Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge in China

Monday, 1 April 2019 - 12:00 pm (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: Architecture, General, House of the Month

© Kellykaneshiro/cc-by-sa-4.0

© Kellykaneshiro/cc-by-sa-4.0

The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge (HZMB) is a 55-kilometre (34 mi) bridge–tunnel system consisting of a series of three cable-stayed bridges, an undersea tunnel, and four artificial islands. It is both the longest sea crossing and the longest fixed link on earth. The HZMB spans the Lingding and Jiuzhou channels, connecting Hong Kong, Macau, and Zhuhai—three major cities on the Pearl River Delta. The HZMB was designed to last for 120 years and built with a cost of 126.9 billion yuan (US$ 18.77 billion). The cost of constructing the Main Bridge was estimated at 51.1 billion yuan (US$ 7.56 billion) funded by bank loans and shared among the governments of mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau. Originally set to be opened to traffic in late 2016, the structure was completed on 6 February 2018< and journalists were subsequently given rides over the bridge. On 24 October 2018, the HZMB was opened to the public.

Hopewell Holdings founder and then-managing director Gordon Wu proposed the concept of a bridge-tunnel linking China, Hong Kong and Macau in the 1980s. Wu stated that he got the idea in 1983 from the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel. In 1988, Wu pitched the concept to Guangdong and Beijing officials. He envisaged a link farther north than the current design, beginning at Black Point near Tuen Mun, Hong Kong and crossing the Pearl River estuary via Neilingding Island and Qi’ao Island. His proposed bridge would end at the Chinese village of Tangjia, and a new road would continue south through Zhuhai before terminating at Macau. Discussions stalled after the Tiananmen Square massacre in mid-1989 “unnerved” Wu and other foreign investors, and caused Hopewell’s Hong Kong share prices to plunge. The route proposed by Wu was promoted by the government of Zhuhai under the name Lingdingyang Bridge. In the mid-1990s, Zhuhai built a bridge between the mainland and Qi’ao Island that was intended as the first phase of this route, though the full scheme had not been approved by either the Chinese nor Hong Kong governments at that time. China’s central government showed support for this project on 30 December 1997. The new Hong Kong government was reticent, stating that it was still awaiting cross-border traffic study results, and Hong Kong media questioned the environmental impact of the project with regard to air pollution, traffic and marine life. In December 2001, the Legislative Council of Hong Kong passed a motion urging the Administration to develop the logistics industry including the construction of a bridge connecting Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao. At a meeting of the China/Hong Kong Conference on Co-ordination of Major Infrastructure Projects held on 20 September 2002, it was agreed that a joint study should be conducted on the transport link between Hong Kong and Pearl River West.

To coordinate the project, the Advance Work Coordination Group of HZMB was set up in 2003. Officials from three sides solved the issues such as landing points and alignments of the bridge, operations of the Border Crossing Facilities and project financing. In August 2008, China’s Central Government, the governments of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 42% of the total costs. The remaining 58% consisted of loans (approximately 22 billion yuan or US$ 3.23 billion) from Bank of China. In March 2009, it was further reported that China’s Central Government, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 22% of the total costs. The remaining 78% consisted of loans (approximately 57.3 billion yuan or US$ 8.4 billion) from a consortium of banks led by Bank of China.

Port of Hong © N509FZ/cc-by-sa-4.0 © N509FZ/cc-by-sa-4.0 HZMB shuttle bus © N509FZ/cc-by-sa-4.0 © Kellykaneshiro/cc-by-sa-4.0 © Kellykaneshiro/cc-by-sa-4.0 Artificial island © Wpcpey/cc-by-sa-4.0 The complete Hong Kong section © Davin88/cc-by-sa-4.0
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The complete Hong Kong section © Davin88/cc-by-sa-4.0
The 55-km (34 mi) HZMB consists of three main sections: the Main Bridge (29.6 km or 18.4 mi) in the middle of the Pearl River estuary, the Hong Kong Link Road (12 km or 7.5 mi) in the east and the Zhuhai Link Road (13.4 km or 8.3 mi) in the west of the estuary.

The Main Bridge, the largest part of the HZMB project, is a bridge-cum-tunnel system constructed by the mainland Chinese authorities. It connects an artificial island, housing the Boundary Crossing Facilities (BCF) for both mainland China and Macau in the west, to the Hong Kong Link Road in the east. This section includes a 22.9-km (14.2 mi) viaduct and a 6.7-km (4.2 mi) undersea tunnel that runs between two artificial islands. The viaduct crosses the Pearl River estuary with three cable-stayed bridges spanning between 280 and 460 metres (920 and 1,510 ft), allowing shipping traffic to pass underneath.

Under Hong Kong jurisdiction, the Hong Kong Link Road was built by Highway Department to connect the Main Bridge to an artificial island housing the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF). This section includes a 9.4-km (5.8 mi) viaduct, a 1-km (0.62 mi) Scenic Hill Tunnel and a 1.6-km (1.0-mi) at-grade road along the east coast of the Hong Kong International Airport.

The Zhuhai Link Road starts from an artificial island housing the Boundary Crossing Facilities for both mainland China and Macau, passes through the developed area of Gongbei via a tunnel towards Zhuhai, and connects to three major expressways, namely, the Jing-Zhu Expressway, Guang-Zhu West Expressway and Jiang-Zhu Expressway.

HZMBus shuttle buses are available 24 hours a day and depart up to every 5 minutes with tickets available for purchase from vending machines or ticket counters. They take around 40 minutes to cross the HZMB. The HZMB Hong Kong Port can be reached from Hong Kong by taxis or various buses including Cityflyer airport (A-number) routes, or the B5 shuttle bus from Sunny Bay MTR station, or the B6 bus from Tung Chung. The HZMB Zhuhai Port can be reached from the mainland by taxis or the L1 bus which uses historic tourist vehicles, or Line-12, 23, 25 or 3 buses. The HZMB Macau Port can be reached from Macau by taxis or various buses including the 101X bus and the 102X bus from St Paul’s and Taipa, or the HZMB Integrated Resort Connection bus from Taipa Ferry Terminal or the Exterior Ferry terminal, connecting with free casino shuttle buses.

Read more on Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge – Mainland Section, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge – Hong Kong Section, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge – Macao Section and Wikipedia Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge. Learn more about the use of photos. To inform you about latest news most of the city, town or tourism websites offer a newsletter service and/or operate Facebook pages/Twitter accounts. In addition more and more destinations, tourist organizations and cultural institutions offer Apps for your Smart Phone or Tablet, to provide you with a mobile tourist guide (Smart Traveler App by U.S. Department of State). If you have a suggestion, critique, review or comment to this blog entry, we are looking forward to receive your e-mail at comment@wingsch.net. Please name the headline of the blog post to which your e-mail refers to in the subject line.




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