The European Union: Quo vadis?

Tuesday, 2 October 2018 - 11:00 am (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: Editorial, European Union, General
Reading Time:  919 minutes

(Latest update: 17 October 2021) Best of all first: The EU and the Eurozone today have greater approval among its citizens than it did in the past 35 years. This is not just any indicator, but a solid basis and a work order that has so far been adopted only in part to actually address ambitious, long overdue reforms and the necessary reorientation of the EU. A nicely written white paper by the European Commission, which presents possible scenarios until 2025, isn’t enough. What is needed is a “EU Vision 2030” plan with clear timetables and sub-goals, which are constantly being updated, especially as new sub-goals always emerge from ongoing processes, where everyone can find orientation about ongoing and future developments, as well as to participate or in marketing-speak “Europe need a common future and story!” This one is a bit longer and a summary of the current challenges and opportunities, while continuing the article The European Union: Blessing or curse? Past or future?.


Content


Introduction
Today, people in the states of the EU live in better conditions than ever before. It should be clear to the citizens that the future viability of the states depends on their being under the strong umbrella of the EU in order to prepare themselves for the economic challenges from China, and more recently from the US, militarily from Russia (The Washington Post, 13 September 2018: 5 things to know about Russia’s Vostok-2018 military exercises, The Guardian, 20 October2018: Trump says US will withdraw from nuclear arms treaty with Russia, BBC, 21 October 2018: President Trump to pull US from Russia missile treaty, CNN, 21 October 2018: Trump says US is ending decades-old nuclear arms treaty with Russia, BBC, 21 October 2018: Russia nuclear treaty: Gorbachev warns Trump plan will undermine disarmament, CNN, 22 October 2018: Russia fires back after Trump threatens to ditch nuclear arms treaty (“funny” is that the Russian Tsar Putin has been stationed months ago the nuclear first strike weapon system Iskander-K in the region of Kaliningrad, to threaten Europe permanently, and is lamenting now, because adequate countermeasures to safeguard Europe against continued and further threats from the Kremlin shall be initiated (Avangard hypersonic glide vehicle)), NATO, 25 October 2018: Trident Juncture 18, The Washington Post, 25 October 2018: At a pivotal moment for the alliance, NATO launches biggest exercise since the end of the Cold War, The New York Times, 26 January 2019: Saving NATO, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, The New York Times, 1 February 2019: U.S. Suspends Nuclear Arms Control Treaty With Russia, CNN, 2 February 2019: Russia follows US in suspending INF nuclear missile treaty, The Washington Post, 2 February 2019: Why Putin won’t be mad about Trump pulling out of the INF Treaty, The Guardian, 2 February 2019: Russia follows US in suspending nuclear deal, The New York Times, 2 February 2019: Russia Pulls Out of Nuclear Treaty in ‘Symmetrical’ Response to U.S. Move, The Washington Post, 2 February 2019: Following U.S., Putin suspends nuclear pact and promises new weapons, Jerusalem Post, 2 February 2019: Russia set to develop new and advanced missile systems, The New York Times, 10 February 2019: How Russia Undermined Over 30 Years of Nuclear Arms Control, France24, 12 February 2019: NATO planning for more Russian missiles: Stoltenberg and The Washington Post, 17 February 2019: Withdrawing from the INF Treaty would cripple arms control efforts for decades, The Guardian, 1 July 2019: US arms control office critically understaffed under Trump, experts say, CNN, 20 July 2019: Clock’s ticking on one of world’s most important nuclear treaties. A dangerous arms race may be next, CNN, 27 July 2019: Donald Trump’s most catastrophic decision, BBC, 2 August 2019: INF nuclear treaty: Nato ‘to avoid arms race’ after US-Russia pact ends, The Guardian, 2 August 2019: Nato and Russia trade barbs after collapse of nuclear arms treaty, CNN, 2 August 2019: NATO chief says end of nuclear treaty is ‘serious setback’, after US withdraws, Al Arabiya, 2 AUgust 2019: US to develop new missiles after exiting INF treaty, Times of Israel, 2 August 2019: US to accelerate missile program after ending weapons pact with Russia, Saudi Gazette, 2 August 2019: US pulls out of Soviet-era nuclear missile pact with Russia, Gulf News, 2 August 2019: US ends Cold War missile treaty in bid to counter China, France24, 2 August 2019: US to withdraw officially from Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, DW, 2 August 2019: Opinion: Scrapping the INF treaty is risky — and a lost opportunity, Arab News, 3 AUgust 2019: The arms race has new legs, CNN, 8 August 2019: Russia has released footage of its new ‘Hunter’ stealth attack drone, Jerusalem Post, 12 August 2019: US, Russia nuke tensions may be even worse than Iran threat – analysis, The Guardian, 17 August 2019: The nuclear arms race is back … and ever more dangerous now, CNN, 18 August 2019: What a mysterious explosion tells us about Russia’s ‘doomsday weapon’, France24, 19 August 2019: US tests medium-range cruise missile in the wake of INF treaty exit, The National Interest, 20 August 2019: Russia’s New Weapons: From Doomsday Nuclear Torpedoes to Skyfall Missiles, DW, 20 August 2019: Russia blast radiation caused by Skyfall missile, US experts say, Haaretz, 21 August 2019: Skyfall Explosion: Doomsday Weapon Accident Shows Limits of Putin’s Dangerous Ambitions). How can it nevertheless be that the colorful and cheerful Europe threatens to become a more and more dull, simple, nationalistic, fact- and learn-resistant Europe? The paradox of this is, above all, that it is the EU itself that made it possible to connect different states and their people. On the one hand, it creates EU citizens and patriots and, on the other hand, simple minded state-cross national movements. After all, nationalism by definition can only function within a nation-state, but not across multiple states, unless one understands the EU as such as a nation-state, so that EU nationalism can emerge to develop common, viable and workable solutions. It is hardly to be expected that Europe’s right-wing nationalists are able to think in such a dimension at all, although here they could take an example from the rednecks and hillbillys of the Southern United States, who have at least understood that, albeit coming from different states, they all are US citizens. That would be, even when still annoying, after all, a development and adaptation of the changed realities and general conditions (The Guardian, 21 July 2018: Steve Bannon plans foundation to fuel far right in Europe, BBC, 23 July 2018: Bannon plan for Europe-wide populist ‘supergroup’ sparks alarm, Bloomberg, 24 July 2018: Steve Bannon Wants to Divide and Conquer in Europe Too, The Guardian, 30 July 2018: Europe shouldn’t fear Steve Bannon. It should fear the hype that surrounds him, The Washington Post, 26 September 2018: A nationalist abroad: Stephen Bannon evangelizes Trump-style politics across Europe, The Guardian, 24 October 2018: The real danger to Europe? The lost sense of a common cause, The Guardian, 18 February 2019: EU parliament’s centrist coalition set to lose majority, poll finds, Arab News, 26 June 2019: Critics should not forget EU’s role in preserving peace). Overall, this article is trying to make it clear what Alexander von Humboldt already knew 250 years ago:

“Everything is connected with everything.”


History of Europe and the United Staates of America

“Only who knows where he comes from knows where he is going.” – Theodor Heuss

In order to understand the current developments in Europe, it makes sense to deal with the very varied and multi-faceted history of Europe and the states/federation building processes. This includes numerous regional, national and international armed conflicts, such as the Thirty Years’ War, which began with the Defenestrations of Prague on May 23, 1618. Under the motto “One people, one religion, one leader”, the catholic Emperor Ferdinand II tried to persuade the Protestant electorates to convert to Catholicism. The attempt failed after several lossy battles in favor of a pluralistic solution, because the acting persons came to the realization that diversity is probably better than simplicity. With that everything has already been said and everyone could have gone home happily and contentedly with this knowledge gain, in order to be able to work on a common, peaceful and prosperous Europe from now on. History went a little bit different and many other wars followed, because people are generally far less able to learn than they would like to think of themselves. If World War I and World War II had any good aspects at all, it is that the results are now deeply branded in the European collective memory and, as a result, the European Union was founded. Following the old saying, “When the donkey is too well, he goes on the ice”, from the end of the 2000s onwards, small groups were formed in the states, which eventually gave rise to national movements and parties and in fact found enough supporters to position their crude (conspiracy) theories against the EU. The vast majority of these theories are completely baseless and fact-free, which is what their supporters, who are suffering from extensive fact allergy, especially like about it. But it is also about fear of loss, especially with regard to identities (or social decline or to be even more accurate: If some Germans think that “refugees take away our jobs,” then these people should just keep the following in mind: Should a refugee, who has never been to Germany or even Europe at all, has no language skills, has no idea of how life and the labor market work here (neither in total nor in detail), be able to “take away jobs” from these Germans, then in their lives has so much gone wrong before, that even 12 million refugees and immigrants could not affect their lifes more negative than it already has been affected before. In any case, it is not the refugees who are to blame, but in most cases, they themselves. Presumably, such people would be overwhelmed even with returnable bottle sorting), even though today’s states have no clearly definable national identities because they are made up of colorful collections of duchies and principalities with partly contradictory identities and due to the numerous small and large migrations of the people over the centuries couldn’t develop clearly identifiable identities (The “Heimat” concept (homeland), on the other hand, is much easier to define, even if it can have individual different definitions). The romantic idea that there ever was a homogenous Germany is a very clear self-deception, because the country and also all predecessors in the area of today’s Germany (even more so if one includes Poland and parts of Russia (German Reich) or parts of France and Italy (Holy Roman Empire of German Nations)), Germany has always been heterogeneous, even if there were majorities and continue to exist. The same applies, of course, to all other current EU states as well, and certainly to the US. The EU offers a basic agreement on the basis of geography, namely, “We are all Europeans”, even if not all countries of the continent belong to the EU by now. With the EU still under construction, it will take quite a while for this to happen. On the other hand, how well European integration already works in everyday life is evident in the changed news situation, among other aspects. 20 years ago, only a small section of the population in Europe was interested in politics and politicians in neighboring countries. This has changed over the past decades fundamentally, because the perception has changed. In the past, it was understood as “foreign policy”, and is now understood as “domestic policy”, because the effects can have an affect for everyone.

At this point, it’s worth taking a look at the history of the United States of America. Even if no one-to-one comparisons are possible, the founding of the USA is the first and until today successful European major project, meanwhile not only more successful than the EU itself, but even the only remaining world power (other European projects, such as Canada, Australia or New Zealand, are also going very well. Overall, Europe has left its mark in many parts of the world due to colonization. Often with negative consequences, but often also with positive effects that reverberate to this day), because ultimately it is the anticipation of the EU outside of Europe. The settlements were finally carried out by people from all European countries (today, e.g., about 50 million of the 330 million Americans say to have German ancestors). Even today, the folklore and local features/peculiarities that came with the European settlers have survived in the individual states, are promoted and celebrated accordingly – all under the common roof of the United States. The EU implements this concern, ie the preservation and promotion of specific characteristics, specificities, folklore, language and food/drink, under the motto “united in diversity” even more consistently and extensively by creating appropriate laws and regulations and providing funding (Europe of the Regions, Culture in the European Union, geographical indication, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Minority rights, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and European Convention on Human Rights). In this respect, the EU is reminiscent of the Roman Empire, but on a voluntary basis, ie a federation of different, diversified states, which keep their cultures, languages, religions and other peculiarities, but united under a common roof with self-given, common rules (Transatlantic relations).


Migration debate, xenophobia, racism, right-wing extremism and right-wing terrorism
It is actually unbelievable: the wall fell, fortunately the Soviet Union failed in its own right, as a result of which most of the Eastern Bloc gained its freedom. There was great hope for democracy, freedom and the rule of law. Especially in the eastward expansion of the EU, which only knows freedom from history lessons, the hope for freedom and democracy was huge. It is all the more surprising that the majority have once again been seduced by nationalist demagogues. From the east, this nationalistic nonsense finally rubbed off into East Germany, which was formerly part of the Eastern Bloc. Where the journey will eventually lead to remains open by now. It will certainly not be pleasing for while. Therefore the blog entry The European Union: Migration debate, xenophobia, racism and right-wing extremism was created.


Challenges and solution approaches in keywords


Economic and/or political development
The EU economy continues to develop well, although the federal debts of half of member countries remains above the agreed 60% of GDP. The EU GDP surpasses that of the US. The economic growth was 2.5% in 2017 and is projected to reach 2.3% in 2018, with developments in the member countries varying in some cases significantly (Times of Israel, 23 March 2016: The wolves of Tel Aviv: Israel’s vast, amoral binary options scam exposed, Reuters, 2 July 2018: Beating expectations, euro zone unemployment stable in May, Reuters, 7 September 2018: A decade after Lehman, Europe remains on economic crutches, The Guardian, 21 January 2019: IMF: no-deal Brexit and Chinese slump are biggest economic risks, Los Aangeles Times, 20 April 2019: Shortages hit Cuba, raising fears of new economic crisis, France24, 7 March 2019: ECB to keep rates unchanged amid weakening economy, The New York Times, 7 March 2019: Global Economy Slows, Pushing Europe’s Central Bank to Make a Surprise Move and The New York Times, 24 April 2019: Europe Not Feeling Much Pain From Trump Tariffs, Central Bank Says, The Guardian, 15 May 2019: Populism isn’t the biggest threat to the EU – it’s the east-west divide, The Guardian, 15 May 2019: Merkel: Europe must unite to stand up to China, Russia and US, The Guardian, 16 May 2019: Majority of Europeans expect end of EU within 20 years, Irish Times, 25 July 2019: European Central Bank paves way for fresh stimulus package, BBC, 25 July 2019: Eurozone prepares for interest rate cut as growth slows, Saudi Gazette, 25 July 2019: ECB charts path for new stimulus, Gulf News, 25 July 2019: European Central Bank hints rate cut, Arab News, 31 July 2019: Indecisive Europe must secure its digital sovereignty, Politico.eu, 13 August 2019: Boom time for European tourism, CNN, 14 August 2019: 5 of the world’s biggest economies are at risk of recession, Politico.eu, 19 August 2019: Merkel: ‘Truly united Europe’ includes Western Balkans, Politico.eu, 22 August 2019: EU officials float €100B boost for European companies, Saudi Gazette, 22 August 2019: Eurozone bankers warn of ‘more protracted’ slowdown, Politico.com, 24 August 2019: It’s the economy, Dummkopf! German slowdown spells trouble, Politico.eu, 26 August 2019: Europe’s last line of defense, Gulf Times, 6 September 2019: Merkel hopes China-US trade problems will be solved soon, CNN, 6 September 2019: Caught between human rights and trade, Angela Merkel lands in China, CNN, 11 September 2019: Europe needs Germany to spend big. Don’t hold your breath, Politico.eu, 14 September 2019: Trump poised to hit EU with billions in tariffs after victory in Airbus case, Politico.eu, 13 September 2019: What Europe is really fighting about, CNN, 18 September 2019: A crack just emerged in the financial markets: The NY Fed spends $53 billion to rescue the overnight lending market, BBC, 20 September 2019: Why is the Fed pumping money into the banking system?, The Guardian, 23 September 2019: Eurozone economy slows amid trade decline and Brexit fears, The Guardian, 25 September 2019: Global recession a serious danger in 2020, says UN, The Guardian, 30 September 2019: Christine Lagarde must jump-start change in Europe’s economy, Euronews, 30 September 2019: Using the EU’s own trade rules against it: the scourge of ‘VAT Carousel’ fraud (missing trader fraud), Politico.eu, 2 October 2019: The European way of life in numbers, Reuters, 7 October 2019: Mission impossible: Next EU foreign policy chief warns of EU irrelevance, Politico.eu, 15 October 2019: EU builds anti-Trump trade bazooka, Politico.eu, 19 October 2019: EU at ‘standstill’ over past 5 years, says French business lobby chief, The Guardian, 20 October 2019: World economy is sleepwalking into a new financial crisis, warns Mervyn King, CNN, 24 October 2019: The man who saved the euro bows out amid ‘unprecedented’ dissent at Europe’s central bank, Arab News, 25 October 2019: Europe has become the sick man of the world, CNN, 24 October 2019: Debt and deficit aren’t the same thing. Here’s the difference, Politico.eu, 25 October 2019: Argentine election looms over EU-Mercosur deal, Politico.eu, 31 October 2019: Lagarde’s political bent leaves critics fearing for ECB independence, The New York Times, 1 November 2019: Macron Steps Into a Leadership Vacuum in Europe, and on Some Toes, The Guardian, 4 November 2019: Poll reveals majority of eastern Europeans ‘fearful for democracy’, CNN, 10 November 2019: Two of the world’s biggest economies are at risk of recession, BBC, 21 November 2019: New warning on global economic slowdown, Politico.eu, 21 November 2019: The end of world trade as we know it, Politico.eu, 25 November 2019: Four ways to build trust for the single market, Politico.eu, 28 November 2019: EU rebels fight Commission plan to build WTO court without America, The Economist, 28 November 2019: The twilight of the WTO: The trading system’s referee is about to leave the field, Politico.eu, 6 December 2019: Don’t bank on the ECB saving the planet, The Guardian, 8 December 2019: WTO faces crisis over settlement disputes unless Trump backs off, Jerusalem Post, 9 December 2019: European innovation community extends operations to Israel, The Diplomat, 12 December 2019: Trump’s War on the World Trade Organization, NPR, 18 December 2019: Boeing Is So Big That Its 737 Max Production Halt Will Slow The Economy, Politico.com, 19 December 2019: Trump to now focus on trade deals after USMCA passage, France24, 21 December 2019: French Foreign Minister Le Drian calls for stronger ties between Europe and Latin America, Arab News, 25 December 2019: Europe’s hard choices in 2020, Politico.eu, 26 December 2019: Europe on the wane, DW, 30 December 2019: US, China and Germany profit most from global free trade, says WTO, Politico.eu, 31 December 2019: Europe’s big problems in 2020, WTO, 1 January 2020: The WTO’s 25 years of achievement and challenges, The Guardian, 2 January 2020: Can Merkel and Macron get Franco-German relations back on track?, Politico.eu, 27 January 2020: Europe vows to finally deliver on its unloved industrial strategy, The Atlantic, 31 January 2020: The European Union’s Double Crisis of Legitimacy (the political union is not only desirable, it is long overdue. Instead of shifting decisions from one government to the next for fear of a few nationalist backbenchers, anti-German and EU-hostile anti-democrats and anti-constitutionalists, right-wing extremists and right-wing terrorists, it is high time for the next big step forward to make the EU more powerful and future-proof and at the same time due of the results to take the wind out of the sails of the nationalists, because the successes will expose the “critics” for what they are: substance-less simpletons), Politico.eu, 3 February 2020: Europe’s next crisis: The geopolitical Commission, Arab News, 4 February 2020: Transformation being forced upon the EU, Politico.eu, 5 February 2020: Vestager’s next big fight will be with Europe, Politico.eu, 15 February 2020: Jean-Claude Juncker: Von der Leyen and I are ‘like the two popes’, Gulf Times, 17 February 2020: US economic outlook remains biggest risk to developing world, Gulf Times, 23 February 2020: Let’s come together to tax tech giants, say G20 officials eying $100 bn boost, The Guardian, 9 March 2020: Oil price plunges almost 30% as Saudis vow to step up production, CNN, 9 March 2020: Why oil prices are crashing and what it means, The Guardian, 9 March 2020: Saudi Arabia price war wipes billions from value of major oil firms, Al Arabiya, 18 March 2020: Russia would like to see higher oil prices: Kremlin spokesman, Arab News, 18 March 2020: Aramco plans to speed up big crude output rise: CEO, The National, 18 March 2020: Oil slips to lowest level since 2002 as economies brace for recession, Al Arabiya, 18 March 2020: US crude oil hits 17-year low amid coronavirus, Saudi-Russia price war, CNN, 29 March 2020: Economists and investors are flying blind through a pandemic, Politico.eu, 31 March 2020: EU makes new push for solidarity with €100B unemployment scheme, Jerusalem Post, 2 April 2020: Venezuelan warship shoots, rams into German cruise vessel before sinking, The Economist, 16 April 2020: Pandemic geopolitics: Is China winning?, DW, 23 April 2020: How the coronavirus impacts the book industry (it would be easy to create a common platform. You don’t need 2,000 people for this, just 20 and a data center. The connected publishers can do the rest themselves, thus keeping the costs low. However, there are probably once again single interests that prevent this step. Above all, the corona crisis shows that the German retail sector is hopelessly lagging behind in terms of digitalization. Individuals were well positioned before, but the majority were not. “Traditional retail” in particular will decline because of the crisis while it still believes that “personal advice” would be unbeatable compared to “this Internet that will go away anyway”. A remarkable misjudgment), Politico.eu, 27 April 2020: Macron, the lonely Europeanist, Politico.eu, 4 May 2020: Europe’s economic future in German judges’ hands, CNN, 4 May 2020: Some retailers are too broke to go bankrupt, Politico.eu, 5 May 2020: German court lays down EU law, Yale Global Online, 5 May 2020: Irresponsible Superpowers Must Cooperate, Der Spiegel, 5 May 2020: Future of Our Global Economy: The Beginning of De-Globalization, Politico.eu, 5 May 2020: German high court warns ECB that bond buying could be illegal, Foreign Affairs, 6 May 2020: The Coming Post-COVID Anarchy, Politico.eu, 6 May 2020: Hogan: Brussels will ensure ‘supremacy’ of EU law after German ruling, CNN, 6 May 2020: Europe faces recession of ‘historic proportions’, Politico.eu, 6 May 2020: Europe faces ‘recession of historic proportions’, Politico.eu, 6 May 2020: Hungary no longer a democracy: report, Times of Israel, 6 May 2020: Thus passes the glory of Europe, Yale Global Online, 7 May 2020: Don’t Blame Supply Chains, Politico.eu, 8 May 2020: Sassoli demands bigger European Parliament role in recovery plan, YouTube, 8 May 2020: Secretary-General António Guterres video message on observance of Europe Day, 9 May 2020 (Europe Day), European Union – External Action: Europe Day 2020: Together we are Europe, European Union: Europe Day, Politico.eu, 9 May 2020: EU leaders to Europe on Europe Day: We’re Number 1, The Guardian, 9 May 2020: IMF warns of further drop in global growth due to Covid-19, The Guardian, 10 May 2020: The ‘United States of Europe’ speech that Winston Churchill so nearly made, Politico.eu, 10 May 2020: Paolo Gentiloni: EU emergency finance has no ‘draconian’ strings attached, Politico.eu, 10 May 2020: Brussels eyes a bigger EU shareholder role in the coronavirus recovery, The Guardian, 10 May 2020: Elites have failed us. It is time to create a European republic, Politico.eu, 11 May 2020: Snake oil, quackery and deglobalization, Politico.eu, 11 May 2020: Watchdog slams EU agency for letting boss join lobby group, CNN, 13 May 2020: Europe promises to reopen for summer tourism in wake of coronavirus, Politico.eu, 13 May 2020: The EU is undermining its democracies while funding its autocracies, CNN, 13 May 2020: 2020 is a catastrophe for tourism businesses. Here’s what the industry needs to get back on its feet, CNN, 15 May 2020: Europe’s top three economies are now in recession. The real shock is still to come, Politico.eu, 15 May 2020: Get ready for a two-speed recovery, The Washington Post, 15 May 2020: Europeans emerging from lockdowns are wary of the cheek kiss, Politico.com, 15 May 2020: Coronavirus reheats Europe’s food nationalism, Arab News, 16 May 2020: The EU: Not fatally broken, but it needs fixing soon, Irish Times, 18 May 2020: European project and Ursula von der Leyen face an existential threat in Covid-19, CNN, 19 May 2020: Europe promises to reopen for summer tourism in wake of coronavirus, Politico.eu, 19 May 2020: Ischinger: German-French recovery plan could transform EU and seal Merkel’s legacy, Politico.eu, 19 May 2020: Don’t save the economy. Change the economy., The washington Post, 19 May 2020: The post-American world is now on full display, Politico.eu, 19 May 2020: Franco-German recovery deal meets resistance, Politico.eu, 20 May 2020: German conservatives’ eurobond awakening, Politico, 20 May 2020: Italian PM: Franco-German recovery deal is not enough, Politico, 20 May 2020: Merkel warns against protectionism in face of coronavirus recession, Politico, 21 May 2020: Juncker: EU internal border closures ‘nonsense’ (the Trump administration has announced, that the travel restrictions from Europe to the US will remain in place. The exorbitantly high number of Covid-19 infected and killed in the US given, there will be very few Europeans who would accept the risk of entering the US anyway. In this respect, it’s obviuosly just another misleading election campaign stunt by the Trump administration, to distract Trump voters from the real reasons why Europeans don’t travel to the United States at the moment), Politico.eu, 22 May 2020: This isn’t Europe’s ‘Hamilton’ moment, Der Spiegel, 22 May 2020: Half a Trillion Euros: Merkel and Macron Find the Strength for Europe, Der Spiegel, 22 May 2020: “Times of Struggle”: France and Germany Show the Way Forward in the COVID-19 Crisis, Politico.eu, 22 May 2020: China flexes its trade muscles, Gulf Times, 23 May 2020: Europe’s Hamiltonian moment, Politico.eu, 23 May 2020: ‘Frugal four’ propose ‘loans for loans’ approach to coronavirus recovery fund, The Guardian, 22 May 2020: We lived the European dream. Will any politician stand up for open borders?, The Guardian, 25 May 2020: The Guardian view on Europe and Covid-19: time for true solidarity, The Guardian, 25 May 2020: European Union Dawn of Asian century puts pressure on EU to choose sides, says top diplomat, Irish Times, 25 May 2020: EU divisions laid bare by ‘frugal four’ Covid recovery proposal (“The simple-minded four” would also describe the initial situation well), The Guardian, 26 May 2020: Franco-German plan for European recovery will face compromises, Forbes, 27 May 2020: Canada Opens Door To International Students While U.S. Shuts It, France24, 27 May 2020: EU Commission proposes €750 billion recovery fund in wake of Covid-19 crisis (congratulations to this sensationally good proposal with a lot of foresight and future orientation or according to the American motto “go big or go home!”), BBC, 27 May 2020: Von der Leyen calls €750bn recovery fund ‘Europe’s moment’, CNN, 27 May 2020: EU plans to raise $825 billion for coronavirus relief. Hard-hit countries need help soon, The Guardian, 27 May 2020: European commission: ‘Defining moment’ as EU executive pushes for €500bn in grants, The New York Times, 27 May 2020: A €750 Billion Virus Recovery Plan Thrusts Europe Into a New Frontier, The Washington Post, 27 May 2020: E.U. proposes $825 billion coronavirus rescue plan giving B