The European Union: Climate Policy

Sunday, 2 February 2020 - 06:00 pm (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: Editorial, Environment, European Union, General

Flag of Europe (Latest update: 27 March 2020) The European Union’s climate policy is a European policy area that aims to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to transform European economies into a low carbon economy. On the one hand, the EU’s climate policy aims to reduce its own emissions of greenhouse gases (mitigation), for example through the emissions trading system that has existed since 2005. However, since limiting anthropogenic climate change can ultimately only be achieved at the global level, the EU is also actively involved in the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The EU’s climate policy also pursues the goal of limiting the effects of climate change (adaptation), for example through civil protection measures in Europe or through conflict prevention in developing countries.

Climate policy has become one of the most dynamic EU policies in recent years. Organizationally, climate policy has long been located in the Directorate-General for the Environment. The Barroso II Commission has for the first time created the post of Commissioner for Climate Action, which is now independent of the Environment Commissioner (Paris Agreement, United Nations Climate Change conference, European Commission – Climate Action, Fridays for Future, Boston Globe, 26 June 2018: Thirty years later, what needs to change in our approach to climate change, The New York Times Magazine, 1 August 2018: Losing Earth: The Decade We Almost Stopped Climate Change, CNN, 20 March 2019: Mexico’s ‘green gold’: The company powering cars with cactus juice, France24, 17 June 2019: EU leaders to debate push for zero emissions by 2050, The Guardian, 20 June 2019: UK citizens’ assembly on climate emergency announced, The Guardian, 20 June 2019: Central European countries block EU moves towards 2050 zero carbon goal, The Guardian, 21 June 2019: Greenpeace activist: ‘Mark Field needs anger management’, BBC, 23 June 2019: Climate protesters storm Garzweiler coalmine in Germany, BBC, 24 June 2019: Wind power: £100m fund aims to boost UK companies, BBC, 24 June 2019: Climate change: Cashing in on CO2, France24, 26 June 2019: France falls short on emission targets, says climate council, The National 26 June 2019: UAE gears up for United Nations climate change summit in Abu Dhabi, CNN, 26 June 2019: Germany’s temperature record smashed as Europe’s heat wave intensifies, BBC, 27 June 2019: European heatwave sets new June temperature records, France24, 29 June 2019: US still outsider at G20 over fighting climate change, CNN, 29 June 2019: Russia plans to tow a nuclear power station to the Arctic. Critics dub it a ‘floating Chernobyl’, The National, 30 June 2019: Abu Dhabi Climate Meeting: ‘The situation is urgent’, France24, 2 July 2019: Last month ‘hottest June on record’ as heatwave swept Europe, The Guardian, 2 July 2019: Climate change made European heatwave at least five times likelier, The Guardian, 7 July 2019: One climate crisis disaster happening every week, UN warns, Al Jazeera, 8 July 2019: Israel’s ‘environmental crisis’ is of its own making, France24, 8 July 2019: French development agency chief on the issue of climate justice, France24, 9 July 2019: Paris follows London to declare ‘climate emergency’, The Washington Post, 9 July 2019: Trump’s ‘environmental leadership’ is sending us to a climate disaster, CNN, 13 July 2019: Tropical Storm Barry, USA Today, 13 July 2019. Now a hurricane, Barry nears Louisiana coast packing heavy rain, NOLA.com, 13 July 2019: Hurricane Barry heads for Louisiana: Live updates, photos, storm info (The Atlantic, 25 August 2015: New Orleans, 10 Years After Katrina), CNN, 15 July 2019: Staten Island seawall: Designing for climate change, CNN, 16 July 2019: Morocco in the fast lane with world’s largest concentrated solar farm, The National, 16 July 2019: Dubai community bans plastic bottles from restaurants and cafes, Reuters, 17 July 2019: Lionfish invasion in Cyprus? If you can’t beat ’em, eat ’em, France24, 23 July 2019: Young ecologist Greta Thunberg addresses French parliament, The Guardian, 26 July 2019: If you can’t stand the heat … stop being a climate emergency denier, Earth Overshoot Day, France24, 29 July 2019: Earth Overshoot Day: Planet’s 2019 resources ‘budget’ already spent, The Guardian, 31 July 2019: Our planet is in crisis. But until we call it a crisis, no one will listen, BBC, 6 August 2019: Russia arms dump fire: Huge blaze in Siberia extinguished, The Guardian, 7 August 2019: ‘Part of German soul’ under threat as forests die, The National, 8 August 2019: UN: ‘Closing window’ to stop climate change threatening world’s food supply, The New York Times, 8 August 2019: Climate Change Threatens World’s Food Supply, United Nations Warns, Bloomberg, 9 August 2019: The World’s Largest Forest Has Been on Fire for Months, The New York Times, 24 August 2019: Amazon Fires Prompt Action From Europe, and Silence From U.S., Saudi Gazette, 24 August 2019: As EU threatens trade retaliation, Brazil sends army to fight Amazon fires, France24, August 2019: Hunting tourists kill thousands of doves in Morocco, CNN, 26 August 2019: Brazil’s Bolsanaro says he ‘loves’ the Amazon. But his policies are designed to wreak havoc on it, The Guardian, 26 August 2019: Fires are devouring the Amazon. And Jair Bolsonaro is to blame, BBC, 26 August 2019: Amazon fires: G7 to release funds for fire-fighting planes, CNN, 26 August 2019: Trump skips G7 climate summit with aides claiming scheduling conflict, Politico.eu, 26 August 2019: UN chief urges G7 to do more on climate, BBC, 27 August 2019: Amazon fires: Brazil to reject G7 offer of $22m aid (no wonder. It is a declared goal by Bolsonaro to massively destroy further Amazon jungle in order to achieve short-sighted and short-term economic benefits. It can therefore evidently be assumed that Bolsonaro and his henchmen are behind the large-scale arson attacks on the Amazon region.), The Guardian, 27 August 2019: Amazon rainforest fires: Brazil to reject $20m pledged by G7 (Bolsonaro is just one more example for the fact that nationalists and racists worldwide can be principally characterized by their very limited intellectual capacities), Al Jazeera, 27 August 2019: Brazil to reject G7 offer of $22m aid to fight Amazon fires, CNN, 27 August 2019: Bolsonaro’s ego stands in the way of saving the Amazon, France24, 27 August 2019: Bolsonaro makes accepting millions in G7 aid for Amazon contingent on apology from Macron, Al Jazeera, 27 August 2019: Bolsonaro to draft measures on indigenous land demarcations, The New York Times, 28 August 2019: The Amazon, Siberia, Indonesia: A World of Fire, The New York Times, 29 August 2019: The Trump administration is working to roll back these 84 environmental policies., Al Jazeera, 29 August 2019: UN draft climate report warns oceans rising, warming, France24, 1 September 2019: Hurricane Dorian slams into Bahamas as dangerous Category 5 storm, CNN, 2 September 2019: Hurricane Dorian slams into the Bahamas, Politico.eu, 2 September 2019: London mayor mocks Trump for dealing with hurricane ‘out on the golf course’, BBC, 3 September 2019: Hurricane Dorian: Pleas for help as storm stalls over Bahamas, The Guardian, 3 September 2019: How much destruction is needed for us to take climate change seriously?, The Guardian, 4 September 2019: Hurricane Dorian bears down on Georgia and Carolinas – live updates, The New York Times, 4 September 2019: Hurricane Dorian Could Swamp the Coast From Florida to Virginia, Politico.com, 4 September 2019: An Oval Office mystery: Who doctored the hurricane map?, The Guardian, 5 September 2019: Twenty dead in Bahamas after Dorian leaves ‘generational devastation’, CNN, 6 September 2019: Satellite images show the devastation Hurricane Dorian caused in the Bahamas, Gulf Times, 7 September 2019: Merkel, in China speech, calls climate protection a global problem, The Guardian, 7 September 2019: ‘It’s all gone’: shattered Bahamas counts cost of Hurricane Dorian’s destruction, Politico.eu, 7 September 2019: Von der Leyen’s climate promises run into Brussels reality, The Guardian, 9 September 2019: Climate crisis is greatest ever threat to human rights, UN warns, The Guardian, 11 September 2019: Adaptation isn’t enough. We’ve got to throw everything at the climate crisis, The Guardian, 14 September 2019: Naomi Klein: ‘We are seeing the beginnings of the era of climate barbarism’, The Guardian, 17 September 2019: The silenced: meet the climate whistleblowers muzzled by Trump, France24, 18 September 2019: Trump revokes California’s authority to set auto emissions limits, NPR, 18 September 2019: Trump Says California’s Ability To Set Its Own Emissions Standards Will Be Revoked, The Guardian, 20 September 2019: Global climate strike: Greta Thunberg and school students lead climate crisis protest – live updates, France24, 20 September 2019: Students kick off global climate strike inspired by Greta Thunberg, CNN, 20 September 2019: Global climate strike, BBC, 20 September 2019: Huge crowds across Europe demand climate action, CNN, 20 September 2019: More than 100,000 gather in Melbourne as the world begins climate demonstrations, The New York Times, 20 September 2019: Young People Take to Streets in Global Climate Protest, France24, 20 September 2019: Merkel govt agrees on climate plan – but German green groups say it’s not enough, France24, 20 September 2019: ‘The earth is on fire’: Young people lead global climate change protests, France24, 20 September 2019: Amid increasing threat from climate change, New York prepares for rising waters, The Guardian, 21 September 2019: Across the globe, millions join biggest climate protest ever, Gulf Times, 21 September 2019: ‘Millions’ protest in youth-led global climate strike, Politico.eu, 21 September 2019: Angela Merkel’s inconvenient truth, The Guardian, 21 September 2019: ‘Save us, save the world’: Pacific climate warriors taking the fight to the UN, France24, 22 September 2019: Youth leaders at UN demand bold climate change action, France24, 23 September 2019: UN chief calls for ‘concrete plans’ as climate emergency summit convenes in New York, BBC, 23 September 2019: Climate change: UN summit opens without key leaders, The New York Times, 23 September 2019: Leaders Get a Chance to Answer Youth Protests at U.N. Climate Talks, Al Jazeera, 23 September 2019: UN General Assembly 2019: All the latest updates, The Guardian, 23 September 2019: Greta Thunberg condemns world leaders in emotional speech at UN, The Washington Post, 25 September 2019: New U.N. climate report: Monumental change already here for world’s oceans and frozen regions, The New York Times, 30 September 2019: What Kind of Problem Is Climate Change?, The Guardian, 3 October 2019: The movement to take climate action has begun – but we have a long way to go, BBC, 4 October 2019: The incinerator and the ski slope tackling waste, BBC, 8 October 2019: Extinction Rebellion: Protesters glue themselves to government building, The Guardian, 9 October 2019: Revealed: the 20 firms behind a third of all carbon emissions, The Guardian, 10 October 2019: Revealed: top UK thinktank spent decades undermining climate science, The Guardian, 11 October 2019: Tory MPs five times more likely to vote against climate action, The Guardian, 11 October 2019: Inside Copenhagen’s race to be the first carbon-neutral city, The Guardian, 13 October 2019: Top investment banks provide billions to expand fossil fuel industry, NPR, 30 October 2019: ‘Start Listening’: Greta Thunberg Rejects Major Environmental Award, The National, 31 October 2019: German government sued by farmers over climate targets in landmark case, CNN, 31 October 2019: First climate lawsuit brought against German government fails, The Guardian, 2 November 2019: Jeremy Corbyn decries fracking suspension as election stunt, Gulf Times, 2 November 2019: Asia must quit ‘coal addiction’: UN chief, France24, 3 November 2019: Actress and climate change dissident Jane Fonda gets arrested – every week, BBC, 4 November 2019: Paris climate accords: US notifies UN of intention to withdraw, Politico.com, 4 November 2019: U.S. starts climate pact exit — now what?, The Guardian, 4 November 2019: Trump begins year-long process to formally exit Paris climate agreement, Gulf Times, 4 November 2019: Merkel cheers VW’s electric push amid growing climate critique, France24, 5 November 2019: Macron says climate cooperation between Europe and China is ‘decisive’, The Guardian, 6 November 2019: Climate crisis: 11,000 scientists warn of ‘untold suffering’, The Guardian, 8 November 2019: My ‘OK boomer’ comment in parliament symbolised exhaustion of multiple generations, Politico.eu, 15 November 2019: Europe’s investment bank sets pace on fossil fuel lending, France24, 16 November 2019: Venice braces for more floods, strong winds, Irish Times, 16 November 2019: Seán Moncrieff: The planet is cooking for all of us, no matter our politics, CNN, 17 November 2019: The flat earth conspiracy is spreading around the globe. Does it hide a darker core?, CNN, 19 November 2019: California won’t buy cars from GM, Chrysler or Toyota because they sided with Trump over emissions, Politico.eu, 21 November 2019: Germany eats Poland’s green lunch, Politico.eu, 21 November 2019: Working together to face the energy challenge, CNN, 22 November 2019: China can go carbon neutral by 2050 while still growing its economy: report, The Guardian, 24 November 2019: Can we have net zero emissions and still fly?, BBC, 25 November 2019: Climate change: Greenhouse gas concentrations again break records, NPR, 26 November 2019: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Are Still Rising, U.N. Report Says, The Guardian, 26 November 2019: UN calls for push to cut greenhouse gas levels to avoid climate chaos, Politico.eu, 27 November 2019: Von der Leyen to kick off term with trip to UN climate conference, TopGear, 27 November 2019: And lo, the Pope did get-eth a new Dacia Duster Popemobile, Politico.eu, 28 November 2019: European Parliament declares global climate emergency, The Guardian, 28 November 2019: ‘Our house is on fire’: EU parliament declares climate emergency, The Guardian, 29 November 2019: Hundreds of thousands of students join global climate strikes, Al Jazeera, 29 November 2019: Thousands stage global climate protests before UN summit, CNN, 30 November 2019: Germany is closing all its nuclear power plants. Now it must find a place to bury the deadly waste for 1 million years, Gulf Times, 30 November 2019: Hundreds of activists break into coal mines in eastern Germany, Politico.eu, 1 December 2019: 6 things to know about the COP25 climate summit, Politico.eu, 2 December 2019: EU must make carbon pay, The Guardian, 2 December 2019: US Congress commits to act on climate crisis, despite Donald Trump, Jerusalem Post, 3 December 2019: New climate change report spells disaster for Israel (who would have thought that Israel would not be driven into the Mediterranean, but the Mediterranean into Israel?), The Guardian, 4 December 2019: Climate change to steer all New Zealand government decisions from now on, The Guardian, 4 December 2019: Climate models have accurately predicted global heating, study finds, France24, 11 December 2019: Teenage climate activist Greta Thunberg is Time magazine’s 2019 Person of the Year, BBC, 11 December 2019: Greta Thunberg named Time Person of the Year for 2019, The Guardian, 11 December 2019: Europe must lead on the climate crisis. The European Green Deal shows how, Politico.eu, 11 December 2019: Europe’s Green Deal plan unveiled, Politico.com, 11 December 2019: How California and Quebec are trying to Trump-proof their climate effort, Al Jazeera, 11 December 2019: ‘A future we want’: Global mayors on frontlines of climate fight, The National, 12 December 2019: Europe launches ‘Green Deal’ as Thunberg denounces climate inaction, DW, 11 December 2019: EU lauds new Green Deal as Europe’s ‘man on moon moment’, Politico.eu, 12 December 2019: The EU’s China moment, BBC, 13 December 2019: EU carbon neutrality: Leaders agree 2050 target without Poland, France24, 13 December 2019: EU agrees on carbon neutrality by 2050, Poland exempt, Politico.com, 13 December 2019: Europe threatens U.S. with carbon tariffs to combat climate change, France24, 13 December 2019: UN climate talks near end as countries divided on emissions, funding, Politico.eu, 13 December 2019: Charles Michel goes multi-speed to get Europe ahead on climate, BBC, 14 December 2019: UN climate talks hit rough waters, Al Jazeera, 13 December 2019: Will Europe’s Green Deal prove a giant leap for planet Earth?, Politico.eu, 15 December 2019: UN climate talks fall short thanks to US vacuum, The Washington Post, 15 December 2019: U.N. climate talks end with hard feelings, few results and new doubts about global unity, Politico.com, 15 December 2019: United Nations climate talks collapse after Trump shuns Paris pact, The New York Times, 15 December 2019: U.N. Climate Talks End With Big Polluters Blocking Stronger Action, The Guardian, 15 December 2019: UN climate talks end with limited progress on emissions targets, BBC, 15 December 2019: COP25: Longest climate talks end with compromise deal, France24, 15 December 2019: COP 25 climate talks end with no deal on carbon markets, Al Jazeera, 15 December 2019: Longest UN climate talks end with no deal on carbon markets, Arab News, 15 December 2019: Meltdown in Madrid, The National, 15 December 2019: Madrid climate talks ‘disappointing’ says UN chief Antonio Guterres, Gulf Times, 15 December 2019: UN climate talks a ‘lost opportunity’, says Guterres, Politico.eu, 15 December 2019: 6 takeaways from the COP25 climate talks, NPR, 15 December 2019: U.N. Climate Summit Goes To Extra Time, But Ends With Major Questions Unresolved, Al Jazeera, 16 December 2019: ‘Cleaner and cheaper’: Sunny Spain is banking on renewable energy, Politico.eu, 16 December 2019: When will the Netherlands disappear?, Arab News, 20 December 2019: It is time for a new approach to tackling climate change, France24, 25 December 2019: Britain’s Queen hails climate movement on Christmas Day, CNN, 26 December 2019: What’s behind Trump’s nonsense on windmills and light bulbs, BBC, 2 January 2020: Norway records warmest ever January day at 19C, BBC, 13 January 2020: Siemens resists climate protests over Australia coal project, Politico.eu, 13 January 2020: EU countries scrap for cash from new green scheme, Gulf Times, 14 January 2020: EU executive unveils plan for 1-trillion-euro climate investments, France24, 15 January 2020: Environmentalists file suit against Merkel’s ‘weak’ climate laws, The Guardian, 19 January 2020: Davos 2020 should be all about climate crisis but Trump won’t admit it, CNN, 19 January 2020: Trump vs. Thunberg: The climate crisis could dominate Davos, Arab News, 19 January 2020: Saudi Arabia joins club of Middle East’s ‘green energy’ leaders, The Guardian, 20 January 2020: Climate refugees can’t be returned home, says landmark UN human rights ruling, The National, 20 January 2020: To tackle climate change, developing countries have to get on board, The Guardian, 20 January 2020: The Guardian view on Davos: capitalists know they must do better, The National, 19 January 2020: Davos 2020: The latest news and events from the World Economic Forum, France24, 21 January 2020: Climate change to take centre stage at Davos, The Guardian, January 2020: Davos 2020, The Telegraph, 22 January 2020: Ursula von Der Leyen threatens a carbon border tax, opening new front in the trade wars, Politico.eu, 23 January 2020: Davos is woke (or so it thinks), BBC, 23 January 2020: What does Trump actually believe on climate change?, Gulf Times, 24 January 2020: US’s Mnuchin tells Thunberg to go ‘study economics’ in Davos spat (he better give this advice to himself and the rest of the Trump administration, as there is not one credible economist among them), The Guardian, 24 January 2020: ‘Blatant manipulation’: Trump administration exploited wildfire science to promote logging, The National, 24 January 2020: Davos 2020: The latest news and events from the World Economic Forum, Politico.com, 25 January 2020: ’I stand with Greta’: Mnuchin’s wife posts — then deletes — support for climate activist, Politico.eu, 27 January 2020: Time for a Christian conservative Green policy, The Guardian, 7 February 2020: The EU’s green deal is a colossal exercise in greenwashing, Politico.eu, 13 February 2020: ‘Epic battle’ over green farming divides EU departments, France24, 27 February 2020: German teen Naomi Seibt, the darling of climate change deniers, Gulf Times, 29 February 2020: Luxembourg becomes first country to make public transport free, Politico.eu, 4 March 2020: Brussels launches legal effort to make EU climate neutral by 2050, Politico.eu, 4 March 2020: Brussels’ climate ambitions run into national resistance, BBC, 4 March 2020: Greta Thunberg brands EU’s new climate law ‘surrender’, Politico.eu, 4 March 2020: Greta Thunberg rains on EU climate law parade, The Guardian, 4 March 2020: Tropical forests losing their ability to absorb carbon, study finds, BBC, 5 March 2020: Europe experiences exceptionally warm winter, Gulf Times, 5 March 2020: EU unveils climate law, but eco-warrior Greta Thunberg remains unimpressed, BBC, 3 March 2020: Is it possible to build wildlife-friendly windfarms?, The Guardian, 12 March 2020: Coronavirus poses threat to climate action, says watchdog, The Guardian, 18 March 2020: Germany has an unholy new alliance: climate denial and the far right, The Guardian, 18 March 2020: Irish planners reject Trump golf resort’s plan to build wall, France24, 20 March 2020: Clearer water, cleaner air: The environmental effects of coronavirus, The New York Times, 27 March 2020: Trump’s Environmental Rollbacks Find Opposition Within: Staff Scientists, United Nations Climate Change conference, United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)).

In view of the heated climate debate from all directions and currents, it is especially noticeable that fundamental and mutual understanding is getting more and more lost. On the one hand everyone wants to be greener than the other, on the other hand there are people who doesn’t see a no need for action at all. Ultimately, it will have to be searched for intersections to make sure to find solutions within a reasonable time frame. Of course, it is clear that neither the chemical, pharmaceutical, automotive, heavy construction or construction industries are turning “green” overnight. But we can’t get rid of them anyway. It requires numerous and sometimes very expensive individual steps, until we get closer to the goals. On the other hand, looking back on just 100 years, it is worthwhile to see how far human innovation has already brought us, from the horse-drawn vehicle to semi-autonomous vehicles, from huts to automated and air-conditioned home, from numerous individual abdominal landings to self-evident flying around the globe, from the open fire in the space shared by all (including livestock) with little to no individual space to households with the maximum comfort of a digitized, automated, globalized, inclusive world. Of course, there were also mistakes. This included, among other things, the contamination of lakes and rivers with chemicals and wastes, so that they were regarded as dead, into which life is now returning and where bathing is possible (Rhine, Elbe, Danube, etc.). Everything and every development has and needs its time. Just because something is desirable from an individual point of view does not make it a mass phenomenon. From our own point of view, the example of “automation of home and building technology” can be cited, at that time operated for comfort and economic reasons, but ultimately, of course, to use resources meaningfully and only when they are actually needed. At the end of the 1990s, together with others, we intensively thought about it and tried out first practical implementations. The resulting consumer products are only beginning to gain wider market acceptance today, also because they are more affordable. So everybody can imagine how much longer it will take to take significant steps on the way to create a “green world”. Not a single product developer wakes up in the morning and thinks about how to best harm the environment today. In fact, they are often idealists who want to make the world a better place bit by bit. Sometimes the medium and long-term effects take a back seat in this process. For the most part, there are actually improvements that must be made in large numbers so that the climate goals can be achieved at all.

That is one part of the story, the other part is the social and societal component. Not everyone can afford to follow any “trend” because of the individual income situation. This applies to both private households and companies. In addition, of course, there are tangible economic interests behind the commitments on all sides. Not all who recognize the scientifically proven man-made climate change as the greatest threat to humanity does this out of conviction, but rather because their revenues and jobs depend on it. The same is true in the opposite direction. Not all those who consider scientifically proven man-made climate change to be irrelevant do so out of conviction, but rather because their revenues and jobs depend on it. Only if people understand both sides they will one end up with a solution acceptable to the majority and supported by the majority (environmental, economic and social compatibility). At first this will only be a solution for the saturated west. The countries of the west can’t deny development, comfort or prosperity to the countries of South America, Africa or Asia. The colonial times are finally largely over. The west can only help these countries to skip several stages and arrive directly in modern times. However, this requires multi-digit trillions of investments. For Germany alone, government investment of more than 50 billion is expected over the next few years. But the UN has 193 member states of different sizes, so that the trillion range is relatively quickly reached. And there are numerous questions, for example: Where should the investments come from? Who manages them? What are the rules for this? Which standards should apply? Who can receive them for what? Etc.

That may not sound very enthusiastic and perhaps does not correspond to the current zeitgeist, but tries to bring some realism into the debate. As much as the engagement of Fridays for Future and Greta Thunberg is welcomed, we should, of course, also take into account the thirst for action and the actual chances of success of the youth. From own experiences one likes to believe in this age that one can change the world for the better within three days, not least because one identifies the own bubble as “the world”. In the meantime, however, around 7.7 billion people inhabit the earth and all have to be taken along on the journey so that the project can be successful. That’s the real challenge.

This contribution is sporadically supplemented and extended.

Read more on VOLT Europa, United Europe, Pulse of Europe.


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