Golf

Monday, 6 February 2017 - 11:00 am (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: General, Sport
Reading Time:  14 minutes

Golf Costa Teguise - Golfers on green © flickr com - Sands Beach Lanzarote/cc-by-2.0

Golf Costa Teguise – Golfers on green © flickr com – Sands Beach Lanzarote/cc-by-2.0

Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games, does not require a standardized playing area. The game is played on a course with an arranged progression of either nine or 18 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, and a putting green containing the actual hole or cup (4.25 inches in width). There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough (long grass), sand traps, and hazards (water, rocks, fescue) but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels. The rules of golf are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by The R&A, spun off in 2004 from The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (founded 1754), and the United States Golf Association (USGA).

The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II‘s banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503-1504: “For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with”. To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records. The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, which was played at Leith, Scotland. The world’s oldest golf tournament in existence, and golf’s first major, is The Open Championship, which was first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, Scotland, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the US by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America’s first golf club the same year, St. Andrews Golf Club in Yonkers, New York.

Southampton - National Golf Links of America clubhouse © Americasroof Golf Club © yasisland.ae Petwood Hotel © geograph.org.uk/David Wright New golf course, built on a former airport runway © Harry W. McCormack/cc-by-sa-3.0 Varadero Golf Course © Gardenparty/cc-by-sa-3.0 Upington Golf Course © Wal0007 Golf Costa Teguise - Golfers on green © flickr com - Sands Beach Lanzarote/cc-by-2.0 Sonocaddie V300 Golf GPS © Rico Shen/cc-by-sa-4.0 Herring Cove Golf Course © flickr.com - New Brunswick Tourism/cc-by-2.0 © flickr.com - Wojciech Kulicki/cc-by-2.0 Golf course © Elisa.rolle/cc-by-sa-4.0 Arminius in the Senne Golfclub Gut Welschof in Schloß Holte-Stukenbrock © R. Engelhardt
<
>
Arminius in the Senne Golfclub Gut Welschof in Schloß Holte-Stukenbrock © R. Engelhardt
Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A “round” typically consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout. Each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people. Though a typical group playing will have 1, 2, 3 or 4 people playing the round. The typical amount of time required for pace of play for a 9-hole round is two hours and four hours for an 18-hole round. Playing a hole on a golf course is initiated by putting a ball into play by striking it with a club on the teeing ground (also called the tee box, or simply the tee). For this first shot on each hole, it is allowed but not required for the golfer to place the ball on a tee prior to striking it. A tee is a small peg that can be used to elevate the ball slightly above the ground up to a few centimetres high. Tees are commonly made of wood but may be constructed of any material, including plastic. Traditionally, golfers used mounds of sand to elevate the ball, and containers of sand were provided for the purpose. A few courses still require sand to be used instead of peg tees, to reduce litter and reduce damage to the teeing ground. Tees help reduce the interference of the ground or grass on the movement of the club making the ball easier to hit, and also places the ball in the very centre of the striking face of the club (the “sweet spot”) for better distance. When the initial shot on a hole is intended to move the ball a long distance (typically more than 225 yards (210 m)), the shot is commonly called a “drive” and is generally made with a long-shafted, large-headed wood club called a “driver”. Shorter holes may be initiated with other clubs, such as higher-numbered woods or irons. Once the ball comes to rest, the golfer strikes it again as many times as necessary using shots that are variously known as a “lay-up”, an “approach”, a “pitch”, or a chip, until the ball reaches the green, where he or she then putts the ball into the hole (commonly called “sinking the putt” or “holing out”). The goal of getting the ball into the hole (“holing” the ball) in as few strokes as possible may be impeded by obstacles such as areas of longer grass called “rough” (usually found alongside fairways), which both slows any ball that contacts it and makes it harder to advance a ball that has stopped on it; “doglegs”, which are changes in the direction of the fairway that often require shorter shots to play around them; bunkers (or sand traps); and water hazards such as ponds or streams. In stroke play competitions played according to strict rules, each player plays his or her ball until it is holed no matter how many strokes that may take. In match play it is acceptable to simply pick up one’s ball and “surrender the hole” after enough strokes have been made by a player that it is mathematically impossible for the player to win the hole. It is also acceptable in informal stroke play to surrender the hole after hitting three strokes more than the “par” rating of the hole (a “triple bogey” – see below); while technically a violation of Rule 3-2, this practice speeds play as a courtesy to others, and avoids “runaway scores”, excessive frustration and injuries caused by overexertion. The total distance from the first tee box to the 18th green can be quite long; total yardages “through the green” can be in excess of 7,000 yards (6,400 m), and when adding in the travel distance between the green of one hole and the tee of the next, even skilled players may easily travel five miles or more during a round. At some courses, electric golf carts are used to travel between shots, which can speed-up play and allows participation by individuals unable to walk a whole round. On other courses players generally walk the course, either carrying their bag using a shoulder strap or using a “golf trolley” for their bag. These trolleys may or may not be battery assisted. At many amateur tournaments including U.S. high school and college play, players are required to walk and to carry their own bags, but at the professional and top amateur level, as well as at high-level private clubs, players may be accompanied by caddies, who carry and manage the players’ equipment and who are allowed by the rules to give advice on the play of the course. A caddy’s advice can only be given to the player or players for whom the caddy is working, and not to other competing players.

Golf clubs are used to hit the golf ball. Each club is composed of a shaft with a lance (or “grip”) on the top end and a club head on the bottom. Long clubs, which have a lower amount of degree loft, are those meant to propel the ball a comparatively longer distance, and short clubs a higher degree of loft and a comparatively shorter distance. The actual physical length of each club is longer or shorter, depending on the distance the club is intended to propel the ball. Golf clubs have traditionally been arranged into three basic types. Woods are large-headed, long-shafted clubs meant to propel the ball a long distance from relatively “open” lies, such as the tee box and fairway. Of particular importance is the driver or “1-wood”, which is the lowest lofted wood club, and in modern times has become highly specialized for making extremely long-distance tee shots, up to 300 yards (270 m), or more, in a professional golfer’s hands. Traditionally these clubs had heads made of a hardwood, hence the name, but virtually all modern woods are now made of metal such as titanium, or of composite materials. Irons are shorter-shafted clubs with a metal head primarily consisting of a flat, angled striking face. Traditionally the clubhead was forged from iron; modern iron clubheads are investment-cast from a steel alloy. Irons of varying loft are used for a variety of shots from virtually anywhere on the course, but most often for shorter-distance shots approaching the green, or to get the ball out of tricky lies such as sand traps. The third class is the putter, which evolved from the irons to create a low-lofted, balanced club designed to roll the ball along the green and into the hole. Putters are virtually always used on the green or in the surrounding rough/fringe. A fourth class, called hybrids, evolved as a cross between woods and irons, and are typically seen replacing the low-lofted irons with a club that provides similar distance, but a higher launch angle and a more forgiving nature. A maximum of 14 clubs is allowed in a player’s bag at one time during a stipulated round. The choice of clubs is at the golfer’s discretion, although every club must be constructed in accordance with parameters outlined in the rules. (Clubs that meet these parameters are usually called “conforming”.) Violation of these rules can result in disqualification. The exact shot hit at any given time on a golf course, and which club is used to accomplish the shot, are always completely at the discretion of the golfer; in other words, there is no restriction whatsoever on which club a golfer may or may not use at any time for any shot. Golf balls are spherical, usually white (although other colours are allowed), and minutely pock-marked by dimples that decrease aerodynamic drag by increasing air turbulence around the ball in motion, which delays “boundary layer” separation and reduces the drag-inducing “wake” behind the ball, thereby allowing the ball to fly farther. The combination of a soft “boundary layer” and a hard “core” enables both distance and spin. A tee is allowed only for the first stroke on each hole, unless the player must hit a provisional tee shot or replay his or her first shot from the tee. Many golfers wear golf shoes with metal or plastic spikes designed to increase traction, thus allowing for longer and more accurate shots. A golf bag is used to transport golf clubs and the player’s other or personal equipment. Golf bags have several pockets designed for carrying equipment and supplies such as tees, balls, and gloves. Golf bags can be carried, pulled on a trolley or harnessed to a motorized golf cart during play. Golf bags have both a hand strap and shoulder strap for carrying, and sometimes have retractable legs that allow the bag to stand upright when at rest.

Read more on International Golf Federation, Wikivoyage Golf and Wikipedia Golf (Smart Traveler App by U.S. Department of State - Weather report by weather.com - Global Passport Power Rank - Travel Risk Map - Democracy Index - GDP according to IMF, UN, and World Bank - Global Competitiveness Report - Corruption Perceptions Index - Press Freedom Index - World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index - UN Human Development Index - Global Peace Index - Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index). Photos by Wikimedia Commons. If you have a suggestion, critique, review or comment to this blog entry, we are looking forward to receive your e-mail at comment@wingsch.net. Please name the headline of the blog post to which your e-mail refers to in the subject line.




Recommended posts:

Share this post: (Please note data protection regulations before using buttons)

Independence Avenue in Washington, D.C.

Independence Avenue in Washington, D.C.

[caption id="attachment_205958" align="aligncenter" width="590"] 1900 Independence Avenue © flickr.com - Tim Evanson/cc-by-sa-2.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Independence Avenue is a major east-west street in the southwest and southeast quadrants of the city of Washington, D.C., running just south of the United States Capitol. Originally named South B Street, Independence Avenue SW was constructed between 1791 and 1823. Independence Avenue SE was constructed in pieces as residential development occurred east of the United States ...

[ read more ]

Khreshchatyk Boulevard in Kyiv

Khreshchatyk Boulevard in Kyiv

[caption id="attachment_165378" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Tiia Monto/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Khreshchatyk (Ukrainian: Хрещатик) is the main street of Kyiv, Ukraine. The street has a length of 1.3 km (0.81 mi). It stretches from the European Square (northeast) through the Maidan and to Bessarabska Square (southwest) where the Besarabsky Market is located. Along the street are the offices of the Kiev City Council which contains both the city's council and the state administration, the Main Post Off...

[ read more ]

Joint Security Area between North and South Korea

Joint Security Area between North and South Korea

[caption id="attachment_192256" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Military Demarcation Line © Kallgan[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Joint Security Area (JSA) is the only portion of the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) where North and South Korean forces stand face-to-face. It is often called the Truce Village of Panmunjom in the media and various military accounts. The JSA is used by the two Koreas for diplomatic engagements and, until March 1991, was also the site of military negotiations between North Korea and the United Natio...

[ read more ]

Paulus-Haus in East Jerusalem

Paulus-Haus in East Jerusalem

[caption id="attachment_231772" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © DVHL-PR1/cc-by-sa-4.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Paulus-Haus is a pilgrim hospice in Jerusalem under the care of the German Association of the Holy Land. It is situated on the Nablus Road in East Jerusalem, directly opposite the Damascus Gate of the Old City. The monumental architecture is reminiscent of the crusader castles. The Schmidt's Girls College is a German international school for Christian and Muslim girls. It was founded in 1885 and provides primar...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Lombardy

Theme Week Lombardy

[caption id="attachment_153438" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Villa Isola del Garda © Luca Capuccini[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Lombardy is one of the 20 regions of Italy. The capital is Milan. A sixth of Italy's population lives in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country. It is also the region with the most Unesco World Heritage Sites in Italy. Although Lombardy is often identified as merely an economic and industrial powerhouse, it ha...

[ read more ]

Theme Week Laos

Theme Week Laos

[caption id="attachment_213805" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang © flickr.com - Allie Caulfield/cc-by-2.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Laos, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxôn Lao), is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. At the heart of the Indochinese peninsula, Laos is bordered by Myanmar and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southeast and Thailand to the west and southwest....

[ read more ]

Oslo in Norway

Oslo in Norway

[caption id="attachment_151029" align="aligncenter" width="432"] Oslo Montage © Cnygard[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Oslo is a county and municipality, as well as the capital and largest city in Norway. Oslo was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). Founded around 1048 by King Harald III "Hardraade" of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by a fire in 1624. The Danish–Norwegian king Christian IV rebuilt the city as Christiania (briefly also spelt Kristiania). In 1925 the city reclaimed its...

[ read more ]

Theme Week India - Bangalore

Theme Week India - Bangalore

[caption id="attachment_196182" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Bangalore Palace © Nikkul/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital city of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India. It is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, which is the highest among India's major cities. It reflects its m...

[ read more ]

The Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela

The Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela

[caption id="attachment_223523" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Bete Giyorgis © Bernard Gagnon/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Rock-hewn Churches of Lalibela are monolithic churches located in the Western Ethiopian Highlands near the town of Lalibela, named after the late-12th and early-13th century King Gebre Mesqel Lalibela of the Zagwe Dynasty, who commissioned the massive building project of 11 rock-hewn churches to recreate the holy city of Jerusalem in his own kingdom. The site remains in use by the Ethiopian ...

[ read more ]

Spain's autonomous city of Ceuta

Spain's autonomous city of Ceuta

[caption id="attachment_153500" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Ceuta map © Omar-Toons[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Ceuta is a 18.5 square kilometres (7.1 sq mi) autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish exclave Melilla are the only Spanish territories located in mainland Africa. It was regarded ...

[ read more ]

Return to TopReturn to Top
Rio 2016 - Spain vs Netherlands © flickr.com - Jonas de Carvalho/cc-by-sa-2.0
Field hockey

Field hockey is a team sport of the hockey family. The earliest origins of the sport date back to the...

© flickr.com - Galeria del Ministerio de Defensa del Perú/cc-by-2.0
The sail training ship Unión

The BAP Unión is a training ship of the Peruvian Navy. It is a four-masted steel hulled full rigged barque...

Cheyenne Mountain © flickr.com - Jimmy/cc-by-sa-2.0
Cheyenne Mountain

Cheyenne Mountain is a triple-peaked mountain in El Paso County, Colorado, southwest of downtown Colorado Springs. The mountain serves as...

Close