Mediterranean Region

Saturday, 29 July 2023 - 11:00 am (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: General, French Riviera, European Union, Living, Working, Building, Sport, UNESCO World Heritage, Union for the Mediterranean
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Monaco © Tobi 87/cc-by-sa-3.0

Monaco © Tobi 87/cc-by-sa-3.0

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin, also known as the Mediterranean Region or sometimes Mediterranea, is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have mostly a Mediterranean climate, with mild to cool, rainy winters and warm to hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

The Mediterranean Basin covers portions of three continents: Europe, Africa, and Asia. It is distinct from the drainage basin, which extends much further south and north due to major rivers ending in the Mediterranean Sea, such as the Nile and Rhône. Conversely, the Mediterranean Basin includes regions not in the drainage basin. It has a varied and contrasting topography. The Mediterranean Region offers an ever-changing landscape of high mountains, rocky shores, impenetrable scrub, semi-arid steppes, coastal wetlands, sandy beaches and a myriad islands of various shapes and sizes dotted amidst the clear blue sea. Contrary to the classic sandy beach images portrayed in most tourist brochures, the Mediterranean is surprisingly hilly. Mountains can be seen from almost anywhere. By definition, the Mediterranean Basin extends from Macaronesia in the west, to the Levant in the east, although some places may or may not be included depending on the view, as is the case with Macaronesia: some definitions only include Madeira and the Canary Islands while others include the whole Macaronesia (with the Azores and Cape Verde). In Western Asia, it covers the western and southern portions of the peninsula of Anatolia, as far as Iraq, but excluding the temperate-climate mountains of central Turkey. It includes the Mediterranean Levant at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, bounded on the east and south by the Syrian and Negev deserts. The northern portion of the Maghreb region of northwestern Africa has a Mediterranean climate, separated from the Sahara Desert, which extends across North Africa, by the Atlas Mountains. In the eastern Mediterranean the Sahara extends to the southern shore of the Mediterranean, with the exception of the northern fringe of the peninsula of Cyrenaica in Libya, which has a dry Mediterranean climate. Europe lies to the north of the Mediterranean. The European portion of the Mediterranean Basin loosely corresponds to Southern Europe. The three large Southern European peninsulas, the Iberian Peninsula, Italian Peninsula, and the Balkan Peninsula, extend into and comprise much of the Mediterranean-climate zone. A system of folded mountains, including the Pyrenees dividing Spain from France, the Alps dividing Italy from Central Europe, the Dinaric Alps along the eastern Adriatic, and the Balkan and RilaRhodope mountains of the Balkan Peninsula divide the Mediterranean from the temperate climate regions of Western, Northwestern or Northern Europe, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe.

Phytogeographically, the Mediterranean Basin together with the nearby Atlantic coast, the Mediterranean woodlands and forests and Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe of North Africa, the Black Sea coast of northeastern Anatolia, the southern coast of Crimea between Sevastopol and Feodosiya in Ukraine and the Black Sea coast between Anapa and Tuapse in Russia forms the Mediterranean Floristic Region, which belongs to the Tethyan Subkingdom of the Boreal Kingdom and is enclosed between the Circumboreal, Irano-Turanian, Saharo-Arabian and Macaronesian floristic regions. The Mediterranean Region was first proposed by German botanist August Grisebach in the late 19th century. The Mediterranean Basin is home to considerable biodiversity, including 22,500 endemic vascular plant species. Conservation International designates the region as a biodiversity hotspot, because of its rich biodiversity and its threatened status. The Mediterranean Basin has an area of 2,085,292 km², of which only 98,009 km² remains undisturbed. Endangered mammals of the Mediterranean Basin include the Mediterranean monk seal, the Barbary macaque, and the Iberian lynx.

Alexandria in Egypt © flickr.com - David Evers/cc-by-2.0 Algiers in Algeria © Melzi djalel hamzi/cc-by-sa-4.0 Antibes in France © Abxbay/cc-by-sa-3.0 Athens in Greece © George E. Koronaios/cc-by-sa-4.0 Barcelona in Spain © flickr.com - dronepicr/cc-by-2.0 Beirut in Lebanon © Yoniw/cc-by-sa-3.0 El Hemisférico in Valencia, Spain © Diego Delso/cc-by-sa-3.0 Gaza City in Palestine © OneArmedMan Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey © Arild Vågen/cc-by-sa-3.0 Kasbah des Oudaias in Rabat, Morocco © Pline/cc-by-sa-3.0 Konak Pier in İzmir, Turkey © BSRF/cc-by-sa-4.0 Lisbon in Portugal © flickr.com - Deensel/cc-by-2.0 Naples in Italy © Giuseppe Guida/cc-by-sa-4.0 Old Jaffa in Israel © JRodSilva/cc-by-sa-4.0 Palermo in Italy © flickr.com - Xerones/cc-by-2.0 Monaco © Tobi 87/cc-by-sa-3.0 Porto in Portugal © Thomas Istvan Seibel/cc-by-sa-3.0 Strait of Gibraltar © Falconaumanni/cc-by-sa-3.0 Casablanca in Morocco with Hassan II Mosque © SpreeTom/cc-by-sa-4.0 Tel Aviv in Israel © בר/cc-by-sa-3.0 Tripoli in Libya © Sanadalahlafi/cc-by-sa-4.0 Tunis in Tunisia © Dacoslett Vineyards in Chianti County, Tuscany, Italy © flickr.com - John Menard/cc-by-sa-2.0 Western Wall and Dome of the Rock in East Jerusalem © Berthold Werner Zagreb in Croatia © flickr.com - Nick Savchenko/cc-by-sa-2.0 Amman in Jordan © flickr.com - Mahmood Salam/cc-by-2.0
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Vineyards in Chianti County, Tuscany, Italy © flickr.com - John Menard/cc-by-sa-2.0
Neanderthals inhabited western Asia and the non-glaciated portions of Europe starting about 230,000 years ago. Modern humans moved into western Asia from Africa less than 100,000 years ago. Modern humans, known as Cro-Magnons, moved into Europe approximately 50–40,000 years ago. The most recent glacial period, the Wisconsin glaciation, reached its maximum extent approximately 21,000 years ago, and ended approximately 12,000 years ago. A warm period, known as the Holocene climatic optimum, followed the ice age. Food crops, including wheat, chickpeas, and olives, along with sheep and goats, were domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean in the 9th millennium BCE, which allowed for the establishment of agricultural settlements. Near Eastern crops spread to southeastern Europe in the 7th millennium BCE. Poppy and oats were domesticated in Europe from the 6th to the 3rd millennium BCE. Agricultural settlements spread around the Mediterranean Basin. Megaliths were constructed in Europe from 4500 – 1500 BCE. A strengthening of the summer monsoon 9000–7000 years ago increased rainfall across the Sahara, which became a grassland, with lakes, rivers, and wetlands. After a period of climatic instability, the Sahara settled into a desert state by the 4th millennium BCE.

One of the earliest modern studies of the Mediterranean was Fernand Braudel‘s La Méditerranéee et le monde méditerranéen à l époque de Philippe II (“The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II”), published in 1949. S.D. Goitein‘s multivolume study of the Cairo Geniza documents was another important contribution in the area of Mediterranean Jewish culture.

Wheat is the dominant grain grown around the Mediterranean Basin. Pulses and vegetables are also grown. The characteristic tree crop is the olive. Figs are another important fruit tree, and citrus, especially lemons, are grown where irrigation is present. Grapes are an important vine crop, grown for fruit and to make wine. Rice and summer vegetables are grown in irrigated areas.

Read more on Wikipedia Mediterranean cuisine, Wikipedia Mediterranean diet, Wikipedia History of the Mediterranean region, Wikipedia Mediterraneanism, Wikipedia Euro-Mediterranean-Arab Association, Wikipedia Mediterranean climate, Wikipedia Union for the Mediterranean, Wikipedia Mediterranean Biogeographic Region, Wikipedia ASCAME, Wikipedia Environment of the Mediterranean, Wikipedia Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean, Wikipedia List of Mediterranean countries, Wikivoyage Mediterranean Sea, Wikipedia Mediterranean Sea and Wikipedia Mediterranean Basin (Smart Traveler App by U.S. Department of State - Weather report by weather.com - Global Passport Power Rank - Travel Risk Map - Democracy Index - GDP according to IMF, UN, and World Bank - Global Competitiveness Report - Corruption Perceptions Index - Press Freedom Index - World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index - UN Human Development Index - Global Peace Index - Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index). Photos by Wikimedia Commons. If you have a suggestion, critique, review or comment to this blog entry, we are looking forward to receive your e-mail at comment@wingsch.net. Please name the headline of the blog post to which your e-mail refers to in the subject line.




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