Portrait: Johannes Gutenberg, inventor of the Printing Press

Wednesday, 23 January 2019 - 11:00 am (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: Portrait
Reading Time:  4 minutes

Gutenberg Bible - Lenox Copy - New York Public Library © flickr.com - NYC Wanderer (Kevin Eng)/cc-by-sa-2.0

Gutenberg Bible – Lenox Copy – New York Public Library © flickr.com – NYC Wanderer (Kevin Eng)/cc-by-sa-2.0

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, inventor, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press. His introduction of mechanical movable type printing to Europe started the Printing Revolution and is regarded as a milestone of the second millennium, ushering in the modern period of human history. It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.

Gutenberg in 1439 was the first European to use movable type. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink for printing books; mechanical movable type; and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system that allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. Gutenberg’s method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type. The alloy was a mixture of lead, tin, and antimony that melted at a relatively low temperature for faster and more economical casting, cast well, and created a durable type.

Gutenberg-Museum Mainz © Pedelecs/cc-by-sa-3.0 Gutenberg Monument on Gutenberg Square with the Mainz Cathedral in the background © Staudacher/cc-by-sa-2.0-de Gutenberg statue at Gutenberg-Museum © Andreas Praefcke/cc-by-4.0 Gutenberg-Museum Mainz © Amras wi Gutenberg Bible - Lenox Copy - New York Public Library © flickr.com - NYC Wanderer (Kevin Eng)/cc-by-sa-2.0
<
>
Gutenberg Monument on Gutenberg Square with the Mainz Cathedral in the background © Staudacher/cc-by-sa-2.0-de
In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information—including revolutionary ideas—transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities; the sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its people led to the rise of proto-nationalism, accelerated by the flowering of the European vernacular languages to the detriment of Latin‘s status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale, while Western-style printing was adopted all over the world, becoming practically the sole medium for modern bulk printing.

The use of movable type was a marked improvement on the handwritten manuscript, which was the existing method of book production in Europe, and upon woodblock printing, and revolutionized European book-making. Gutenberg’s printing technology spread rapidly throughout Europe and later the world. His major work, the Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible), has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.

Read more on Gutenberg Museum Mainz and Wikipedia Johannes Gutenberg (Smart Traveler App by U.S. Department of State - Weather report by weather.com - Global Passport Power Rank - Travel Risk Map - Democracy Index - GDP according to IMF, UN, and World Bank - Global Competitiveness Report - Corruption Perceptions Index - Press Freedom Index - World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index - UN Human Development Index - Global Peace Index - Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index). Photos by Wikimedia Commons. If you have a suggestion, critique, review or comment to this blog entry, we are looking forward to receive your e-mail at comment@wingsch.net. Please name the headline of the blog post to which your e-mail refers to in the subject line.




Recommended posts:

Share this post: (Please note data protection regulations before using buttons)

The city of Aberdeen in Scotland

The city of Aberdeen in Scotland

[caption id="attachment_152542" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Belmont Street Farmers Market © Peter Ward[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Aberdeen is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 29th most populous city, with an official population estimate of 220,420. Nicknames include the Granite City, the Grey City and the Silver City with the Golden Sands. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite...

[ read more ]

Kalorama in Washington, D.C.

Kalorama in Washington, D.C.

[caption id="attachment_206563" align="aligncenter" width="590"] 24th Street NW © flickr.com - Tim Evanson/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Kalorama area within the Northwest Quadrant of Washington, D.C. includes the residential neighborhoods of Kalorama Triangle and Sheridan-Kalorama. The area is accessible from the Dupont Circle and Woodley Park Metro stations, as well as various bus lines. Kalorama Triangle is bordered by Connecticut Avenue, Columbia Road, Calvert Street, and Rock Creek Park. Sheridan-Kalorama is a...

[ read more ]

Promenade des Anglais in Nice

Promenade des Anglais in Nice

[caption id="attachment_161458" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © W. M. Connolley/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Promenade des Anglais is a celebrated promenade along the Mediterranean. Starting in the second half of the 18th century, the English took to spending the winter in Nice, enjoying the panorama along the coast. In 1820 when a particularly harsh winter up north brought an influx of beggars to Nice, some of the English proposed a useful project for them: the construction of a walkway (chemin de promenade) a...

[ read more ]

Knights Templar and Friday the 13th

Knights Templar and Friday the 13th

[caption id="attachment_25716" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Order of Knights Templar in Europe around 1300 © Marco Zanoli/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), commonly known as the Knights Templar, the Order of the Temple (French: Ordre du Temple or Templiers) or simply as Templars, were among the most wealthy and powerful of the Western Christian military orders and were among the most prominent ac...

[ read more ]

Portrait: Baron Munchausen

Portrait: Baron Munchausen

[caption id="attachment_239640" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Munchhausen Museum in the former Schulenburg (residential tower) in Bodenwerder © JoachimKohler-HB/cc-by-sa-4.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Baron Munchausen is a fictional German nobleman created by the German writer Rudolf Erich Raspe in his 1785 book Baron Munchausen's Narrative of his Marvellous Travels and Campaigns in Russia. The character is loosely based on baron Hieronymus Karl Friedrich, Freiherr von Münchhausen. Born in Bodenwerder, Hanover, the r...

[ read more ]

The Roald Amundsen

The Roald Amundsen

[caption id="attachment_231067" align="alignnone" width="590"] Roald Amundsen © flickr.com - Birgitta Michal/cc-by-sa-2.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]MS Roald Amundsen is a new hybrid powered Hurtigruten expedition cruise ship. She was built by Kleven Yards of Norway and started her maiden voyage on 3 July 2019 from the Norwegian port Tromsø to Hamburg. She and her sister ship Fridtjof Nansen are the first hybrid-powered ships in the Hurtigruten fleet. Roald Amundsen was christened in fall 2019 in Antarctica with a chunk...

[ read more ]

Èze on the French Riviera

Èze on the French Riviera

[caption id="attachment_236236" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Èze and Cap Ferrat, seen from Grande Corniche © Tobi 87/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Èze is a seaside commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France. It is located on the French Riviera, 8.5 km (5.2 mi) to the northeast of Nice and 4.5 km (2.7 mi) to the west of Monaco. In 2018, Èze had a population of 2,225. Its inhabitants are known as Ezasques (masculine and feminine). Èze-Village can be ...

[ read more ]

Stock Island in Florida

Stock Island in Florida

[caption id="attachment_207637" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Averette/cc-by-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Stock Island is a census-designated place (CDP) & Unincorporated community on an island of the same name in the Florida Keys in Monroe County, Florida, United States. The population of the CDP was 4,410 at the 2000 census. It is located on the portion of the island south of US 1. It is supposedly named for the herds of livestock formerly kept there. Alternatively, some local historians suggest that it may be named fo...

[ read more ]

Miami Shores in Forida

Miami Shores in Forida

[caption id="attachment_162514" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Averette/cc-by-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Miami Shores is a village with a population of 10,500 in Miami-Dade County in Florida. Miami Shores was originally a neighborhood of the City of Miami when it was annexed into the city of Miami in 1925. With the arrival of the Great Depression, the City of Miami gave up its jurisdiction and Miami Shores was incorporated as its own village in 1932. Miami Shores is located on Biscayne Bay and is adjacent to the ...

[ read more ]

Theme Week London - Covent Garden and Soho

Theme Week London - Covent Garden and Soho

SOHO [caption id="attachment_150767" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Berwick Street Market - Soho © Fin Fahey[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Soho is an area of the City of Westminster and part of the West End of London. Long established as an entertainment district, for much of the 20th century Soho had a reputation for sex shops as well as night life and film industry. Since the early 1980s, the area has undergone considerable transformation. It now is predominantly a fashionable district of upmarket restaurants and media offices...

[ read more ]

Return to TopReturn to Top
© Taiwankengo/cc-by-sa-4.0
Theme Week Taiwan – Keelung

Keelung, officially known as Keelung City, is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan. It borders...

Presidential Office Building in Taipei © Jiang
Theme Week Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Its neighbors include the People's Republic of...

Yaowarat Road, Bangkok's Chinatown at night © flickr.com - Ninara/cc-by-2.0
Bangkok, capital of Thailand

Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres (605.7 sq mi) in...

Close