Netanyahu says Trump peace plan will be released after election, Saudi Gazette, 5 September 2019: Trump’s Israeli-Palestinian peace plan architect quits, The National, 5 September 2019: Donald Trump’s Middle East envoy Jason Greenblatt to leave administration, Jerusalem Post, 5 September 2019: Greenblatt’s departure and the fate of the U.S. peace plan – analysis, Times of Israel, 7 September 2019: Who is the longtime Kushner aide set to replace Trump envoy Jason Greeblatt?,, 7 September 2019: Can Jared’s millennial ‘mini-me’ bring peace to the Middle East?, Arab News, 7 September 2019: Palestinians rejoice as US envoy quits, Times of Israel, 7 September 2019: No confidence in his own plan? The bizarre timing of Greenblatt’s departure, Palestine Chronicle, 8 September 2019: Pompeo: US Will Present ‘Peace Plan’ in Weeks, Al Jazeera, 9 September 2019: No hope for peace between Palestinians, Israel in ‘near future’, The Guardian, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu vows to annex large parts of occupied West Bank, BBC, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu pledges to annex occupied Jordan Valley, CNN, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu says Israel will annex parts of West Bank, Al Jazeera, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu announces post-election plan to annex Jordan Valley, Arab News, 10 September 2019: Israel’s Netanyahu vows to annex West Bank’s Jordan Valley if re-elected, The National, 10 September 2019: Benjamin Netanyahu says he intends to annex Jordan Valley, Haaretz, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu Says Israel Will Annex Jordan Valley if Reelected, Times of Israel, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu’s Jordan Valley vow: Harbinger of US support or indication of failure?, Arab News, 10 September 2019: Middle East peace cannot be imposed by outsiders (if you watch the film “Peace Talks – The Oslo Diaries” by Mor Loushy and Daniel Sivan, it becomes clear how Netanyahu changed Israel during his tenures to the worse), Irish Times, 10 September 2019: Netanyahu vows to annex large parts of occupied West Bank, NPR, 11 September 2019: Benjamin Netanyahu Vows To Annex Part Of West Bank If He Wins Reelection, Al Jazeera, 11 September 2019: What are areas A, B, and C of the occupied West Bank?, The Washington Post, 11 September 2019: In the Jordan Valley, Palestinians fear further displacement after Netanyahu’s annexation pledge, CNN, 11 September 2019: Netanyahu says Israel will annex parts of West Bank if he’s re-elected, Al Jazeera, 11 September 2019: Netanyahu annexation pledge denounced as ‘dangerous’ and ‘racist’, Arab News, 11 September 2019: Netanyahu’s plan to annex Jordan Valley widely opposed, Amman says peace treaty could be ‘at stake’, Gulf News, 11 September 2019: UAE denounces Netanyahu’s electoral pledge to annex occupied West Bank, The National, 11 September 2019: UAE and Saudi Arabia condemn Netanyahu’s ‘dangerous escalation’ after annexation pledge, Al Arabiya, 11 September 2019: Moscow: Netanyahu’s plans could lead to ‘sharp escalation of tensions’, The Guardian, 11 September 2019: Arab leaders denounce Netanyahu’s plan to annex Palestinian territories, Haaretz, 11 September 2019: U.S. Jewish Groups Slam Netanyahu’s Vow to Annex Jordan Valley: ‘Israelis Won’t Live in Democracy’, Times of Israel, 11 September 2019: Trump said mulling easing Iran sanctions to secure Rouhani meeting, The Guardian, 11 September 2019: US Ambassador Friedman at Evangelical rally: ‘Jerusalem literally keeps us safe’“>The Guardian view on Netanyahu’s land grab: a prison, not a peace, Palestine Chronicle, 11 September 2019: Abbas Threatens to End All Agreements if Israel Annexes Palestinian Land, Haaretz, 12 September 2019: ‘Adelson to Netanyahu: I Keep Writing in Your Favor, I Lose $50m a Year, You Keep Shouting at Me’, Haaretz, 13 September 2019: Netanyahu’s Plan to Escape Trial, in His Own Words: ‘Time for Them to Be Frightened’, Jerusalem Post, 14 September 2019: U.N. agency: PA economy on brink of collapse, Haaretz, 14 September 2019: Netanyahu’s West Bank Annexation Move Illegal, European States Say, The New York Times, 14 September 2019: Netanyahu’s Fate May Depend on Israeli Arab Voters. Will They Turn Out?, Haaretz, 15 September 2019: Two Days to Election, Netanyahu Government Green Lights Legalizing Jordan Valley Outpost, Times of Israel, 16 September 2019: Netanyahu: After Jordan Valley and settlements, I’ll annex other ‘vital areas’, CNN, 15 September 2019: Netanyahu is endangering the future of a two-state solution, Arab News, 16 September 2019: Israeli PM vows to annex ‘all the settlements’ in West Bank, Jerusalem Post, 16 September 2019: Netanyahu vows to annex Hebron, Kiryat Arba after election, Arab News, 17 September 2019: Europe lacks the backbone to challenge Israeli annexation, Palestine Chronicle, 17 September 2019: Apartheid Made Official: Deal of the Century is a Ploy and Annexation is the New Reality, Times of Israel, 21 September 2019: In farewell essay, Trump envoy ‘hopeful’ for peace plan, encourages compromise, Jerusalem Post, 19 September 2019: Palestinians in bid to secure renewal of UNRWA mandate, Israel Hayom, 22 September 2019: Trump’s peace deal – anything in it for Jordan?, Jerusalem Post, 23 September 2019: Leah Goldin to UNHRC: waht if this was your son? (interestingly enough, she isn’t asking her own government to give back the thousands of dead Palestinians to their families, so that they can burry their loved ones), France24, 23 September 2019: Israeli soldier’s mother asks world to help repatriate remains from Gaza, Arab News, 23 September 2019: US official meets in Lebanon over anti-Hezbollah sanctions, Haaretz, 23 September 2019: Trump Envoy Greenblatt Meets Gantz as Release of Peace Plan Remains Uncertain, Times of Israel, 24 September 2019: Israelis hold most negative view of UN in new poll of numerous countries (thanks to Netanyahu, the overwhelming majority of UN members doesn’t see Israel favorable), Times of Israel, 25 September 2019: Abbas said set to pledge Palestinian elections at United Nations assembly, Jerusalem Post, 26 September 2019: Abbas again threatens to terminate agreements with Israel, The National, 26 September 2019: With Benjamin Netanyahu cornered, Palestinians sense an opportunity, Haaretz, 26 September 2019: Abbas Says He Will Announce First Palestinian Elections Since 2006, The National, 26 September 2019: Mahmoud Abbas extends hand to Israel: be open to talks, Jerusalem Post, 27 September 2019: Jordan, Palestinians confident UNRWA’s mandate will be renewed, Israel Hayom, 27 September 2019: Should Israel invade Gaza?, Palestine Chronicle, 27 September 2019: While Israel Alters Palestine, the EU Condemns, Observes and Retreats, Arab News, 1 October 2019: Israel quietly lets in Gaza workers in bid to ease tensions, Times of Israel, 1 October 2019: Israel quietly lets in thousands of Gaza workers, in bid to ease tensions, Palestine Chronicle, 1 October 2019: Israel Completes 70% of Underground Barrier around Gaza, Arab News, 1 October 2019: Climate change highlights Israeli-Palestinian inequities, Haaretz, 1 October 2019: Outgoing IDF West Bank Commander Says Security Coordination With PA Working, for Now, DW, 2 September 2019: Palestinian ‘honor killing’ sparks outrage, calls for women’s protection (Haaretz, 23 December 2018: Israeli Government Has Long Ignored Intentional Killing of Women, Femicide Expert Says, Haaretz, 27 September 2019: ‘Free Homeland, Free Women’: Palestinians Take to the Streets to Protest Femicide, Violence against women), Al Jazeera: Palestine Remix, The Guardian, 4 October 2019: Arab wineries in Israel tell of the Palestinian struggle in each glass, Al Jazeera, 4 October 2019: Palestinians need to learn from South Africa’s mistakes, Israel Hayom, 6 October 2019: Listen to Brig. Gen. Dror Shalom, Times of Israel, 7 October 2019: US Ambassador Friedman at Evangelical rally: ‘Jerusalem literally keeps us safe’, Jerusalem Post, 9 October 2019: Palestinian-Saudi soccer match “normalization” with israel – activists, Palestine Chronicle, 11 October 2019: Jewish Terrorist Involved in Duma Attack Prepares to Join Israeli Army, Jerusalem Post, 11 October 2019: Putin: Russia working on a free trade zone with Israel and Egypt, favors two-state solution, Jerusalem Post, 12 October 2019: The European Union Commission’s war against Israel (very funny headline. There is no “war” of the EU Commission against Israel at all. While the whole article is just another fine example of pure anti-EU hate that is permanently coming from Israel, it is just another fine example for why Israel can’t become a EU member state), Jerusalem Post, 13 October 2019: U.S., German Jews oppose Herzl award to Merkel due to anti-Israel activity (interesting. Because Merkel is supporting Israel but understandably not so much the “Crime Minister” and his right-wing (extremist) Likud, she shall not receive the Herzl award, a prize giving to those, who “act to promote Zionist visionary Theodor Herzl‘s ideas for the creation of a safer and more tolerant world for Jews.” Merkel is doing just that, and in doing so, the exact opposite of what Netanyahu and the Likud are up to – Israel Hayom, 7 October 2019: German Jews blast WJC’s decision to give Merkel the Herzl Award, Jerusalem Post, 2 November 2019: Angela Merkel deserved the WJC award and here’s why), Al Arabiya, 12 October 2019: Palestinians face major obstacles to hold first legislative elections since 2006, Arab News, 17 October 2019: Saudi Arabia and Palestinians agree to establish economic committee, joint business council, Times of Israel, 17 October 2019: Thousands of pro-Israel marchers from dozens of countries gather in Jerusalem (Sukkot), Jerusalem Post, 17 October 2019: US peace team to visit Israel by end of month, Israel Hayom, 16 October 2019: ‘PA elections will result in Hamas taking over the West Bank’, Israel Hayom, 18 October 2019: From Congress to classrooms: Reframing the Israel narrative, Israel Hayom, 18 October 2019: ‘Israel doesn’t need any outsider to tell it what to do’, Times of Israel, 27 October 2019: J Street launches bid to push anti-occupation stance in DNC platform, Al Jazeera, 27 October 2019: Puma keeps helping Israel sports-wash its human rights abuses, Times of Israel, 28 October 2019: Biden says Kushner has no ‘credentials’ to be drafting Middle East peace plans, Palestine Chronicle, 28 October 2019: Far from Being ‘Inhumane’, as US Ambassador Claims, Evicting Settlers is One Form of Justice, Times of Israel, 28 October 2019: Democratic hopeful Sanders urges giving chunk of US military aid to Gaza instead, Haaretz, 28 October 2019: International Monetary Fund Report Inadvertently Debunks Myth of Economic Peace in Mideast, Jerusalem Post, 30 October 2019: Arab nations reject any Trump Israeli-Palestinian plan not on ’67 line, Times of Israel, 31 October 2019: To push aliyah, the Absorption Ministry is making up fake immigrants, Al Arabiya, 31 October 2019: Israel approves more than 2,300 settler homes: NGO (even more illegal Israeli settlements. Netanyahu clearly isn’t interested in peace with the Palestine at all), Times of Israel, 1 November 2019: Israel advances 2,342 settler homes, capping off record year under Trump, Al Jazeera, 2 November 2019: Israeli air raids in Gaza kill Palestinian, wound two, The Guardian, 2 November 2019: Palestinian killed in Israeli air strikes on ‘wide range’ of Hamas targets, Arab News, 2 November 2019: Israeli retaliatory airstrikes kill Palestinian, wounds 2, Times of Israel, 1 November 2019: Biden: ‘Outrageous’ to leverage aid to Israel against settlement expansion, Haaretz, 3 November 2019: A Proxy Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Is Playing Out Thousands of Miles Away — in Northern Ireland, Arab News, 5 November 2019: EU condemns new burst of Israeli settlement approvals, Haaretz, 6 November 2019: By Expelling Human Rights Watch Director, Israel’s Top Court Legitimizes the Occupation, Haaretz, 9 November 2019: Violent Israeli Soldiers Strike Again. They Are Embraced, Again, Haaretz, 11 November 2019: Israeli Provocations in East Jerusalem’s Isawiyah, Times of Israel, 11 November 2019: Abbas says Palestinians slapped Washington in the face over peace plan, Haaretz, 11 November 2019: Instead of Quelling Violence in East Jerusalem, Israel Police Just Inflamed It, The Guardian, 12 November 2019: Israel strikes at Islamic Jihad commanders, sparking reprisal rockets, France24, 12 November 2019: Israel kills Palestinian militant commander in Gaza strike, Times of Israel, 12 November 2019: EU condemns ‘utterly unacceptable’ Gaza rocket fire on Israeli civilians, Haaretz, 12 November 2019: Sunny With a Chance of Rockets: No Casualties but Plenty of Confused Tourists in Tel Aviv, Times of Israel, 12 November 2019: IDF girds for several days of fighting after 150 rockets fired at Israel, BBC, 12 November 2019: Israel-Gaza violence spirals after killing of top Palestinian militant, CNN, 12 November 2019: Islamic Jihad leader killed in Israeli air strike, France24, 12 November 2019: Scores of rockets rain from Gaza after Israel kills Islamic Jihad chief, Arab News, 12 November 2019: Tension builds in Gaza after Israeli airstrikes kill commander, NPR, 12 November 2019: Rockets Rain On Gaza And Israel After Airstrike Kills Militant Leader, Al Jazeera, 12 November 2019: Israeli attacks: All the latest updates, Arab News, 12 November 2019: Israel allowing fanatical settlers to terrorize Palestinians, Saudi Gazette, 12 November 2019: Rocket fire after Israel kills Palestinian militant commander in Gaza strike, Palestine Chronicle, 12 November 2019: New Israeli Aggression on Gaza: Over 20 Palestinians Killed, Al Jazeera, 13 November 2019: Israeli attacks: All the latest updates, France24, 13 November 2019: Deadly Israel-Gaza escalation rages for second day, CNN, 13 November 2019: Israel’s military campaign against Islamic Jihad enters second day, UN condemns rocket attacks, The Guardian, 13 November 2019: Gaza death toll rises to 21 as Israel confronts militant rocket fire, Arab News, 13 November 2019: Gaza death toll reaches 23 in second day of escalation, Al Jazeera, 13 November 2019: Palestinians need justice before peace, Haaretz, 13 November 2019: Israel Says Killed 20 Gaza Militants; Egyptian Official Confirms Cease-fire Talks, Times of Israel, 13 November 2019: Rocket barrages target Ashdod, Ashkelon amid reports of ceasefire efforts, France24, 14 November 2019: Islamic Jihad offers Egypt-brokered Israel truce as Gaza toll mounts, BBC, 14 November 2019: Israel-Gaza ‘ceasefire begins’ after two days of fighting, The Guardian, 14 November 2019: Gaza attacks: tentative truce after Israel strike kills eight Palestinian family members, CNN, 14 November 2019: Netanyahu could emerge as the real winner in the latest Gaza flare-up, France24, 15 November 2019: Gaza truce shaky as Islamic Jihad and Israel disagree on terms, France24, 16 November 2019: Israel launches fresh strikes against Gaza after rocket fire, The Guardian, 16 November 2019: Israel targets Hamas in fresh strikes on Gaza, Al Jazeera, 16 November 2019: Israeli army launches fresh air raids on Gaza, targets Hamas, Gulf Times, 16 November 2019: Palestinian rockets, Israeli airstrikes jolt tenuous Gaza truce, Haaretz, 16 November 2019: Islamic Jihad Has Long-range Rockets. Hamas Has Long-term Goals, Times of Israel, 16 November 2019: Blamed for Beersheba rocket fire, Hamas says Israel ‘won’t choose timing’ of ops, Gulf Times, 16 November 2019: UN demands swift Israeli probe into deaths of family of eight in Gaza strike, Jerusalem Post, 16 November 2019: UN Fourth Committee votes to extend UNRWA’s mandate, Israel Hayom, 17 November 2019: Why the status quo is the least bad option for Palestinians, The National, 17 November 2019: Air strikes and rockets rattle fragile Gaza ceasefire, Haaretz, 17 November 2019: No One in Israel Knew They Were Committing a Massacre, and They Didn’t Care, Times of Israel, 17 November 2019: Trump said ‘frustrated’ with Netanyahu as deadlock delays peace plan, CNN, 18 November 2019: Pompeo announces reversal of longstanding US policy on Israeli settlements (as if the Trump administration would care about Israel or Palestine! :-D it’s all about Trump’s re-election in 2020 and the dearly needed support by the US Evangelicals, hard core supporters of the illegal Israeli settlements in Syria and Palestine. If Trump isn’t abel to secure their full support, he will be done. Trying to whitewash the illegal settlements is a big step into this direction), The Guardian, 18 November 2019: US says Israeli settlements no longer considered illegal in dramatic shift, BBC, 18 November 2019: US says Israeli settlements are no longer illegal, France24, 18 November 2019: In new pro-Israel shift, US no longer calls settlements illegal (this accelerates the erosion of the Jewish State of Israel to the Jewish Theocracy of Israel again considerably), The National, 18 November 2019: US declares Israeli settlements in West Bank are ‘legal’, Arab News, 18 November 2019: US declares Israeli settlements on occupied Palestinian land ‘consistent’ with international law, Al Jazeera, 18 November 2019: Pompeo: Israeli settlements not ‘inconsistent’ with int’l law.


Iran Deal (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action)
However, in the medium and long term, the events can have a positive effect for Israel, especially since the Gulf States, especially Saudi Arabia (Sunni Islam), and their regional allies are currently seeking for more allies against Iran (Shia crescent – predecessors in parts of the region were, among others, the Assassins). Israel, not much beloved and esteemed in the Arab world, would be eligible, according to the motto “The enemy of my enemy is my friend” (Iran–Saudi Arabia relations and Iran–Israel relations). Conversely, Israel need every ally in the region that the country can find and can’t be picky. Benjamin Netanyahu will enjoy this, especially as he can continue his personal vendetta (Yonatan Netanyahu), which has now been going on for almost 40 years, with all the means at his disposal against Arab states in the Levant, Iran and in particular against Palestinians. Among other things, he succeeded to trick George W. Bush in a war with Iraq under false pretenses (Iraq allegedly has an arsenal of weapons of mass destruction, which turned out to be a blatant lie – French President Nicolas Sarkozy and American President Barack Obama about Netanyahu’s personality: The Guardian, 8 November 2011 Sarkozy: Netanyahu’s a ‘liar’). Netanyahu was against the Iran deal, which was arduously negotiated between the P5+1 and Iran over the years, from the beginning, especially since the agreement has clearly fenced Iran in this point and by doing so is no longer suitable as an “enemy”. Of course, this needs to be changed immediately from Netanyahu’s point of view. Netanjahu is currently trying his for intelligence-minded people easy to understand game (Iran would allegedly violate the Iran deal and continue to build a nuclear bomb (The Guardian, 30 April 2018: Nuclear deal: Netanyahu accuses Iran of cheating on agreement, National Review, 28 August 2017: How to Get Out of the Iran Nuclear Deal), but according to his own words this should be crowned with success already tomorrow for the past 30 years) to push the intellectually overwhelmed Trump (whose “work” and “accomplishments” are characterized by being unable to develop own successful strategies and, due to this considerable deficit, thus it is limited to wiping out the nationally and internationally acclaimed achievements by his outstanding predecessor, US President Barack Obama. If the situation weren’t that serious, one would have to laugh about the duo Netanyahu and Trump (The New York Times, 9 July 2019: Who Is a Bigger Threat to His Democracy: Bibi or Trump?), which inevitably reminds of Pinky and the Brain – The Guardian, 9 March 2018: Meet Donald Trump’s twin: Benjamin Netanyahu) into an altercation with Iran (Iran–United States relations). Certainly, no one does need to place bets on it if this will work or not. The intellectual resources of the current US president aren’t big enough to see through the game. After Netanyahu’s theatrical performance, followed by big applause from (at the moment) US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, a similar statement from Washington was declared (BBC, 1 May 2018: Israel’s Iran documents show nuclear deal ‘was built on lies’, Haaretz, 30 April 2018: Trump: Netanyahu’s Speech on Iran Deal Proves That I Was 100% Right on Iran Deal, The Guardian, 1 May 2018: Europeans cast doubt on Israel’s claims about Iran nuclear breaches, DW, 1 May 2018: Netanyahu slideshow reinforces need for Iran nuclear deal, says EU, BBC, 1 May 2018 Iran nuclear row: Tehran says Israel’s Netanyahu lied, Reuters, 6 May 2018: Macron warns of risk of war if Trump withdraws from Iran deal, Haaretz, 6 May 2018: Netanyahu: Iran Must Be Stopped, Even if It Means Conflict – and Better Sooner Than Later, The Guardian, 6 May 2018: Fate of Iran nuclear deal at stake as UK foreign secretary heads to Washington, and New York Times, 15 May 2018: Allies at Cross-Purposes: Trump Puts Europe Into Damage-Control Mode). The whole of the theatrical spectacle organized by the US President and Netanyahu in favor of the dissolution of the Iranian agreement, that Iran fully complies to, overshadows two major aspects due to the volume of the two aforementioned show master: First, the entire Israeli security architecture (intelligence services and the IDF leadership) is backing the Iran deal in full (“It’s much better to have this deal than none!”). Secondly, neither the US President nor Netanyahu provide viable alternatives to the existing agreement, so that the opposition against it turns out to be pure and dangerous nonsense that threatens the security of Europe and would damage the credibility of treaties with the US for decades. An agreement similar to the Iran deal with North Korea would off the table as well (at the end of May 2018 happened what was already expected: The “great dealmaker” Trump failed during at the negotiations with North Korea as well – The New York Times, 24 May 2018: Trump’s Relationship With North Korea Just Got More Dangerous. Apparently, it doesn’t stop North Korea and South Korea in its negotiations. Who would have thought that one day a North Korean dictator would act smarter than a US president? Xinhua News Agency, 26 May 2018: Moon, Kim hold second summit in Panmunjom. If you look at the overall situation with humor, then a quote from the US sitcom Last Man Standing come to mind: “Why are there so many designer diseases like ADHD and allergies in the US? In the days back, we used to have measles and mumps and we just ignored everything else. Today, the North Koreans don’t even need a nuclear bomb because they could kill half of the US population with a single glass of peanut butter!”). It is certainly true that additional agreements on the ballistic missile programs with Iran would be desirable, but the amateur spectacle delivered by the US President and Netanyahu isn’t only not purposeful but extremely counterproductive. In addition to the foreign policy aspects obviously domestic policy aspects play a major role here. The US president tries to distract from the numerous affairs before (Trump / Russia – A definitive History by Seth Hettena, BBC, 3 May 2018: Why the Stormy Daniels-Donald Trump story matters, The Guardian, 6 May 2018: ‘Trump’s going to be forced to resign’: Stormy Daniels’ lawyer predicts a fall, Bloomberg, 26. August 2018: The Prosecutors Who Have Declared War on the President and France24, 27 February 2019: ‘Conman’ Trump broke law in office, Cohen tells Congress in explosive testimony) and during his first term to reach a second term. His voters forgive him all of his disastrous missteps anyway. Netanyahu in turn tries to distract him from the numerous corruption and fraud allegations (New York Times, 2 March 2018: Benjamin Netanyahu Is Questioned in 3rd Corruption Case in Israel, CNN, 2 December 2018: Israeli police say there’s enough evidence to indict Benjamin Netanyahu in a third corruption case, Haaretz, 2 December 2018: Police: Charge Benjamin and Sara Netanyahu With Bribery in Telecom Case, France24, 2 December 2018: Israeli police recommand indicting Netanyahu in graft probe, The Guardian, 2 December 2018: Police recommend indicting Benjamin Netanyahu on bribery charges, The New York Times, 2 December 2018: The Corruption Cases Against Netanyahu, The New York Times, 3 December 2018: Netanyahu’s Obsession With Image Could Be His Downfall, NBC News, 3 December 2018: Israel police recommend Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu be charged with bribery, Haaretz, 3 December 2018: Almost Half of All Israelis Fear ‘Grave Danger’ to Democracy in Their Country, The New York Times, 5 December 2018: Suspected of Crimes, Netanyahu Is Also Suspected of Fear-Mongering and Times of Israel, 6 January 2019: Ex-Supreme Court justice likens Netanyahu’s rhetoric to crime boss threats) against him (his wife Sara Netanyahu make a start here: The Washington Post, 21 June 2018: Sara Netanyahu not first leader’s wife accused of corruption, Haaretz, 7 October 2018: Judge in Sara Netanyahu Fraud Trial Gives Sides One Additional Month to Reach Deal, Washington Post, 7 October 2018: Lifestyle of Israeli prime minister’s wife under scrutiny as she goes on trial in Jerusalem, BBC, 16 June 2019: Benjamin Netanyahu’s wife Sara admits misusing public funds, Times of Israel, 16 June 2019: Sara Netanyahu convicted of misusing state funds, says she’s ‘suffered enough’, The Guardian, 16 June 2019: Israeli court convicts Sara Netanyahu for misusing state funds, France24, 16 June 2019: Israeli court convicts, fines Netanyahu’s wife for misusing public funds and “Like father, like son”: The Guardian, 17 December 2018: Netanyahu’s son banned from Facebook over hate speech – Times of Israel, 13 September 2017: The troll of Balfour Street, Times of Israel, 21 August 2019: Losing bite, friendlier state watchdog is accused of being Netanyahu’s poodle). Apparently, it has become a “good habit” among Israeli leading politicians of the past years to take appropriate prison sentences after the end of their terms. In addition, after losing his immunity status, Netanyahu willrarely leave Israel, especially since numerous international arrest warrants are waiting for him, including two from Spain. Nevertheless, it happened as expected: On May 8, 2018, Trump announced, expressly based on Netanyahu’s fairy tales (not to say lies), the withdrawal from the Iran deal and renewed the sanctions (and the addition of further sanctions) against Iran, which were stopped under the fantastic President Barack Obama on the basis of the Iran deal (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action). The US is responding to Netanyahu’s expressed desire to allow Iran to build/obtain nuclear weapons (The Guardian, 8 May 2018: Iran deal: Trump breaks with European allies over ‘horrible, one-sided’ nuclear agreement). Netanyahu is delighted to welcome the expected economic deterioration and the resulting unrest in Iran, especially since a destabilizing effect would be very accommodating to his plans of attack, for which again US soldiers will be sacrificed (as in the case of Iraq when Netanyahu tricked Bush Junior into the Iraq war), instead of Israeli soldiers. Not a good day for peace in the Middle East and the security of Europe – above all, it will be remembered who is responsible for it, namely Benjamin Netanyahu and then the duped by him Donald Trump (and his masterminds and stooges Leo Strauss (The Claremont Institue, and the The Heritage Foundation – The Guardian, 8 May 2018: Obama condemns ‘misguided’ violation of Iran deal as Republicans cheer move, Washington Post, 8 May 2018: Trump’s Iran decision just brought us closer to war, USA TODAY, 8 May 2018: Obama: Trump withdrawing from Iran deal is ‘serious mistake,’ turns our back on U.S. allies, New York Times, 8 May 2018: Trump Vandalizes the Iran Deal, Times of Israel, 17 July 2018: In recording, Netanyahu boasts Israel convinced Trump to quit Iran nuclear deal, The Guardian, 10 May 2018 :Israel has hit nearly all Iranian infrastructure in Syria, military claims, The New York Times, 23 May 2018: Deep in the Desert, Iran Quietly Advances Missile Technology, Jerusalem Post, 6 February 2019: Ambassador urges Germany to change anti-Israel stance at U.N., Times of Israel, 12 May 2019: Germany vows to back Israel at UN, in apparent break from past record (while in the real world, Germany isn’t voting against Israel, instead in very own and EU interests, which is, of course, the N° 1 priority of all German governments. Then and only then, the interests of foreign countries are taken into account. On the other hand, Israel sees itself as a possible EU member country and should ask itself, why its state interests are so fundamentally different to those of EU States and at the same time make a EU membership widely impossible – Auswärtiges Amt, 11 May 2019: Foreign Minister Maas on Israel in the United Nations)). After Israel’s renewed and massive air strikes on Syria during the night of 9th to 10th May 2018, it became finally clear that Netanyahu wants to force a war with Iran now, because he doesn’t know if he and his right-wing Defense Minister Avigdor Lieberman will ever get another chance to do so (and to trick a US president into a war in the Middle East). The current scenario is very similar to the Suez Crisis 1956 and the Six-Day War, in the preparation of which the Israeli government had asserted Egypt or Syria would in turn prepare for war against Israel. In retrospect, it turned out that these were complete lies of the Israeli leadership in order to begin wars of aggression against the unprepared Egypt and Syria – the only reason why israel was able to win theses selfmade wars. Netanyahu apparently wants to continue this tradition. The perception of the Golan Heights from the international and Israeli point of view is interesting as well: In fact, the Golan Heights are part of the Syrian state territory, although annexed by Israel, this annexation has never ever been recognized by the international community. Assuming that the Syrian government (or its coalition partners) had actually done rocket-firing exercises in the Golan Heights, they would have every rights in the world to do so, especially because they can of course carry out as many military maneuvers and exercises as they want on their own soil. That is also why United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres has rejected Israel’s request to hold a special session of the UN Security Council (at the end of July 2018, Israel shot down a Syrian fighter plane over Syrian territory: The New York Times, 24 July 2018: Israel Downs Syrian Fighter Jet Over Golan Heights). Over the past few days, newspaper reports have come to the fore that the Israeli government is now Trump, after the unilateral and internationally ineffectual recognition of (West) Jerusalem as Israel’s capital (at international level, it is de jure still Tel Aviv), to declare the Golan Heights Israeli unilaterally and thus again international ineffective (Times of Israel, 6 January 2019: Hosting top Trump aide, PM asks US to recognize Israeli sovereignty over Golan, Jerusalem Post, 11 March 2019: Is Netanyahu angling for a Golan gift from Trump before election? and Times of Israel, 11 March 2019: Trump ally Graham says he’ll lobby White House for Golan recognition). It is interesting, that the judicious Obama administration has voted against it under the effective United Nations Resolution 2334 in December 2017 (both in terms of East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights), so that it doesn’t matter what the dream dancers Netanyahu and Trump are coming up with: The international community will not play along (Haaretz, 29 August 2018: Israel Will Pay for Its Too-tight Embrace of Donald Trump). Netanyahu starts his European tour on 04 June 2018 to try to convince the governments in Berlin, Paris and London of his anti-Iran course, which is unlikely to succeed (The Guardian, 4 June 2018: Israel’s Netanyahu tours Europe to lobby leaders against Iran). With his sabotage of the Iran deal he endangers the security of Europe and that can’t be tolerated. His theater performances might impress Trump (for whom breach of agreements and contracts is everyday business), but certainly not European leaders. His first talks leads him to Berlin. Once again very bad timing, because on this day Joachim Loew will finally announce the formation of the German team for the World Cup in Russia. Neighborhood disputes in the Levant are at best secondary on such a day. Netanyahu spent the next day in Paris: France24, 5 May 2018: French President Emmanuel Macron warned of the risk of an “escalation” in the Iranian nuclear standoff on Tuesday following talks in Paris with Israel’s Benjamin Netanyahu. How far the whole thing got out of hand becomes clear when one discovers with a mixture of disbelief, speechlessness and horror that one has to agree to remarks of Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei: Reuters, 21 July 2018: U.S. launches campaign to erode support for Iran’s leaders and Reuters, 21 July 2018: Iran supreme leader says ‘obvious mistake’ to negotiate with U.S.: website. And the show went on: The New York Times, 22 July 2018: Trump Threatens Iran on Twitter, Warning Rouhani of Dire ‘Consequences’, The Washington Post, 22 July 2018: Middle East: After Trump slams Iran’s president, Iranian officials accuse him of ‘psychological warfare’, The Guardian, 23 July 2018: John Bolton backs Trump’s Iran threat: ‘They will pay a price’, The Washington Post, 23 July 2018: Ignore Trump’s clueless bluster on Iran, The Guardian, 23 July 2018: Trump says Iran will ‘suffer consequences’ after speech by President Rouhani, The Guardian, 23 July 2018: Trump’s tweet to Iran cannot bully the west away from making peace and The Guardian, 24 July 2018: It’s not Trump Iranians are worried about – it’s their homegrown crises. At the UN General Assembly in New York in September 2018, Netanyahu has revealed his latest discovery: There are even warehouses in a village called Turquzabad in Iran 😲, presumably to store the CDs and ring binders from Netanyahu’s previous “sensational findings” (The Washington Post, 27 September 2018: Israel accuses Iran of harboring ‘secret atomic warehouse’, France 24, 22 February 2019: Iran is holding up its end of nuclear deal, shows IAEA report and Times of Israel, 22 February 2019: UN nuclear watchdog say Iran staying within limits of 2015 deal). The international response to Netanyahu’s “sensational findings” was mixed but overwhelmingly amused, especially as understandably pretty much nobody believed him.

The consequences of the re-enforced and additional sanctions imposed by Trump on Iran for European companies can’t be determined clearly yet. The essential aspect is how banks react to it. Without loans and payments, there will be no international business in Iran. Banks, operating in the US, will refrain from doing business with Iran in the near future, in order to avoid of being on the Trump’s sanction/play list and thus risking the US business or the entire US dollar-based business. Companies, which aren’t active in the US business, but would like to do business in Iran, therefore, have to be very creative, especially with regard to the selected bank and the currency (the European Investment Bank would be eligible if the European Union accidentally came to an agreement. The 1996 Helms-Burton Blocking Statute of the European Union, in order to fend off sanctions of the former Clinton administration, would be eligible (New York Times, 16 May 2018: E.U. Official Takes Donald Trump to Task: ‘With Friends Like That’ …, The Guardian, 17 May 2018: EU sets course for US clash with law blocking Iran sanctions, Reuters, 17 May 2018: EU to start Iran sanctions blocking law process on Friday, Der Spiegel, 22 May 2018: Interview with Joschka Fischer: ‘The U.S. President Is Destroying the American World Order’, The New York Times, 6 May 2018: Europe Asks U.S. for an Exemption From Sanctions on Iran, The New York Times, 6 August 2018: U.S. to Restore Sanctions on Iran, Deepening Divide With Europe, USA Today, 6 August 2018: Donald Trump reimposes economic sanctions on Iran, BBC, 7 August 2018: Iran sanctions: Trump warns trading partners, Reuters, 7 August 2018: Trump says firms doing business in Iran to be barred from U.S. as sanctions hit, The Guardian, 7 August 2018: The Guardian view on Iran and sanctions: the EU stands firm, Reuters, 11 December 2018: German exports to Iran soar ahead of U.S. sanctions, Reuters, 21 August 2018: Germany urges EU payment system without U.S. to save Iran deal, Reuters, 27 August 2018: World Court hears Iran lawsuit to have U.S. sanctions lifted, France24, 9 January 2019: EU sanctions Iran over assassination plots, The Washington Post, 9 January 2019: Iran supreme leader calls US officials ‘first-class idiots’,, 18 January 2019: Trump seeks to split EU as fight intensifies over Iran nuclear deal, Jerusalem Post, 18 January 2019: Are European countries moving closer to Trump on Iran?, Handelsblatt, 21 January 2019: Mahan Air: Berlin bans Iranian airline after EU slaps sanctions on Tehran, Bloomberg, 24 January 2019: EU Says Preparations for Iran SPV Are at ‘Advanced Stage’, The Washington Post, 28 January 2019: Germany says EU soon to launch Iran funding scheme, Times of Israel, 28 January 2019: Trump warns Europeans not to try to evade Iran sanctions, The New York Times, 29 January 2019: On North Korea and Iran, Intelligence Chiefs Contradict Trump, Times of Israel, 30 January 2019: Rouhani: Iran facing ‘greatest pressure and economic sanctions’ in 40 years, The Guardian, 31 January 2019: Europe sets up scheme to get round US sanctions on Iran, Bloomberg, 31 January 2019: Europe Protects Itself From Trump’s Caprice, Instex (AP News, 8 August 2019: Designated Head of Europe-Iran Trade Entity Won’t Take Job, Jerusalem Post, 8 August 2019: German Ambassador se to run EU-Iran trade resigns, linked to Holocaust denier, Haaretz, 9 August 2019: German Diplomat Designated to Head Iran Trade Vehicle Pulls Out at Last Minute (Barter)), The New York Times, 31 January 2019: 3 European Nations Create Firm to Trade With Iran, but Will Anyone Use It?, European Comission: Iran, Foreign Policy, 13 February 2019: Iran’s Economy Is Crumbling, but Collapse Is a Long Way Off, Reuters, 25 February 2019: Iran’s Foreign Minister Zarif, architect of nuclear deal, resigns, The Guardian, 25 February 2019: Iran’s foreign minister Javad Zarif announces resignation, The New York Times, 25 February 2019: Iran’s Foreign Minister, Architect of Nuclear Deal, Says He Is Resigning, The Washington Post, 25 February 2019: Iran’s foreign minister, who became the face of his country, tenders his resignation, Iran–European Union relations, France24, 27 February 2019: Iran’s Rouhani rejects Foreign Minister Zarif’s resignation, Times of Israel, 27 February 2019: Iranian president rejects Foreign Minister Zarif’s resignation, Washington Post, 27 February 2019: Iran’s Rouhani rejects chief diplomat’s resignation, calling it ‘against national interests’, Hawala, Remittance, Economy of Iran, Germany–Iran relations and Iran–European Union relations). Today, and in the face of an obviously unstable US president, it would probably involve the risk of triggering a full-blown US-EU trade war through countermeasures from Washington – of course, despite the current transatlantic moods, the US remains the EU’s main and most important (trading) partner, because there aren’t any real alternatives given. People who think of Moscow or Beijing here, obviously didn’t deal enough with the basic data and the opposing social/society models (the democracy in the EU stands in clear and obvious opposition to the so-called “controlled democracy” in Russia under President Vladimir Putin, which in fact corresponds to an autocracy, and in the People’s Republic of China under President Xi Jinping, according to its constitution “under the democratic dictatorship of the people”, but is governed since 1949 authoritarian by the Chinese Communist Party)). Sometimes the mostly rightfully scolded, anonymized tax havens sometimes seems to be good for something. As a cherry on Trump’s absurdity cake, at the same time the current US Secretary of State (who knows how long he will stay or whether he will survive the next tweet) Mike Pompeo chats happily with Trump’s new buddy, North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un, about possible help from the US to build up the country (The Guardian, 13 May 2018: Pompeo: US firms could invest in North Korea and Kim may get ‘security assurances’).

In the dispute over the Iran deal, the EU has now come a step further to protect small and medium-sized EU companies that are not active in the US business but want to do business in Iran – and there are surprisingly many. The European Commission has created a protection mechanism against US sanctions and has authorized the European Investment Bank to carry out payment transactions. By contrast, large companies and corporations can not benefit from the protection mechanism.

The next bomb exploded on June 27, 2018, when it became known that the blackmail duo Benjamin Netanyahu and Donald Trump will once again try to take the global economy hostage for their crude plans. Starting on November 4, 2018, those companies and countries (China is the largest buyer of Iranian oil, followed by the EU), which continue to import oil from Iran, will face US sanctions. Apart from the fact that the US will shoot itself in the foot, the step will certainly not increase the sympathy values for and the willingness to foreign investment in Israel and the United States. Should the economic situations of both countries change in the near future, which can be assumed, they can not only hope for appropriately amused reactions from the Arab world. As with the first round of US sanctions on Iran, following the unilateral termination of the Iran deal by Trump, the second round now means for the EU to seek again for banks that this time can handle the oil business with Iran. A prerequisite for the selection is to do little or no business in the US and therefore be able to laugh about possible sanctions. As with the first round, the EU will not be able to cope with the risk of default of large companies and corporations, especially since their international business usually includes considerable US business volumes. At the same time, countermeasures against the US must again be planned (e.g., complete suspension of liquefied gas and oil trade), and measures against Israel’s Trump whisperers should be considered as well. The current attempt is the 1:1 takeover of a confused Netanyahu plan to initially destabilize Iran economically and then attack the country militarily. Here is another aspect: The affair surrounding the assassination of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, which is making big waves internationally, is shaking Trump’s entire “Middle East policy” (if it exists at all), as it is build on Saudi Arabia’s important role as a regional power player and policymaker, especially with regard to Iran. After the evidence against Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman intensify, Democrats and influential Republicans are increasingly calling for the US to move away from Saudi Arabia and impose sanctions on the country. For Trump, but especially for Benjamin Netanyahu, that would be a bitter defeat. In particular, the latter hope for a major breakthrough in the Middle East conflict from the recent rapprochements between Saudi Arabia and Israel, especially as the appeal of Saudi Arabia to the Muslim world has considerable weight. Against the background, it is understandable why Trump and Netanyahu are desperately looking for ways out of the crisis (for the Saudi crown prince). Before Trump, this would’t have been possible (Haaretz, 20 November 2018: Trump: U.S. to Remain Steadfast Partner to Saudi Arabia to Ensure Israeli Interests, The Guardian, 20 November 2018: Trump ‘stands with’ Saudi Arabia and defends crown prince over Khashoggi, The New York Times, 20 November 2018: In Extraordinary Statement, Trump Stands With Saudis Despite Khashoggi Killing, Times of Israel, 14 January 2019: Pompeo: US wants accountability for Khashoggi murder, and Saudis agree, Haaretz, 31 May 2018: Ex-Mossad Chief Says He Questioned Legality of Netanyahu’s Order to Prepare Iran Strike, Times of Israel, 6 April 2019: US said set to declare Iran’s Revolutionary Guards as terrorist group, France24, 8 April 2019: US designates Iran’s Revolutionary Guards a ‘terrorist organisation’, The New York Times, 8 April 2019: Trump Designates Iran’s Revolutionary Guard a Foreign Terrorist Group, Jerusalem Post, 8 April 2019: Netanyahu praises Trump for putting Iran’s Revolutionary Guards on terror list, Times of Israel, 8 April 2019: Netanyahu says Trump designated Iran Guards a terror group at his request, The New York Times, 22 April 2019: