Intermarium or Three Seas Initiative

Wednesday, 3 February 2021 - 11:00 am (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: General
Reading Time:  5 minutes

Three Seas initiative summit 2018 © Administration of the President of the Republic of Bulgaria/cc-by-2.5

Three Seas initiative summit 2018 © Administration of the President of the Republic of Bulgaria/cc-by-2.5

Intermarium (Polish: Międzymorze) was a geopolitical project conceived by politicians in successor states of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in several iterations, some of which anticipated the inclusion as well of other, neighboring states. The proposed multinational polity would have extended across territories lying between the Baltic, Black and Adriatic Seas, hence the name meaning “Between-Seas”.

Prospectively a federation of Central and Eastern European countries, the post-World War I Intermarium plan pursued by Polish leader and former political prisoner of the Russian Empire, Józef Piłsudski (1867–1935), sought to recruit to the proposed federation the Baltic states (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia), Finland, Belarus, Ukraine, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. The Polish name Międzymorze (from między, “between”; and morze, “sea”), meaning “Between-Seas”, was rendered into Latin as “Intermarium.”

The proposed federation was meant to emulate the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea, that, from the end of the 16th century to the end of the 18th, had united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Intermarium complemented Piłsudski’s other geopolitical vision, Prometheism, whose goal was the dismemberment of the Russian Empire and that Empire’s divestment of its territorial acquisitions.

Intermarium was, however, perceived by some Lithuanians as a threat to their newly established independence, and by some Ukrainians as a threat to their aspirations for independence, and while France backed the proposal, it was opposed by Russia and by most other Western powers. Within two decades of the failure of Piłsudski’s grand scheme, all the countries that he had viewed as candidates for membership in the Intermarium federation had fallen to the Soviet Union or Nazi Germany, except for Finland (which suffered some territorial losses in the 1939–40 Winter War with the Soviet Union).

Three Seas initiative summit 2018 © Administration of the President of the Republic of Bulgaria/cc-by-2.5 Three Seas initiative summit 2018 © Administration of the President of the Republic of Bulgaria/cc-by-2.5 Three Seas initiative summit 2018 © Administration of the President of the Republic of Bulgaria/cc-by-2.5
<
>
Three Seas initiative summit 2018 © Administration of the President of the Republic of Bulgaria/cc-by-2.5
The concept of a “Central [and Eastern] European Union”, a triangular geopolitical entity anchored in the Baltic, Black, and Adriatic or Aegean Seas, was revived during World War II in Władysław Sikorski‘s Polish Government in Exile. A first step toward its implementation, 1942 discussions between the Greek, Yugoslav, Polish and Czechoslovak governments in exile regarding prospective Greek-Yugoslav and Polish-Czechoslovak federations, ultimately foundered on Soviet opposition, which led to Czech hesitation and Allied indifference or hostility. A declaration by the Polish Underground State in that period called for the creation of a Central and Eastern European federal union undominated by any one state.

On 12 May 2011, the Visegrád Group countries (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary) announced the formation of a Visegrád Battlegroup under Poland’s command. The battlegroup was in place by 2016 as an independent force, not part of the NATO command. In addition, starting in 2013, the four countries were to begin joint military exercises under the auspices of the NATO Response Force. Some scholars saw this as a first step toward close Central European regional cooperation.

On 6 August 2015, Polish President Andrzej Duda, in his inaugural address, announced plans to build a regional alliance of Central European states, modeled on the Intermarium concept. In 2016 the Three Seas Initiative held an initial summit meeting in Dubrovnik, Croatia. The Three Seas Initiative has 12 member states along a north–south axis from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria.

Read more on Three Seas Initiative, Wikipedia Three Seas Initiative and Wikipedia Intermarium (Smart Traveler App by U.S. Department of State - Weather report by weather.com - Global Passport Power Rank - Travel Risk Map - Democracy Index - GDP according to IMF, UN, and World Bank - Global Competitiveness Report - Corruption Perceptions Index - Press Freedom Index - World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index - UN Human Development Index - Global Peace Index - Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index). Photos by Wikimedia Commons. If you have a suggestion, critique, review or comment to this blog entry, we are looking forward to receive your e-mail at comment@wingsch.net. Please name the headline of the blog post to which your e-mail refers to in the subject line.




Recommended posts:

Share this post: (Please note data protection regulations before using buttons)

Grafenegg Castle in Lower Austria

Grafenegg Castle in Lower Austria

[caption id="attachment_23800" align="alignleft" width="590"] © Zairon/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Seven centuries of history can be seen in the architecture of Grafenegg Castle. Extended in the 19th century, it has become Austria’s most important example of historicism and in Grafenegg it is possible to find stylistic traces from Gothic through Baroque and Biedermeier to elegant Neo-gothic. With its soaring tower, grandiose façades, stylish staircases, atmospheric arcades and attractive chapel, Grafenegg has beco...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Chateaux of the Loire Valley - Château de Chaumont-sur-Loire

Theme Week Chateaux of the Loire Valley - Château de Chaumont-sur-Loire

[caption id="attachment_153155" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Peter Dutton[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Château de Chaumont is a French castle at Chaumont-sur-Loire in Loir-et-Cher. The first château-fort on this site between Blois and Amboise was a primitive fortress built by Eudes II, Count of Blois, in the 10th century with the purpose of protecting Blois from attacks from his feudal rivals, the counts of Anjou. On his behalf the Norman Gelduin received it, improved it and held it as his own. His great-niece ...

[ read more ]

Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Chapel in Montreal

Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Chapel in Montreal

[caption id="attachment_232600" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © DXR/cc-by-sa-4.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Chapel (chapelle Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours, "Our Lady of Good Help") is a church in the district of Old Montreal in Montreal, Quebec. One of the oldest churches in Montreal, it was built in 1771 over the ruins of an earlier chapel. The church is located at 400 Saint Paul Street East at Bonsecours Street, just north of the Bonsecours Market in the borough of Ville-Marie (Champ-de-Mars metro ...

[ read more ]

The Sherlock Holmes Museum in London

The Sherlock Holmes Museum in London

[caption id="attachment_23636" align="alignleft" width="590"] Sherlock Holmes Museum © Jordan 1972[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Sherlock Holmes Museum is a privately run museum in London, dedicated to the famous fictional detective Sherlock Holmes. It opened in 1990 and is situated in Baker Street, bearing the number 221B by permission of the City of Westminster, although it lies between numbers 237 and 241, near the north end of Baker Street in central London close to Regent's Park. The Georgian town house which the m...

[ read more ]

Mamaia in Romania

Mamaia in Romania

[caption id="attachment_231786" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Razvan Socol/cc-by-sa-4.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Mamaia is a resort on the Romanian Black Sea shore and a district of Constanța. Considered to be Romania's most popular resort, Mamaia is situated immediately north-east of Constanța's city center. It has almost no full-time residents, being populated mostly during the summer. Mamaia lies on a strip of land 8 km (5 mi) in length and only 300 m (330 yd) in width, between the Black Sea and Lake Siutg...

[ read more ]

Sion in Valais

Sion in Valais

[caption id="attachment_27390" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Sputniktilt/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Sion is the capital of the Swiss canton of Valais. It has a population of 33,000. On 17 January 1968 the former municipality of Bramois and on 1 January 2013 the former municipality of Salins merged into the municipality of Sion. Landmarks include the Basilique de Valère and Château de Tourbillon. Sion has an airfield for civilian and military use which serves as a base for countless life-saving air rescue miss...

[ read more ]

Bad Harzburg on the northern edge of the Harz mountains

Bad Harzburg on the northern edge of the Harz mountains

[caption id="attachment_160225" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Youth Fountain by Jochen Müller © Kassandro[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Bad Harzburg is a town in central Germany, in the Goslar district of Lower Saxony. It lies on the northern edge of the Harz mountains and is a recognised saltwater spa and climatic health resort. Bad Harzburg is situated at the northern foot of the Harz mountain range on the edge of the Harz National Park. To the east of the borough is the boundary between the states of Lower Saxony and...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Algeria - Ghardaïa

Theme Week Algeria - Ghardaïa

[caption id="attachment_168326" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Taguelmoust/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Ghardaïa is the capital city of Ghardaïa Province. The commune of Ghardaïa has a population of 93,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.7%. It is located in northern-central Algeria in the Sahara Desert and lies along the left bank of the Wadi Mzab. The M'zab valley in the Ghardaïa Province (Wilaya) was inscribed under the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1982. The unique layout of the Ghardaïa village is dicta...

[ read more ]

The Trade Fair City of Leipzig

The Trade Fair City of Leipzig

[caption id="attachment_161120" align="aligncenter" width="590"] New Town Hall © Appaloosa[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Leipzig with more than 530,000 inhabitants, is one of the two largest cities (along with Dresden) in the federal state of Saxony. Leipzig is situated about 150 km south of Berlin at the confluence of the Weisse Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southerly end of the North German Plain. Leipzig played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, through events which took...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Paris - Arrondissement du Luxembourg (6th)

Theme Week Paris - Arrondissement du Luxembourg (6th)

[caption id="attachment_151899" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Jardin du Palais du Luxembourg © Dinkum[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The 6th arrondissement includes world famous educational institutions such as the École des Beaux-Arts de Paris and the Académie française, the seat of the French Senate as well as a concentration of some of Paris most famous monuments such as Saint-Germain Abbey and square, St. Sulpice Church and square, the Pont des Arts or the Jardins du Luxembourg. Situated on the left bank of the Riv...

[ read more ]

Return to TopReturn to Top
© Webwolf67
The Enchantment of the Seas

Enchantment of the Seas is a Vision-class cruise ship operated by Royal Caribbean International. In September 2017, Enchantment of the...

© Hanonimas/cc-by-sa-3.0
Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower in Tokyo

Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower (Mōdo gakuen kokūn tawā) is a 204 metres (669 feet), 50-story educational facility located in the...

© Wolfgang Moroder/cc-by-sa-3.0
Quirinal Palace in Rome

The Quirinal Palace (Italian: Palazzo del Quirinale) is a historic building in Rome, Italy, one of the three current official...

Close