Theme Week Indonesia – Java

Thursday, 23 May 2019 - 12:00 pm (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: General, UNESCO World Heritage
Reading Time:  7 minutes

Barakuda Beach in Karimun © Midori/cc-by-3.0

Barakuda Beach in Karimun © Midori/cc-by-3.0

Java is bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. With a population of over 141 million (Java only) or 145 million (including the inhabitants of its surrounding islands), Java is the home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world’s most populous island. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally. Four of Indonesia’s eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: Ujung Kulon National Park, Borobudur Temple, Prambanan Temple, and Sangiran Early Man Site.

Formed mostly as the result of volcanic eruptions from geologic subduction between Sunda Plate and Australian Plate, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia by landmass at about 138,800 square kilometres (53,600 sq mi). A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island: Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese, where Javanese is the most spoken; it is the native language of about 60 million Javanese people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian (the official language of Indonesia) as their first or second language. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java’s population comprises people of diverse religious beliefs, ethnicities, and cultures. Java is divided into four administrative provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Banten, and two special regions, Jakarta and Yogyakarta.

Java lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island is to the south. It is the world’s 13th largest island. Java is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south and Bali Strait and Madura Strait in the east. Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains thirty-eight mountains forming an east–west spine that have at one time or another been active volcanoes. The highest volcano in Java is Mount Semeru (3,676 metres (12,060 ft)). The most active volcano in Java and also in Indonesia is Mount Merapi (2,930 metres (9,610 ft)). In total, Java boast more than 150 mountains (Volcanoes of Java). More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the rice lands of Java are among the richest in the world. Java was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699. Today, Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by small-holders and larger plantations. West Java is wetter than East Java and mountainous regions receive much higher rainfall. The Parahyangan highlands of West Java receive over 4,000 millimetres (160 in) annually, while the north coast of East Java receives 900 millimetres (35 in) annually.

Tugu Muda (Youth Monument) in Semarang © Midori/cc-by-sa-3.0 Bama Beach © Lasthib/cc-by-sa-4.0 Barakuda Beach in Karimun © Midori/cc-by-3.0 Garut © flickr.com - Achmad Rabin Taim/cc-by-2.0 Jakarta © Kevin Aurell Prambanan Hindu temple © Arabsalam/cc-by-sa-4.0
<
>
Tugu Muda (Youth Monument) in Semarang © Midori/cc-by-sa-3.0
Initially the economy of Java relied heavily on rice agriculture. Ancient kingdoms such as the Tarumanagara, Mataram, and Majapahit were dependent on rice yields and tax. Java was famous for rice surpluses and rice export since ancient times, and rice agriculture contributed to the population growth of the island. Trade with other parts of Asia such as ancient India and China flourished as early as the 4th century, as evidenced by Chinese ceramics found on the island dated to that period. Java also took part in the global trade of Maluku spice from ancient times in the Majapahit era, until well into the Dutch East India Company (VOC) era. The VOC set their foothold on Batavia in the 17th century and was succeeded by the Dutch East Indies in the 19th century. During these colonial times, the Dutch introduced the cultivation of commercial plants in Java, such as sugarcane, rubber, coffee, tea, and quinine. In the 19th and early 20th century, Javanese coffee gained global popularity. Thus, the name “Java” today has become a synonym for coffee.

Java has been Indonesia’s most developed island since the Dutch East Indies era and continues to be so today in the modern Republic of Indonesia. The road transportation networks that have existed since ancient times were connected and perfected with the construction of Java Great Post Road by Daendels in the early 19th century. It became the backbone of Java’s road infrastructure and laid the base of Java North Coast Road (Jalan Pantura, abbreviation from “Pantai Utara”). The need to transport commercial produces such as coffee from plantations in the interior of the island to the harbour on the coast spurred the construction of railway networks in Java. Today, industry, business, trade and services flourished in major cities of Java, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang, and Bandung; while some traditional Sultanate cities such as Yogyakarta, Surakarta, and Cirebon preserved its royal legacy and has become the centre of art, culture and tourism. Industrial estates are also growing in towns on northern coast of Java, especially around Cilegon, Tangerang, Bekasi, Karawang, Gresik and Sidoarjo. The toll road highway networks was built and expanded since the New Order until the present day, connecting major urban centres and surrounding areas, such as in and around Jakarta and Bandung; also the ones in Cirebon, Semarang and Surabaya. In addition to these motorways, Java has 16 national highways.

Here you can find the complete Overview of all Theme Weeks.

Read more on LonelyPlanet.com – Java, Wikitravel Java, Wikivoyage Java and Wikipedia Java. Learn more about the use of photos. To inform you about latest news most of the city, town or tourism websites offer a newsletter service and/or operate Facebook pages/Twitter accounts. In addition more and more destinations, tourist organizations and cultural institutions offer Apps for your Smart Phone or Tablet, to provide you with a mobile tourist guide (Smart Traveler App by U.S. Department of State - Weather report by weather.com - Global Passport Power Rank - Travel Risk Map - Democracy Index - GDP according to IMF, UN, and World Bank - Global Competitiveness Report - Corruption Perceptions Index - Press Freedom Index - World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index - UN Human Development Index - Global Peace Index - Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index). If you have a suggestion, critique, review or comment to this blog entry, we are looking forward to receive your e-mail at comment@wingsch.net. Please name the headline of the blog post to which your e-mail refers to in the subject line.




Recommended posts:

Share this post: (Please note data protection regulations before using buttons)

Theme Week Dordogne - Trélissac

Theme Week Dordogne - Trélissac

[caption id="attachment_211414" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Père Igor/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Trélissac is a commune in the Dordogne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in France. Administratively, it belongs to the Arrondissement Périgueux and is part of the canton of Trélissac. The inhabitants are called Trélissacois. The River Isle forms the southern boundary of the municipality, which is a banlieue of Périgueux. Trélissac is surrounded by the neighboring municipalities of Cornill...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Tibet - Yamdrok Lake

Theme Week Tibet - Yamdrok Lake

[caption id="attachment_203585" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © flickr.com - Laika ac/cc-by-sa-2.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Yamdrok Lake (also known as Yamdrok Yumtso or Yamzho Yumco) is a freshwater lake in Tibet, it is one of the three largest sacred lakes in Tibet. It is over 72 km (45 mi) long. The lake is surrounded by many snow-capped mountains and is fed by numerous small streams. The lake has an outlet stream at its far western end and means turquoise in English due to its color. Around 90 km to the west of the lake...

[ read more ]

Glückstadt on the Elbe

Glückstadt on the Elbe

[caption id="attachment_154370" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Inner Harbour © Nightflyer/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Glückstadt is a town in the Steinburg district of Schleswig-Holstein. It is located on the right bank of the Lower Elbe at the confluence of the small Rhin river, about 45 km (28 mi) northwest of Altona. Glückstadt is part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. In 1845 Glückstadt station opened on the Marsh Railway line from Elmshorn, which in 1857 was continued to Itzehoe. Today trains run ...

[ read more ]

Isfahan in Iran

Isfahan in Iran

[caption id="attachment_28174" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Naghshe Jahan Square (Imam Square) © Arad Mojtahedi/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Isfahan is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 kilometres (211 miles) south of Tehran. It has a population of 1,760,000 and is Iran's third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad. The Greater Isfahan Region had a population of 3,800,000 in the 2011 Census, the third most populous metropolitan area in Iran after Tehran and Mashhad. Isfahan is located on t...

[ read more ]

San Francisco Ferry Building

San Francisco Ferry Building

[caption id="attachment_191690" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Ferry from Sausalito arriving at the Ferry Building © flickr.com - Clay Gilliland/cc-by-sa-2.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The San Francisco Ferry Building is a terminal for ferries that travel across the San Francisco Bay, a food hall and an office building. It is located on The Embarcadero in San Francisco, California. On top of the building is a 245-foot-tall (75 m) clock tower with four clock dials, each 22 feet (6.7 m) in diameter, which can be seen from Market...

[ read more ]

American Football

American Football

[caption id="attachment_164808" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Sun Life Stadium, today the Hard Rock Stadium in MiamiRaiders running back Phillip Adams and Miami Dolphins cornerback Jimmy Wilson© flickr.com - June Rivera/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams, Rutgers and Princeton, under rules based on the associat...

[ read more ]

Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region

Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region

[caption id="attachment_229379" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Remains of Villages on Nozaki Island © Pachopi/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region is a group of twelve sites in Nagasaki Prefecture and Kumamoto Prefecture relating to the history of Christianity in Japan. The Nagasaki churches are unique in the sense that each tells a story about the revival of Christianity after a long period of official suppression. Proposed jointly in 2007 for inscription on the UNESCO World He...

[ read more ]

Cádiz in Andalusia

Cádiz in Andalusia

[caption id="attachment_152654" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Cadiz Palace - City Hall © Falkue[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Cadiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the homonymous province, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia. Cadiz, the oldest continuously-inhabited city in the Iberian Peninsula and possibly all southwestern Europe, has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. The city is a m...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Canary Islands - Gran Canaria

Theme Week Canary Islands - Gran Canaria

[caption id="attachment_153411" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Hotel Santa Catalina © Pepelopex[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Gran Canaria is the second most populous island of the Canary Islands, with population of 846,000 which constitutes approximately 40% of the population of the archipelago. Also, it is third most populous island in Spain after Tenerife and Majorca. Located on the Atlantic Ocean about 150 kilometers (~93 miles) off the northwestern coast of Africa and about 1350 km (~838 miles) from Europe. The capit...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Normandy - Saint-Clair-sur-Epte

Theme Week Normandy - Saint-Clair-sur-Epte

[caption id="attachment_152720" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © P.poschadel/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Saint-Clair-sur-Epte is a commune in the Val-d'Oise department in the Île-de-France region, about 75 km north-west of Paris. Henry I of England seized the castle of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte in 1118. Archaeological findings give evidence of an early settlement of thea area. The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, between Charles the Simple (King Charles III of France) and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, was si...

[ read more ]

Return to TopReturn to Top
Banjarmasin Floating Market © Muhammad Haris/cc-by-sa-4.0
Theme Week Indonesia – Kalimantan on Borneo

Borneo is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast...

Niccolò Machiavelli by Santi di Tito
Portrait: The diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, writer, playwright and poet Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist,...

West Beach in Bira © Kondephy/cc-by-sa-4.0
Theme Week Indonesia – Sulawesi

Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is one of the four Greater Sunda Islands, and the world's eleventh-largest island, situated east...

Close