Theme Week Rome – Castel Sant’Angelo, Trevi Fountain and the Pantheon

Friday, 11 November 2011 - 02:57 pm (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: General, Museums, Exhibitions, UNESCO World Heritage
Reading Time:  8 minutes

Castle Sant'Angelo © Andreas Tille

Castle Sant’Angelo © Andreas Tille

CASTEL SANT’ANGELO

The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as the Castel Sant’Angelo, is a towering cylindrical building in Rome. It was initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family. The building was later used by the popes as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum.

The popes converted the structure into a castle, from the 14th century; Pope Nicholas III connected the castle to St. Peter’s Basilica by a covered fortified corridor called the Passetto di Borgo. The fortress was the refuge of Pope Clement VII from the siege of Charles V’s Landsknechte during the Sack of Rome (1527), in which Benvenuto Cellini describes strolling the ramparts and shooting enemy soldiers.

It was also used as a prison by the Inquisition.

Leo X built a chapel with a fine Madonna by Raffaello da Montelupo. In 1536 Montelupo also created a marble statue of Saint Michael holding his sword after the 590 plague (as described above) to surmount the Castel. Later Paul III built a rich apartment, to ensure that in any future siege the Pope had an appropriate place to stay.

Montelupo’s statue was replaced by a bronze statue of the same subject, executed by the Flemish sculptor Peter Anton von Verschaffelt, in 1753. Verschaffelt’s is still in place, though Montelupo’s can be seen in an open court in the interior of the Castle.





Trevi Fountain © Hisham Besheer

Trevi Fountain © Hisham Besheer

TREVI FOUNTAIN

The Trevi Fountain is a fountain in the Trevi rione. Standing 26 metres (85.3 feet) high and 20 metres (65.6 feet) wide, it is the largest Baroque fountain in the city and one of the most famous fountains in the world.

Competitions had become the rage during the Baroque era to design buildings, fountains, and even the Spanish Steps. In 1730 Pope Clement XII organized a contest in which Nicola Salvi initially lost to Alessandro Galilei – but due to the outcry in Rome over the fact that a Florentine won, Salvi was awarded the commission anyway. Work began in 1732, and the fountain was completed in 1762, long after Clement’s death, when Pietro Bracci’s Oceanus (god of all water) was set in the central niche.

Salvi died in 1751, with his work half-finished, but before he went he made sure a stubborn barber’s unsightly sign would not spoil the ensemble, hiding it behind a sculpted vase, called by Romans the asso di coppe, the “Ace of Cups”.

The Trevi Fountain was finished in 1762 by Giuseppe Pannini, who substituted the present allegories for planned sculptures of Agrippa and “Trivia”, the Roman virgin.

A traditional legend holds that if visitors throw a coin into the fountain, they are ensured a return to Rome. Among those who are unaware that the “three coins” of Three Coins in the Fountain were thrown by three different individuals, a reported current interpretation is that two coins will lead to a new romance and three will ensure either a marriage or divorce. Another reported version of this legend is that it is lucky to throw three coins with one’s right hand over one’s left shoulder into the Trevi Fountain. An estimated 3,000 euros are thrown into the fountain each day. The money has been used to subsidize a supermarket for Rome’s needy.




Trevi Fountain © Felipe Busnello Trevi Fountain © David Iliff Trevi Fountain © Andrew Chen Pantheon © Martin Olsson Pantheon © Keith Yahl Pantheon © Ian Monroe Pantheon © flickr.com - Emilio Labrador Castle Sant'Angelo © Andreas Tille Castle Sant'Angelo © Alessandro Paglialunga Castle and Bridge Sant'Angelo © Kiss Tamás Castle and Bridge Sant'Angelo © AngMoKio Bridge of Angels © Tatiana kitty Trevi Fountain © KostasKon Pantheon © Stefan Bauer / www.ferras.at Trevi Fountain © Hisham Besheer Castle Sant'Angelo © Andreas Tille
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Castle Sant'Angelo © Alessandro Paglialunga

Pantheon © Stefan Bauer / www.ferras.at

Pantheon © Stefan Bauer / www.ferras.at

PANTHEON

The Pantheon is a building in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD. The nearly-contemporary writer (2nd–3rd centuries AD), Cassius Dio, speculated that the name comes either from the statues of so many gods placed around this building, or else from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens. Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève, Paris, was deconsecrated and turned into a secular monument, the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honored or buried.

The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon’s dome is still the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft). It is one of the best preserved of all Roman buildings. It has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a Roman Catholic church dedicated to “St. Mary and the Martyrs” but informally known as “Santa Maria Rotonda”; the square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda.

As the best-preserved example of an Ancient Roman monumental building, the Pantheon has been enormously influential in Western architecture from at least the Renaissance on; starting with Brunelleschi’s 42-meter dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, completed in 1436. Some have gone so far as to describe the Pantheon’s form as “perhaps the most influential … in Western Europe”, and it is held as a “symbol of the highest architectural excellence”. The style of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; numerous city halls, universities, and public libraries echo its portico-and-dome structure.

Here you can find the complete Overview of all Theme Weeks.

Read more on Wikipedia Castel Sant’Angelo, Wikipedia Trevi Fountain and Wikipedia Pantheon. Learn more about the use of photos. To inform you about latest news most of the city, town or tourism websites offer a newsletter service and/or operate Facebook pages/Twitter accounts. In addition more and more destinations, tourist organisations and cultural institutions offer Apps for your Smart Phone or Tablet, to provide you with a mobile tourist guide (Smart Traveler App by U.S. Department of State - Weather report by weather.com - Global Passport Power Rank - Travel Risk Map - Democracy Index - GDP according to IMF, UN, and World Bank - Global Competitiveness Report - Corruption Perceptions Index - Press Freedom Index - World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index - UN Human Development Index - Global Peace Index - Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index). If you have a suggestion, critique, review or comment to this blog entry, we are looking forward to receive your e-mail at comment@wingsch.net. Please name the headline of the blog post to which your e-mail refers to in the subject line.




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