Polo

Wednesday, 11 January 2017 - 11:00 am (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: General, Sport
Reading Time:  10 minutes

Varsity Polo 2013 - Oxford vs Cambridge © Andreas Polo/cc-by-sa-3.0

Varsity Polo 2013 – Oxford vs Cambridge © Andreas Polo/cc-by-sa-3.0

Polo (Persian: chogān) is a team sport played on horseback. The objective is to score goals against an opposing team. Players score by driving a small white plastic or wooden ball into the opposing team’s goal using a long-handled mallet. The traditional sport of polo is played on a grass field up to 300 by 160 yards (270 by 150 m). Each polo team consists of four riders and their mounts. Field polo is played with a solid plastic ball which has replaced the wooden version of the ball in much of the sport. In arena polo, only three players are required per team and the game usually involves more manoeuvreing and shorter plays at lower speeds due to space limitations of arenas. Arena polo is played with a small air-filled ball, similar to a small football. The modern game lasts roughly two hours and is divided into periods called chukkas. Polo is played professionally in 16 countries. It was formerly an Olympic sport. Polo originates from ancient Persia. Its invention is dated variously from the 6th century BC to the 1st century AD. Persian Emperor Shapur II learnt to play polo when he was seven years old in 316 AD. Naqsh-i Jahan Square in Isfahan, Iran, is a polo field which was built by king Abbas I in the 17th century. The modern game of polo is derived from Manipur, India, where the game was known as ‘Sagol Kangjei’, ‘Kanjai-bazee’, or ‘Pulu’. It was the anglicised form of the last, referring to the wooden ball that was used, which was adopted by the sport in its slow spread to the west. The first polo club was established in the town of Silchar in Assam, India, in 1833.

The oldest polo ground in the world is the Imphal Polo Ground in Manipur State. The history of this pologround is contained in the royal chronicle “Cheitharol Kumbaba” starting from AD 33. Lieutenant (later Major General) Joseph Ford Sherer, the father of modern polo visited the state and played on this polo ground in the 1850s. Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India visited the state in 1901 and measured the polo ground as 225 by 110 yards (206 by 101 m). In 1862 the first polo club, Calcutta Polo Club, was established by two British soldiers, Sherer and Captain Robert Stewart. Later they spread the game to their peers in England. The British are credited with spreading polo worldwide in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. Military officers imported the game to Britain in the 1860s. The establishment of polo clubs throughout England and western Europe followed after the formal codification of rules. The 10th Hussars at Aldershot, Hants, introduced polo to England in 1834. The game’s governing body in the United Kingdom is the Hurlingham Polo Association, which drew up the first set of formal British rules in 1874, many of which are still in existence. This version of polo played in the 19th century was different from the faster form that was played in Manipur. The game was slow and methodical, with little passing between players and few set plays that required specific movements by participants without the ball. Neither players nor horses were trained to play a fast, nonstop game. This form of polo lacked the aggressive methods and equestrian skills to play. From the 1800s to the 1910s, a host of teams representing Indian principalities dominated the international polo scene. Meanwhile, British settlers in the Argentine pampas started practising it during their free time. Among them, David Shennan is credited with having organised the first formal polo game of the country in 1875, at Estancia El Negrete, located in the province of Buenos Aires. The sport spread fast between the skilful gauchos and several clubs opened in the following years in the towns of Venado Tuerto, Cañada de Gómez, Quilmes, Flores and later (1888) Hurlingham. In 1892 The River Plate Polo Association was founded and constituted the basis for the current Asociación Argentina de Polo. Argentina was host of the ninth edition of the World Polo Championship (for teams of up to 14 goals) at the Estancia Grande Polo Club, in the province of San Luis in October 2011. The three major polo tournaments in Argentina, known as “Triple Corona” (“Triple Crown”), are Hurlingham Polo Open, Tortugas Polo Open, Palermo Polo Open. Polo season usually last from October to December. Polo then found popularity throughout the rest of the Americas like Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and the United States of America.

SEA Games Polo 2007 - Indonesia vs Thailand © Dirgayuza Setiawan Varsity Polo 2013 - Oxford vs Cambridge © Andreas Polo/cc-by-sa-3.0 Cartier Polo World Cup on Snow 2008 © www.frederic.net - Frédéric de Goldschmidt/cc-by-3.0
<
>
Cartier Polo World Cup on Snow 2008 © www.frederic.net - Frédéric de Goldschmidt/cc-by-3.0
The rules of polo are written and used to provide for the safety of both players and polo ponies. The rules are enforced in the game by the umpires who blow whistles when a penalty occurs. Strategic plays in polo are based on the “line of the ball”, an imaginary line created by the ball as it travels down the field. This line traces the ball’s path and extends past the ball along that trajectory. The line of the ball defines rules for players to approach the ball safely. These rules are created and enforced to ensure the welfare of players and their horses. The “line of the ball” changes each time the ball changes direction. The player who hit the ball generally has the right of way, and other players cannot cross the line of the ball in front of that player. As players approach the ball, they ride on either side of the line of the ball giving each access to the ball. A player can cross the line of the ball when it does not create a dangerous situation. Most fouls and penalty shots are related to players improperly crossing the line of the ball or the right of way. When a player has the line of the ball on his right, he has the right of way. A “ride-off” is when a player moves another player off the line of the ball by making shoulder-to-shoulder contact with the other players’ horses. The defending player has a variety of opportunities for his team to gain possession of the ball. He can push the opponent off the line or steal the ball from the opponent. Another common defensive play is called “hooking.” While a player is taking a swing at the ball, his opponent can block the swing by using his mallet to hook the mallet of the player swinging at the ball. A player may hook only if he is on the side where the swing is being made or directly behind an opponent. A player may not purposely touch another player, his tack or pony with his mallet. Unsafe hooking is a foul that will result in a penalty shot being awarded. For example, it is a foul for a player to reach over an opponent’s mount in an attempt to hook.

The other basic defensive play is called the bump or ride-off. It’s similar to a body check in hockey. In a ride-off, a player rides his pony alongside an opponent’s mount in order to move an opponent away from the ball or to take him out of a play. It must be executed properly so that it does not endanger the horses or the players. The angle of contact must be safe and can not knock the horses off balance, or harm the horses in any way. Two players following the line of the ball and riding one another off have the right of way over a single man coming from any direction. Like in hockey or basketball, fouls are potentially dangerous plays that infringe on the rules of the game. To the novice spectator, fouls may be difficult to discern. There are degrees of dangerous and unfair play and penalty shots are awarded depending based on the severity of the foul and where the foul was committed on the polo field. White lines on the polo field indicate where the mid-field, sixty, forty and thirty yard penalties are taken.

The official set of rules and rules interpretations are reviewed and published each year by each country’s polo association. Most of the smaller associations follow the rules of the Hurlingham Polo Association, the national governing body of the sport of polo in the United Kingdom.

Read more on Federation of International Polo, Hurlingham Polo Association, Deutscher Polo Verband e.V. and Wikipedia Polo (Smart Traveler App by U.S. Department of State - Weather report by weather.com - Global Passport Power Rank - Travel Risk Map - Democracy Index - GDP according to IMF, UN, and World Bank - Global Competitiveness Report - Corruption Perceptions Index - Press Freedom Index - World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index - UN Human Development Index - Global Peace Index - Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index). Photos by Wikimedia Commons. If you have a suggestion, critique, review or comment to this blog entry, we are looking forward to receive your e-mail at comment@wingsch.net. Please name the headline of the blog post to which your e-mail refers to in the subject line.




Recommended posts:

Share this post: (Please note data protection regulations before using buttons)

Theme Week Qatar - Education City

Theme Week Qatar - Education City

[caption id="attachment_162907" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Texas A&M University at Qatar © Arwcheek[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Education City is an initiative of Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development. Located on the outskirts of Doha, the capital of Qatar. Education City covers 14 square kilometers and houses educational facilities from school age to research level and branch campuses of some of the world's universities. From 2016 Education City will be served by an 11.5 km tram network to be op...

[ read more ]

Delray Beach in Florida, America's Most Fun Small Town

Delray Beach in Florida, America's Most Fun Small Town

[caption id="attachment_192632" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Delray Beach © D Ramey Logan/cc-by-sa-4.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Delray Beach is a coastal city in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States. The population of Delray Beach is estimated at 67,000. Delray Beach is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, which is home to an estimated 6.2 million people. The city's eastern boundary includes 3 miles (4.8 km) of beachfront along the Atlantic Ocean. Delray Beach is one of South Florida's most popular beach d...

[ read more ]

The brig Roald Amundsen

The brig Roald Amundsen

[caption id="attachment_220763" align="aligncenter" width="590"] at Kieler Woche 2007 © VollwertBIT/cc-by-sa-2.5[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Roald Amundsen (often abbreviated Roald; named in honor of Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen), originally named Vilm, is a German steel-ship built on the Elbe River in 1952. Having worked in different areas, she was refitted in 1992 to 1993 as a brig (two-masted square-rigged sailing ship) and now serves as a sail training ship. During summer, she usually operates in the Baltic Sea, an...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Umbria - Narni

Theme Week Umbria - Narni

[caption id="attachment_153569" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © ImagoAnimae/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Narni is an ancient hilltown and comune with 19,900 inhabitants. At an altitude of 240 m (787 ft), it overhangs a narrow gorge of the Nera River in the province of Terni. It is very close to the Geographic center of Italy. There is a stone on the exact spot with a sign in multiple languages. The city of Rieti claims to be the center of Italy as well. Like many of the smaller towns of Umbria, Narni is sti...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Berkshire - Wokingham

Theme Week Berkshire - Wokingham

[caption id="attachment_233683" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Town Hall © wx8[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Wokingham is a market town in Berkshire, England, 37 miles (60 km) west of London, 7 miles (11 km) southeast of Reading, 8 miles (13 km) north of Camberley and 4 miles (6 km) west of Bracknell. Wokingham is on the Emm Brook in the Loddon Valley in central Berkshire situated 39 miles (62.8 km) west of central London. It sits between the larger towns of Reading and Bracknell and was originally in a band of agricultu...

[ read more ]

Galway has everything for a relaxing city break

Galway has everything for a relaxing city break

[caption id="attachment_160545" align="aligncenter" width="590"] The Tribes of Galway on Eyre Square © flickr.com - Eoin Gardiner[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Galway (Cathair na Gaillimhe) is a city in County Galway, Republic of Ireland. It is the fifth largest and the fastest-growing city in Ireland. It is also the third largest city within the Republic and the only city in the Province of Connacht. Located on the west coast of Ireland, it sits on the River Corrib between Lough Corrib and Galway Bay. The population of Galway's Bo...

[ read more ]

The port city of Cartagena in Colombia

The port city of Cartagena in Colombia

[caption id="attachment_153945" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Colonial street © Cbrough[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Cartagena de Indias is a large Caribbean beach resort city on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region and capital of Bolívar Department. The city had a population of 892,545 as of the 2005 census, making it the fifth-largest city in Colombia and giving the Cartagena urban area the status of fifth-largest urban area in Colombia. Cartagena is a centre of economic activity in the Caribbean, as ...

[ read more ]

Port Royal on Jamaica

Port Royal on Jamaica

[caption id="attachment_151474" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Port Royal Cays © NASA World Wind[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Port Royal is a city located at the end of the Palisadoes at the mouth of the Kingston Harbour, in southeastern Jamaica. Founded in 1518, it was the centre of shipping commerce in the Caribbean Sea during the latter half of the 17th century. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 1692 and a subsequent tsunami, and fires. Severe hurricanes have regularly damaged it. Another severe earthquake occurred in 1907...

[ read more ]

Füssen, on the Romantic Road and the Via Claudia Augusta

Füssen, on the Romantic Road and the Via Claudia Augusta

[caption id="attachment_161050" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Daniel71953[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Füssen is a town in Bavaria, in the district of Ostallgäu situated 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the Austrian border. It is located on the Romantic Road and on banks of the Lech river. The River Lech flows into the Forggensee. The Forggensee is a man-made lake which was built to prevent flooding. It is the catchment area for all the melting snow in the spring. After the middle of October the lake is drained ready for the next...

[ read more ]

Larnaca on Cyprus

Larnaca on Cyprus

[caption id="attachment_153492" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Palm Trees Promenade © Valantis Antoniades/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Larnaca is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus, the third largest after Nicosia and Limassol, with an urban population of 72,000, and capital of the eponymous district. The island's largest airport, Larnaca International Airport, is located on the outskirts of the city to the south. The port of Larnaca and the marina are two of the four official entry points by sea to Cyprus. The ...

[ read more ]

Return to TopReturn to Top
Sun Life Stadium - Raiders running back Phillip Adams and Miami Dolphins cornerback Jimmy Wilson © flickr.com - June Rivera/cc-by-sa-3.0
American Football

American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game...

Palm Jumeirah, The Universe, The World and Palm Deira © Tobias Karlhuber
Palm Islands in Dubai

Palm Islands are three artificial islands, Palm Jumeirah, Deira Island and Palm Jebel Ali, on the coast of Dubai. As...

© Zereshk
Corona del Mar in Newport Beach

Corona del Mar (Spanish for "Crown of the Sea") is a neighborhood in the affluent city of Newport Beach. It...

Schließen