The European Union: Common Foreign, Security and Defence Policy

Saturday, 8 July 2017 - 11:00 am (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: Editorial, European Union, General
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European External Action Service

European External Action Service

(Latest update: 25 July 2021)
Foreign relations of the European Union
Although there has been a large degree of integration between European Union member states, foreign relations is still a largely intergovernmental matter, with the 28 members controlling their own relations to a large degree. However, with the Union holding more weight as a single bloc, there are attempts to speak with one voice, notably on trade and energy matters. The EU’s foreign relations are dealt with either through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, decided by the European Council or the economic trade negotiations handled by the European Commission. The leading EU diplomat in both areas is the High Representative Federica Mogherini. The number of delegates began to rise in the 1960s following the merging of the executive institutions of the three European Communities into a single Commission. Until recently some states had reservations accepting that EU delegations held the full status of a diplomatic mission. Article 20 of the Maastricht Treaty requires the Delegations and the Member States’ diplomatic missions to “co-operate in ensuring that the common positions and joint actions adopted by the Council are complied with and implemented”. As part of the process of establishment of the European External Action Service envisioned in the Lisbon Treaty, on 1 January 2010 all former European Commission delegations were renamed European Union delegations and till the end of the month 54 of the missions were transformed into embassy-type missions that employ greater powers than the regular delegations. These upgraded delegations have taken on the role previously carried out by the national embassies of the member state holding the rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union and merged with the independent Council delegations around the world. Through this the EU delegations take on the role of co-ordinating national embassies and speaking for the EU as a whole, not just the Commission. The first delegation to be upgraded was the one in Washington D.C., the new joint ambassador was João Vale de Almeida who outlined his new powers as speaking for both the Commission and Council presidents, and member states. He would be in charge where there was a common position but otherwise, on bilateral matters, he would not take over from national ambassadors. All delegations are expected to be converted by the end of 2010. Some states may choose to operate through the new EU delegations and close down some of their smaller national embassies, however France has indicated that it will maintain its own network around the world for now. The EU sends its delegates generally only to the capitals of states outside the European Union and cities hosting multilateral bodies. The EU missions work separately from the work of the missions of its member states, however in some circumstances it may share resources and facilities. In Abuja is shares its premises with a number of member states. Additionally to the third-state delegations and offices the European Commission maintains representation in each of the member states.

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions. CFSP deals only with a specific part of the EU’s external relations, which domains include mainly Trade and Commercial Policy and other areas such as funding to third countries, etc. Decisions require unanimity among member states in the Council of the European Union, but once agreed, certain aspects can be further decided by qualified majority voting. Foreign policy is chaired and represented by the EU’s High Representative, currently Federica Mogherini. The Union as a whole is increasingly representing its members in international organisations. Aside from EU-centric organisations (mentioned above) the EU, or the Community, is represented in a number of organisations:

The EU is also one part of the Quartet on the Middle East, represented by the High Representative. At the UN, some officials see the EU moving towards a single seat on the UN Security Council. The European Union is expected to accede to the European Convention on Human Rights (the Convention). In 2005, the leaders of the Council of Europe reiterated their desire for the EU to accede without delay to ensure consistent human rights protection across Europe. There are also concerns about consistency in case law – the European Court of Justice (the EU’s supreme court) is already treating the Convention as though it was part of the EU’s legal system to prevent conflict between its judgements and those of the European Court of Human Rights (the court interpreting the Convention). Protocol No.14 of the Convention is designed to allow the EU to accede to it and the Treaty of Lisbon contains a protocol binding the EU to joining. The EU would not be subordinate to the Council, but would be subject to its human rights law and external monitoring as its member states are currently. It is further proposed that the EU join as a member of the Council once it has attained its legal personality in the Treaty of Lisbon. Where the EU itself isn’t represented, or when it is only an observer, the EU treaties places certain duties on member states:

  • Member States shall coordinate their action in international organisations and at international conferences. They shall uphold the Union’s positions in such forums. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy shall organise this coordination. In international organisations and at international conferences where not all the Member States participate, those which do take part shall uphold the Union’s positions.
  • In accordance with Article 24(3), Member States represented in international organisations or international conferences where not all the Member States participate shall keep the other Member States and the High Representative informed of any matter of common interest. Member States which are also members of the United Nations Security Council will concert and keep the other Member States and the High Representative fully informed. Member States which are members of the Security Council will, in the execution of their functions, defend the positions and the interests of the Union, without prejudice to their responsibilities under the provisions of the United Nations Charter. When the Union has defined a position on a subject which is on the United Nations Security Council agenda, those Member States which sit on the Security Council shall request that the High Representative be invited to present the Union’s position.

Common Security and Defence Policy

Common Security and Defence Policy

Common Security Policy
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), formerly known as the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union (EU) and is the domain of EU policy covering defence and military aspects, as well as civilian crisis management. The ESDP was the successor of the European Security and Defence Identity under NATO, but differs in that it falls under the jurisdiction of the European Union itself, including countries with no ties to NATO. Formally, the Common Security and Defence Policy is the domain of the European Council, which is an EU institution, whereby the heads of member states meet. Nonetheless, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, currently Federica Mogherini, also plays a significant role. As Chairperson of the external relations configuration of the Council, the High Representative prepares and examines decisions to be made before they are brought to the Council. European security policy has followed several different paths during the 1990s, developing simultaneously within the Western European Union, NATO and the European Union itself.

The European Security Strategy was written in 2003 and was the policy document that guided for a time the European Union’s international security strategy. Its headline reads: “A Secure Europe In A Better World”. The document was approved by the European Council held in Brussels on 12 December 2003 and drafted under the responsibilities of the EU High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy CFSP Javier Solana. With the emergence of the ESDP, it is the first time that Europe has formulated a joint security strategy. It can be considered a counterpart to the National Security Strategy of the United States. The document starts out with the declaration that “Europe has never been so prosperous, so secure nor so free”. Its conclusion is that “The world is full of new dangers and opportunities”. Along these lines, it argues that in order to ensure security for Europe in a globalising world, multilateral cooperation within Europe and abroad is to be the imperative, because “no single nation is able to tackle today’s complex challenges”. As such the ESS identifies a string of key threats Europe needs to deal with: terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, regional conflict, failed states, and organised crime. The document was followed by the 2008 Report of the Implementation of the European Security Strategy: Providing Security in a Changing World. It concludes with the admonition “To build a secure Europe in a better world, we must do more to shape events. And we must do it now.” The 2009 Treaty of Lisbon renamed the ESDP to Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). Unanimous decisions in the Council of the European Union continue to instruct the EU foreign policy and CSDP matters became available to enhanced co-operation.

The common security and defence policy shall include the progressive framing of a common Union defence policy. This will lead to a common defence, when the European Council, acting unanimously, so decides. It shall in that case recommend to the member States the adoption of such a decision in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.

The policy of the Union in accordance with this article shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states, which see their common defence realised in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, under the North Atlantic Treaty, and be compatible with the common security and defence policy established within that framework.

Lisbon also led to the termination of the Western European Union in 2010 as, with the solidarity clause (deemed to supersede the WEU’s military mutual defence clause) and the expansion of the CSDP, the WEU became redundant. All its remaining activities are to be wound up or transferred to the EU by June 2011. Lisbon extends the enhanced co-operation mechanism to defence issues and also envisions the establishment of a Permanent Structured Cooperation in Defence. The following permanent political and military bodies were established after the approval of the European Council.

The following agencies has been established after the incorporation of the Western European Union within the EU

The CSDP is furthermore strongly facilitated by the European External Action Service.

© eubulletin.com

© eubulletin.com

Common Defence Policy
The Common Foreign and Security Policy sees the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) as responsible for the territorial defence of Europe and reconciliation. However, since 1999, the European Union is responsible for implementing missions such as peacekeeping and policing of treaties. A phrase often used to describe the relationship between the EU forces and NATO is “separable, but not separate”. The same forces and capabilities form the basis of both EU and NATO efforts, but portions can be allocated to the European Union if necessary. Defence co-operation takes place within the Common Security and Defence Policy. However, it is planned that defence co-operation and integration between member states will be improved by establishing a Military Planning and Conduct Capabilities (MPCC) unit focused on military operations.

(It should be kept in mind that after the end of the First World War, the United States largely demilitarized itself, following the motto "If we have no army, we will neither be attacked nor drawn into war". This ended with Hitler seizing power and Germany raging in Europe. President Franklin D. Roosevelt realized that Germany could conquer the United States with a relatively low level of military intervention, whereupon the production of weapons of war was resumed and miliarization began on a large scale. In 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, followed by the declaration of war by Germany and Italy on the United States, after which the country entered the Second World War. As in so many other things, Hitler had completely underestimated the United States' considerable capacity, efficiency, productivity and innovative strength. Roosevelt ended American isolationism, which was only revived with the election of Donald Trump in 2016, and completely reorganized American foreign policy, laying the foundation for the development of the United States into a superpower. So if someone thinks anti-Americanism is appropriate, he should complain to the German Nazis and the Italian fascists in particular, because without them the United States would have seen no need to become a superpower.)

(It should be kept in mind that after the end of the First World War, the United States largely demilitarized itself, following the motto “If we have no army, we will neither be attacked nor drawn into war”. This ended with Hitler seizing power and Germany raging in Europe. President Franklin D. Roosevelt realized that Germany could conquer the United States with a relatively low level of military intervention, whereupon the production of weapons of war was resumed and miliarization began on a large scale (especially in the race between Nazi Germany and the USA in the development of the atomic bomb (Otto Hahn and J. Robert Oppenheimer)). In 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, followed by the declaration of war by Germany and Italy on the United States, after which the country entered the Second World War. As in so many other things, Hitler had completely underestimated the United States’ considerable capacity, efficiency, productivity and innovative strength. Roosevelt ended American isolationism, which was only revived with the election of Donald Trump in 2016, and completely reorganized American foreign policy, laying the foundation for the development of the United States into a superpower. So if someone thinks anti-Americanism is appropriate, he should complain to the German Nazis and the Italian fascists in particular, because without them the United States would have seen no need to become a superpower. The USA are founded by Europeans. How to come up with the idea to despise the United States on the other side of the pond therefore remains puzzling. Of course, Trump can be considered a completely incompetent and corrupt Baron Munchausen, but he is not the United States. He is only one of 327 million Americans, the majority of whom have very clear and liberal values.)

The European Defence Agency (EDA) was established in July 2004 and is based in Brussels. It supports the EU Member States in improving their military capabilities in order to complete CSDP targets as set out in the European Security Strategy. In that capacity, it makes proposals, coordinates, stimulates collaboration, and runs projects. The Member States themselves, however, remain in charge of their defence policies, planning and investment. Four strategies form the framework to guide the activities of the Agency and its 26 participating Member States: 1) the Capability Development Plan (CDP), 2) the European Defence Research & Technology; 3) the European Armaments Cooperation (EAC) and 4) the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB). The EU Institute for Security Studies (EU-ISS) was inaugurated in January 2002 and is based in Paris. Although an EU agency, it is an autonomous think tank that researches EU-relevant security issues. The research results are published in papers, books, reports, policy briefs, analyses and newsletters. In addition, the EU-ISS convenes seminars and conferences on relevant issues that bring together EU officials, national experts, decision-makers and NGO representatives from all Member States.

The first deployment of European troops under the ESDP, following the 1999 declaration of intent, was in March 2003 in Macedonia. “EUFOR Concordia” used NATO assets and was considered a success and replaced by a smaller police mission, EUPOL Proxima, later that year. Since then, there have been other small police, justice and monitoring missions. As well as the Republic of Macedonia, the EU has maintained its deployment of peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as part of EUFOR Althea mission. Between May and September 2003 EU troops were deployed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during “Operation Artemis” under a mandate given by UN Security Council Resolution 1484 which aimed to prevent further atrocities and violence in the Ituri Conflict and put the DRC’s peace process back on track. This laid out the “framework nation” system to be used in future deployments. The EU returned to the DRC during July–November 2006 with EUFOR RD Congo, which supported the UN mission there during the country’s elections. Geographically, EU missions outside the Balkans and the DRC have taken place in Georgia, Indonesia, Sudan, Palestine, and UkraineMoldova. There is also a judicial mission in Iraq (EUJUST Lex). On 28 January 2008, the EU deployed its largest and most multi-national mission to Africa, EUFOR Tchad/RCA. The UN-mandated mission involves troops from 25 EU states (19 in the field) deployed in areas of eastern Chad and the north-eastern Central African Republic in order to improve security in those regions. EUFOR Tchad/RCA reached full operation capability in mid-September 2008, and handed over security duties to the UN (MINURCAT mission) in mid-March 2009 (see Military operations of the European Union).

From 1 January 2007, the EU Operations Centre began work in Brussels. It can command a limited size force of about 2000 troops (e.g. a battlegroup). In addition to the EU centre, 5 national operational headquarters have been made available for use by the Union; Mont Valérien in Paris, Northwood in London, Potsdam, Centocelle in Rome and Larissa. The EU can also use NATO capabilities. With effect from 1 January 2007, the EU will have a third option for commanding, from Brussels, missions and operations of limited size (that is, like that of a battlegroup: some 2,000 troops). On that date, the new EU Operations Centre (EUOC) within the EU Military Staff (EUMS) will be ready for action. Using some EUMS core staff, as well as some extra “double-hatted” EUMS officers and so-called “augmentees” from the Member States, the EU will have an increased capacity to respond to crisis management situations. So far, the EU has had two options as to how to run a military operation at the Operation Headquarters (OHQ) level. One option is, in a so-called “autonomous” operation, to make use of facilities provided by any of the five Operation Headquarters (OHQs) currently available in European Member States. A second option is, through recourse to NATO capabilities and common assets (under the so-called Berlin Plus agreement), to make use of command and control options such as Operation Headquarters located at Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Mons, Belgium and D-SACEUR as the Operation Commander. The key question, which critics of the solution in particular have to face more and more often, is “What happens if we do not deploy the army, what are the risks and challenges and how could they be dealt with alternatively?” The answers are as sobering as they are enlightening, because there are no viable alternatives given. The earlier everyone realize this, the sooner we can start building the EU army. After all, nothing says more clearly and unequivocally “We belong together and there will never again be war between us” as a common EU army. Money can be replaced, human lives can’t. Of course, all of this takes time, but the first successful steps have been made (e.g. including PESCO, in addition to cooperations between the armies of the EU states (EU cooperation on security and defence)).

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Koerber-Policy-Game_What-to-expect-if-the-US-withdraws-from-NATO


“New Deal”, the restart of transatlantic relations
Not only since the seizure of power (if you have 3 million votes less than your competitor and still be declared the US president, that cannot be phrased differently) by the presidential fool Trump is the subject of “external security” for the US of great importance. It has to be the same for Europeans, but for them it has to be supplemented by the subject of “internal security”, e.g. in the joint fight against any form of terrorism within the EU by Europol and / or Frontex. In addition, there is the dealings with Turkey, which is increasingly hostile to the EU and which should be dealt with accordingly (freezing of the customs union (the threat of withdrawing from the refugee agreement no longer applies, especially since the EU front-line states have meanwhile secured their borders much better), suspension of all aid figures, no more military aid, freezing of NATO membership so that the Turkish leadership can calmly think about which alliance the country would like to belong to in the future or whether it would rather be wiped out between Russia and Iran. Admission to the EU has already been put on hold and will probably remain so for a few more years, etc.). One of these challenges is a justifiable solution to Brexit, in which Great Britain can manage an orderly exit from the EU. Barack Obama, in his usual eloquent-friendly-diplomatic manner, tried to make it clear to the Europeans that both the Second World War and the Cold War 1.0 were a thing of the past, so that Europe should finally organize its external security together and independently that it could stand up for itself and to pacify its “backyards” (Russia, Levant, Middle East, North Africa) (Hillary Clinton would have also asked for it and Biden will of course continue). It was a big mistake on the part of the Europeans to ignore the appeals, because instead of building up this common defense structure piece by piece over a period from 2008 onwards, it must now be done all the faster and more costly, because it is now clear that the USA is about to withdraw from Europe and the Middle East and instead concentrate on the Pacific area. The EU, especially supported and promoted by the economically strongest country in Europe, the military skiver Germany, must therefore develop joint military capabilities and begin with the EU core states. How could Germany’s role look like? As always, there are several ways to get there, but they all add up to “more”. With the 2% NATO target in mind, it is less important to develop capabilities within Germany (this is mainly about successful replacement purchases and the establishment of full operational readiness, from which the country is still light years away for various reasons) than it is to contribute to the protection of the EU’s external borders. Here it would be advisable to intensify the cooperation with the EU core states by subordinating considerable German contingents to the frontline states and stationing them on site (which at the same time makes the Bundeswehr more attractive as an employer if you know that you don’t end up in Bottrop during your service, but instead travel around Europe) in order to gradually achieve the establishment of a common defense structure (EU army) and at the same time contribute to strengthening mutual trust. That would go far beyond mere lip service and would send strong and clear signals. This is the easy part of the exercise, especially since good preparatory work has already been done. It becomes more difficult with the cooperation with the EU eastward enlargement (with the exception of the Baltic States) and south-east Europe. To explain to the Polish government that you intend to station German troops in the country should at least cause irritation. In particular, the ultra-nationalists of the PiS still fear that “Since 5:45 am we are now fring back” could occur again. So it will be a little more difficult and tricky to proceed. For example, in the context of joint procurement and the alignment of weapon systems and calibers, the partial assumption of costs or the increase of the respective defense budget from the federal defense budget, the provision of a “framework contingent” from which the EU eastward expansion could receive weapons and ammunition would come into question and services to a corresponding extent, so that German armourers also get something of the pie via the detour (similar to the way the US does it with Israel: an overall aid budget for support services is set, from which the Israelis, who are also obliged to buy mostly American products so that the domestic economy benefits from it and on the other hand no competing manufacturers are built abroad. In addition, the USA maintains large ammunition depots in Israel, from which the Israelis can receive deliveries. In Netanyahu’s propaganda language, this reads “Israel’s military superiority in the region” (Qualitative Military Edge (QME)). Observer can of course count on one finger what that actually means in practice). The aim of common defense would not be strengthened by pooling troops, but national defenses in the EU’s eastward expansion would. In cooperation with the Baltic States, both variants are already possible today (troops on site and support measures for the armies) and are already being given in some cases. All the measures taken together would bring Germany significantly closer to the 2% NATO target and at the same time ensure that the country would be taken seriously militarily. The military weakness of Germany has not only been the foreign policy Achilles’ heel since yesterday. The medium-term goal must be to build a powerful EU army that reports directly to the European Parliament and that complements NATO. This relieves NATO and the Europeans would be able to regulate their own affairs at any time, which in turn relieves the Americans.

Media coverage
Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), European Intervention Initiative, European Defence Fund, Coordinated Annual Review on Defence (CARD), The Guardian, 24 December 2003: Pakistan admits it may be source of Iran’s nuclear expertise, Irish Times, 11 March 2005: Pakistan says Khan supplied key nuclear technology to Iran, Military.com, 7 August 2014: Why the US Military Puts Israel, Gaza in Europe, Haaretz, 20 May 2015: Pakistan Is the Only Muslim Nuclear State – So Why Is Israel’s Hysteria Reserved for Iran?, DW, 15 February 2018: Changing Europe revives interest in an EU military, Politico.eu, 3 June 2018: Merkel endorses Macron’s EU military plan, Times of Israel, 9 December 2018: Israel signed off on sale of phone spying tool to Saudi Arabia – report, Handelsblatt, 4 September 2019: Germany outlines radical hike in defense spending, Politico.eu, 11 November 2018: Macron wants Europe to buy its own military hardware, The New York Times, 14 January 2019: Trump Discussed Pulling U.S. From NATO, Aides Say Amid New Concerns Over Russia, New York Times, 14 January 2019: Trump discussed pulling U.S. from NATO, aides say amid new concerns over Russia, France24, 15 February 2019: Timeline of US withdrawal from Syria remains vague after Munich conference, NATO, 15 February 2019: Secretary General at Munich Security Conference: “If we stand united we will be ready to face the future.”, Gov.uk, 15 February 2019: Speech: The Munich Security Conference, The New York Times, 15 February 2019: What Is the Munich Security Conference, and Why Does It Matter?, Times of Israel, 15 February 2018: Gantz to speak at Munich security conference after Netanyahu cancels, Politico.eu, Munich Security Conference: Live blog, Times of Israel, 16 February 2018: Pence doubles down on call for EU to quit Iran nuclear deal, The Washington Post, 16 February 2019: Democrats on ‘reassurance tour’ for European allies worried about Trump, Jerusalem Post, 16 February 2019: Pence says time has come for EU to withdraw from from Iran Nuclear Deal, Times of Israel, 16 February 2019: EU, Germany reject US call to leave Iran nuclear deal, Times of Israel, 16 February 2019: Merkel warns US pullout from Syria risks boosting Iran, Russia, Haaretz, 16 February 2019: Merkel Defends European Stance on Iran as Pence Campaigns Against Nuclear Deal, The New York Times, 16 February 2019: Merkel Rejects U.S. Demands That Europe Pull Out of Iran Nuclear Deal, The Washington Post, 16 February 2019: Trump foreign policy under attack from all sides at European security conference, Times of Israel, 16 February 2019: Sissi: Israeli-Palestinian conflict is main source of instability in Middle East, The Guardian, 17 February 2019: Trump: EU must take back 800 Isis fighters captured in Syria, The Washington Post, 17 February 2019: Democrats offer European allies the promise of a post-Trump future. But can they deliver?, Times of Israel, 17 February 2019: Iran’s Zarif says there is ‘great risk’ of war with Israel, The New York Times, 17 February 2019: Rift Between Trump and Europe Is Now Open and Angry, Jerusalem Post, 17 February 2019: Qatar: Palestinian issue core stumbling block to ties with Israel, The Guardian, 18 February 2019: Why Trump and his team want to wipe out the EU, The New York Times, 18 February 2019: Europe to Mike Pence: No, Thank You, CNN, 18 January 2019: New York Times: Trump raised withdrawing the US from NATO several times in 2018, Politico.eu, 14 March 2019: Germany under fire over NATO defense spending (no wonder that the rest of the EU is turning to the Trump course. Actually, there is a rare chance here to work on joint projects as the beginning of a future EU army. Due to the refusal attitude of the SPD this chance is given away. Once again, the SPD makes it clear that it is not fit for the EU if it is not even involved in a core issue such as “EU security” and the resulting demands of the EU eastern enlargement. There are fair weather politicians at work who are overwhelmed with the current challenges. Beyond the security of the EU, a change of the security and political landscape is currently taking place. The US is increasingly retreating and rightly expects that the EU will not only take care of itself, but also assume military responsibility for itself and the “backyard” (Eastern Europe, Levant and North Africa). In view of the developments in the region, the EU has already lost considerable space here to Russia and Iran. It does not matter how your point of views on the subject are: foreign policy is only credible and effective, if it can be enforced militarily when needed. If this can not be done, foreign policy positions on the receiver side are at best perceived as recommendations for action, in the worst case dismissed as pure ramblings. Not only the EU states, but also the NATO states, rightly expect that Germany, as Europe’s largest economic power, will fulfill its given role militarily as well. Unlike a few decades ago, today in NATO there is no fear of Germany’s strength, but rather of the obvious and worrying weakness of the country), Reuters, 22 March 2019: Germany must meet military spending commitments: conservative leader, NPR, 2 April 2019: Trump’s Tough Talk On German Defense Spending Is Straining A Decades-Long Friendship, BBC, 3 April 2019: Nato chief Stoltenberg reaffirms bond in US Congress address, Reuters, 3 April 2019: NATO chief warns of Russia threat, urges unity in U.S. address (following the old guiding principle “Si vis pacem para bellum” (If you want peace, prepare for war or Arm yourself to the teeth and let it see all potential attackers, so they do not even come up with stupid ideas)), France24, 3 April 2019: Pence calls Germany stance in NATO ‘unacceptable’, The Atlantic, 3 April 2019: Trump Learns to Live With NATO—And Vice Versa, France24, 3 April 2019: NATO chief warns US Congress of rising threat from Russia, The Washington Free Beacon, 20 March 2019: Why Germany Should Love a World Dominated by America, Reuters, 14 May 2019: ‘Poison pills’: Pentagon tells EU not to block U.S. companies from defense pact, DefenseNews, 14 May 2019: European Union’s defense-collab push could fizzle, report warns, DefenseNews, 16 May 2019: European Union rejects US claims to internal defense coffers, D-Day, France24, 3 June 2019: D-Day: The forgotten battles beyond the beaches of Normandy, CNN, 5 June 2019: D-Day: What happened during the Normandy landings?, Reuters, 5 June 2019: ‘Thank You’ – Queen Elizabeth and world leaders applaud D-Day veterans, The Guardian, 5 June 2019: Trump, Macron and May address veterans in Portsmouth D-day commemoration – live news, BBC, 5 June 2019: Donald Trump joins Queen for 75th D-Day anniversary, The Guardian, 5 June 2019: Britain must not turn its back on the world made possible by D-Day, France24, 5 June 2019: Live: Queen joins world leaders, WWII veterans for 75th D-Day anniversary, The New York Times, 5 June 2019: For France, a D-Day Ceremony Laced With Paradox, BBC, 5 June 2019: The Queen praises the ‘courage and sacrifice’ of D-Day, Times of Israel, 5 June 2019: Foe, now friend: Germans find place at D-Day sites in France, France24, 5 June 2019: D-Day: US veteran returns to France for first time in 75 years, The New York Times, 5 June 2019: The Donald Thinks D-Day Is About Him, The Guardian, 6 June 2019: Boris Johnson’s backers are cynics enabling disaster, France24, 6 June 2019: France remembers Resistance fighters killed on D-Day, The New York Times, 6 June 2019: Trump Honors D-Day Soldiers on 75th Anniversary: Live Updates, The Guardian, 6 June 2019: D-day anniversary: Macron and Trump to meet again on Normandy beaches, NPR, 6 June 2019: D-Day 75th Anniversary: Trump, Macron And Other Leaders Mark A Historic Day, France24, 6 June 2019: Trump the transatlantic nightmare? Not for these D-Day vets, The Guardian, 6 June 2019: World leaders pay tribute to veterans at D-day ceremony in Normandy – live news, BBC, 6 June 2019: D-Day: Veterans and world leaders mark 75th anniversary, Normandy for Peace World Forum, Washington Times, 5 July 2019: Joe Biden: There will be ‘no more NATO’ if Donald Trump is reelected, Jerusalem Post, 7 July 2019: NATO no more? Biden says Trump will lead to the organization’s implosion, France24, 13 July 2019: Macron announces creation of French space force, France24, 14 July 2019: As it happened: European leaders join Macron for Bastille Day parade, The New York Times, 23 July 2019: The World Used to Fear German Militarism. Then It Disappeared., Politico.eu, 12 September 2019: EU defense commissioner may face turf wars, Politico.eu, 5 November 2019: UK, US could take part in EU military projects under draft plan, DW, 7 November 2019: Germany must play active military role, says defense minister, BBC, 7 November 2019: Nato alliance experiencing brain death, says Macron, France24, 7 November 2019: Macron claims NATO is suffering ‘brain death’, DW, 7 November 2019: Angela Merkel condemns Macron’s ‘drastic words’ on NATO, Politico.eu, 8 November 2019: Von der Leyen praises NATO, in contrast to Macron, Arab News, 9 November 2019: Biggest threat to European stability and security comes not from without, but within, Arab News, 9 November 2019: Europe, Turkey and a ticking time bomb, Politico.eu, 10 November 2019: Jens Stoltenberg deploys to Washington, Politico.eu, 10 November 2019: Germany’s ‘brain dead’ defense debate, Politico.eu, 12 November 2019: France dominant in new flurry of EU military projects, France24, 12 November 2019: Macron promotes multilateral solutions for global problems at Paris Peace Forum, Politico.eu, 13 November 2019: Emmanuel Macron’s transatlantic turbulence, France24, 15 November 2019: Trump to attend NATO summit in London to urge defence spending hike, Politico.eu, 17 November 2019: German defense minister hits back at Macron’s NATO criticism, Politico.eu, 19 November 2019: US ambassador to NATO questions Macron’s rationality, The Detroit News, 19 November 2019: California to stop buying GM, Fiat Chrysler cars over mpg fight, Politico.eu, 20 November 2019: NATO to Macron: We’ll get back to you, Politico.eu, 25 November 2019: Will the real NATO please stand up?, Politico.com, 25 November 2019: NATO’s Next Threat: Its Own Leaders, The Guardian, 26 November 2019: Nato to consider expert panel after Macron brain-dead claim, France24, 28 November 2019: France’s Macron defends ‘brain death’ criticism after talks with NATO chief, BBC, 28 November 2019: Macron is a sponsor of terrorism, says Turkish foreign minister, The Guardian, 28 November 2019: Macron defends ‘brain-dead Nato’ remarks as summit approaches, Gulf Times, 28 November 2019: Macron sticks by NATO criticism; Germany warns it could divide Europe, France24, 29 November 2019: Turkish FM counters Macron’s Syria criticism by accusing him of sponsoring terrorism, Politico.eu, 29 November 2019: Erdoğan to Macron: Get your own ‘brain death’ checked first, France24, 29 November 2019: France to summon Turkey’s ambassador after Erdogan slams Macron’s NATO comments, The Guardian, 29 November 2019: The Guardian view on the Nato summit: the Watford credibility gap, France24, 29 November 2019: NATO chief ‘optimistic’ that allies will support France in Sahel region, The National, 1 December 2019: Turkey crisis threatens to spoil Nato’s 70th birthday party, Haaretz, 1 December 2019: Turkey, Not Trump, Is the Biggest Threat to NATO Right Now, The Washington Post, 2 December 2019: NATO hopes to get through 70th anniversary without explosions from Trump or Macron, The Guardian, 2 December 2019: Trump re-election could sound death knell for Nato, allies fear, CNN, 2 December 2019: NATO is showing its age as the alliance turns 70, The National, 2 December 2019: Nato meeting to reset fraying relations between allies, Arab News, 2 December 2019: NATO summit faces new row, BBC, 3 December 2019: Nato summit: Trump blasts Macron ‘brain dead’ comments as ‘nasty’, Politico.eu, 3 December 2019: Allies unite to defend NATO — against Macron, France24, 3 December 2019: Trump criticises European allies ahead of NATO’s 70th anniversary summit, Gulf Times, 3 December 2019: Trump launches NATO summit with attack on ‘nasty’ France, Politico.com, 3 December 2019: Disruptor-in-chief Trump bulldozes into NATO gathering, The Guardian, 3 December 2019: Macron clashes with both Erdoğan and Trump at Nato summit, France24, 3 December 2019: France’s Macron accuses Turkey of ‘sometimes working with IS group proxies’, CNN, 3 December 2019: Trump and Macron clash at NATO summit, Politico.eu, 3 December 2019: Jens Stoltenberg’s (Trump) mission accomplished, DW, 3 December 2019: NATO recognizes China ‘challenges’ for the first time, Politico.eu, 3 December 2019: Now playing in London: The Donald and Emmanuel Show, Arab News, 3 December 2019: Macron says time for Turkey to clarify ambiguous Daesh stance, The National, 3 December 2019: France accuses Turkey of supporting ISIS ‘proxies’ fighting its Nato allies, The Washington Post, 3 December 2019: As impeachment inquiry rages at home, Trump unsettles the world stage at NATO, The New York Times, 3 December 2019: For Trump and Europe, a Surprising Role Reversal, The Guardian, 4 December 2019: How does Nato look at the age of 70? It’s complicated, France24, 4 December 2019: NATO unity on the line as sparring leaders mark 70 years, The Guardian, 4 December 2019: Trump cuts short Nato summit after fellow leaders’ hot-mic video, Politico.com, 4 December 2019: The Trump reality show: NATO edition, The Guardian, 5 December 2019: What’s it like to stand stark naked on the world stage? Ask Donald Trump, The New York Times, 5 December 2019: NATO Is Full of Freeloaders. But It’s How We Defend the Free World., Arab News, 5 December 2019: Joschka Fischer: Europe must act as though NATO is already dead, Die Zeit, 4 December 2019: No More Excuses, Berlin!, Israel Hayom, 6 December 2019: If NATO is going to fight terrorism, it needs Israel (from an Israeli point of view, it would certainly be a good idea to attempt to become a member of NATO so that, in accordance with Article 5, NATO would then have to fight Israeli wars. NATO participation in the “Centennial Adventure Middle East Conflict” could only be endorsed by crazy fanatics, of whom there are some in the EU and US, but fortunately without decision-making power. However, NATO’s reception conditions stipulate that new members are not involved in wars during the admission in order to exclude the aforementioned scenario. Israel, however, is at the same time with several countries in a state of war, so that the reception desire remains what it is: An unfulfillable desire. Since Netanyahu and his right-wing to right-wing extremist coalition have proven remarkably unable to make peace and a political turn towards the center can be ruled out in the next few years, it will take decades before the issue could be seriously on the table (Major non-NATO ally). The same applies to Netanyahu’s aspiration to Israel’s accession to the EU. The hurdles for this are even a lot higher), Arab News, 8 December 2019: Disillusionment at NATO despite policy shifts, The Guardian, 11 December 2019: Senate committee passes bipartisan bill to stop Trump withdrawing from Nato, Israel Hayom, 16 December 2019: NATO’s strategy to protect Europe is doomed to fail, Politico.eu, 16 December 2019: EU capitals missing targets on collaborative defense spending, CNN, 18 December 2019: China’s first domestically-built aircraft carrier officially enters service, Arab News, 18 December 2019: Turkey warns of ‘escalation’ if US ends Cyprus arms embargo, Politico.eu, 23 December 2019: NATO’s Stoltenberg says he’s ‘ready’ to meet with Putin, Gulf Times, 27 December 2019: Russia says first hypersonic missiles enter service, The Guardian, 27 December 2019: Russia deploys first hypersonic missiles, Politico.eu, 8 January 2020: As EU stumbles, Putin and Erdogan take charge in Libya, Arab News, 10 January 2020: Turkey treads a fine line amid US-Iran tensions, France24, 11 January 2020: Forces loyal to Libyan strongman Haftar announce ceasefire, The Guardian, 12 January 2020: Britain must prepare to fight wars without US help, says defence secretary, Gulf Times, 14 January 2020: Berlin summit to build on shaky Libyan ceasefire, France24, 16 January 2020: Turkey’s Erdogan says country sending troops to Libya, France24, 16 January 2020: Turkey’s Erdogan says country sending troops to Libya, Arab News, 17 January 2020: Chances of ‘Berlin breakthrough’ in doubt after Turkish threat, France24, 17 January 2020: Libya strongman Haftar in Greece for talks ahead of Berlin peace conference, Politico.eu, 17 January 2020: The Libyan conflict explained, BBC, 18 January 2020: Global Hawk drones: A look at Nato’s new spy tool, DW, 18 January 2020: EU cuts pre-accession aid to Turkey by 75%, Taiwan News, 18 January 2020: EU cuts pre-accession aid to Turkey by 75%, France24, 18 January 2020: Europe will face terror threat if Tripoli govt falls: Erdogan, Politico.eu, 18 January 2020: Erdogan: Road to peace in Libya goes through Turkey, Arab News, 18 January 2020: UN Libya mission ‘deeply concerned’ over disruption in oil production, urges restraint, Gulf Times, 18 January 2020: Putin to attend Berlin’s Libya peace talks as Russia expects progress, France24, 18 January 2020: Can Europe, caught scrapping or napping, mend its credibility at Berlin talks on Libya?, The Guardian, 18 January 2020: Libya: blockade of oil ports threatens Berlin ceasefire plan, Politico.eu, 18 January 2020: Borrell suggests EU military mission to protect cease-fire in Libya, Al Arabiya, 19 January 2020: Leaders vow to form multilateral committee at Berlin summit on Libya, Arab News, 19 January 2020: Turkish, Syrian forces must leave Tripoli, Macron tells Libya peace summit, France24, 19 January 2020: World powers agree to strengthen arms embargo in Libya’s war, France24, 19 January 2020: World powers agree to strengthen arms embargo in Libya’s war, Arab News, 19 January 2020: Leaders in pledge to stay out of Libya war, Al Arabiya, 20 January 2020: EU must consider ways to support ceasefire in Libya: Borrell, Jerusalem Post, 21 January 2020: Berlin confab on Libya ends with call to enforce arms embargo, Arab News, 21 January 2020: Will Turkey abide by provisions of Berlin Summit?, Politico.eu, 22 January 2020: Von der Leyen: EU must develop ‘credible military capabilities’, DW, 22 January 2020: EU’s von der Leyen: Europe needs ‘credible military capabilities’, France24, 7 February 2020: Macron unveils nuclear doctrine, warns EU ‘cannot remain spectators’ in arms race, Politico.eu, 7 February 2020: Macron calls for European dialogue on French nuclear arms, The National, 7 February 2020: Macron urges greater EU role in curbing nuclear threats, The National, 10 February 2020: UK must maintain security links with Europe after Brexit, says report, The Guardian, 10 February 2020: Macron’s post-Brexit nuclear ambitions are destined to fail, Politico.eu, 13 February 2020: Europe’s geopolitical year ended before it began, Politico.eu, 13 February 2020: European defense plans: What could possibly go wrong? (in addition to the general sluggishness, especially in Germany, in the further development of the EU (this is not just about building a common EU defense structure – individual armies of the states can no longer master the growing challenges alone – but also about the credible further integration and deepening of the EU as such, which are the building blocks for the survival and future viability of the EU), of course particularly disruptive forces from within (the nationalistically led EU southeast and east enlargements, Johnson’s United Kingdom) and from outside (Putin’s Russia, Erdogan’s Turkey, Trump’s USA, Netanyahu’s Israel, China and Iran) play very negative roles), DW, 14 February 2020: John Kerry says Trump’s handling of global challenges is ‘unacceptable’, BBC, 14 February 2020: Global defence spending is on the rise in an unstable world, Politico.eu, 14 February 2020: Emmanuel Macron’s Russian roulette, Politico.eu, 14 February 2020: The world’s most dangerous people? They’re in office., DW, 15 February 2020: Munich Security Conference: NATO secretary-general defends trans-Atlantic ties, CNBC, 15 February 2020: Pompeo says criticism of Trump’s ‘America First’ policy doesn’t ‘reflect reality’ (Pompeo might be right, that the West is winning. For sure not because of the current and dysfunctional US administration, but anyway), Politico.eu, 15 February 2020: POLITICO Brussels Playbook: Munich Security Conference Special Edition: Pompeo’s pep talk — Macron not mad — Fading five-star HQ, DW, 15 February 2020: Munich Security Conference: France’s Macron envisions new era of European strength, Politico.eu, 15 February 2020: State Department keeps quiet as Pompeo meets Lavrov in Munich, France24, 15 February 2020: Macron calls for better long-term relations with Russia, Politico.eu, 15 February 2020: Europe turns deaf ear to US warnings on Chinese 5G, Al Arabiya, 16 February 2020: NATO chief dismisses France’s Macron nuclear call, The Guardian, 16 February 2020: ‘Westlessness’: is the west really in a state of peril?, Politico.eu, 16 February 2020: ‘Global Britain’ is missing in action, Politico.com, 16 February 2020: Trump camp finds no appeasement at Munich, Politico.eu, 17 February 2020: After Pompeo speech fell flat, Pelosi says messenger may be to blame, Arab News, 23 February 2020: Democratic powers can combat ‘Westlessness’ by working together, Gulf Times, 3 March 2020: A European strategy is missing in action, Politico.eu, 4 March 2020: Europe must step up, German leadership hopeful Röttgen says, Reuters, 19 March 2020: NATO scales down exercises due to coronavirus, Politico.eu, 26 March 2020: NATO sets up expert panel to help it reflect, Politico.eu, 4 April 2020: Meet Macron’s Mr. NATO, Politico.eu, 1 May 2020: NATO preparing for second wave of coronavirus infections: report, DW, 2 May 2020: Germany: SPD call to withdraw US nuclear arms stokes debate (the corona virus has apparently affected him severely. However, questioning nuclear participation and thus Germany’s security is completely unacceptable), Politico.com, 3 May 2020: Members of Germany’s ruling coalition tell Trump to take U.S. nukes home, DW, 4 May 2020: Germany underscores commitment to US nuclear deterrence, The Guardian, 12 May 2020: Europe must prepare for US exit from vital Russia treaty, former Nato generals warn, The Guardian, 13 May 2020: World nuclear arms spending hit $73bn last year – half of it by US, France24, 21 May 2020: Trump to withdraw US from ‘Open Skies’ treaty, BBC, 21 May 2020: Open Skies Treaty: US to withdraw from arms control deal, The New York Times, 21 May 2020: Trump Will Withdraw U.S. From Another Major Arms Accord, Arab News, 21 May 2020: US says pulling out of Open Skies treaty, citing Russian violations, The Guardian, 21 May 2020: Trump loyalist John Ratcliffe confirmed as new US intelligence chief, DW, 22 May 2020: NATO allies alarmed, annoyed by US Open Skies exit, The New York Times, 23 May 2020: European Defense and ‘Strategic Autonomy’ Are Also Coronavirus Victims, Politico.eu, 29 May 2020: European defense hopes live to fight another day (just), Der Spiegel, 3 June 2020: Biden Advisers on Nuclear Sharing: Striking at the Heart of the Trans-Atlantic Bargain, France24, 5 June 2020: US planning to slash troops in Germany: report (it is not surprising that Trump is an enemy of free democracies and the West as a whole. Instead, he prefers dictatorships. In this respect, this step follows his long-term strategy to transform the United States into a Russian-style dictatorship. Stationing the troops in Poland is just another building block. “The West” now only consists of Western Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand), The Guardian, 5 June 2020: Trump orders 9,500 US troops to leave Germany, DW, 6 June 2020: German conservatives slam reported US troop withdrawal (of course it is a mistake, but above all a gift for Trump’s campaign aid Putin by further weakening NATO. At the same time, it is the ultimate wake-up call for the EU to organize its own security independently. As a counter reaction, the order for the 45 F-18 jets should be canceled and instead the European projects should be significantly strengthened and expanded (Eurofighter and others). This also includes the fleet of armable drones from European productions. The same applies to the army and navy. On the one hand, the 2% NATO spending target will be achieved, on the other hand, the money remains in the family. It should also be considered to replace the US nuclear warheads stored in Germany with European models. The topic of “security” is just too sensitive to be dependent on the daily-based mood of Trump. In any case, the EU must become much more independent from China and the United States anyway if it wants to successfully overcome the emerging challenges not only in the military area at all levels and in all areas), The Guardian, 6 June 2020: ‘Regrettable’: Germany reacts to Trump plan to withdraw US troops, Politico.eu, 6 June 2020: Trump orders large withdrawal of US forces from Germany, The New York Times, 6 June 2020: Has ‘America First’ Become ‘Trump First’? Germans Wonder, DW, 7 June 2020: German foreign minister laments decline of US ties, DW, 7 June 2020: Opinion: Trump is playing election games with US troops in Germany, The Washington Post, 10 June 2020: Trump pulling troops from Germany is yet another decision made from petulance, Politico.eu, 11 June 2020: US to pull troops from Germany, ex-ambassador Grenell confirms (Trump’s lapdog couldn’t get done anythng in Germany and is now weakening America’s vital security interests by removing stuff from U.S. infrastructures, needed to takle challenges in the Middle East and Africa. Germany doesn’t need a single of these soldiers for its security. Good riddance and enjoy your stay in eastern Poland. What a joke he is! :-D ), Arab News, 14 June 2020: Plan to withdraw US troops from Europe a mistake, Jerusalem Post, 15 June 2020: Nuclear powers decreasing but modernizing their arsenals, Der Spiegel, 15 June 2020: Withdrawal of U.S. Troops: Trump’s Former Ambassador to Germany Gets His Revenge, France24, 15 June 2020: EU foreign ministers to hold talks with US counterpart Pompeo as rifts fester, Der Spiegel, 15 June 2020: Wolfgang Schäuble on Germany and Europe: “We Germans Have Reached Agreements with NATO and We Must Adhere to Them”, Politico.com, 15 June 2020: Trump confirms he wants to pull thousands of U.S. troops from Germany (Trump obviously need once again urgent campaign support from Moscow for the presidential election. On the other hand, American isolationism has only weakened the United States. Russia and China will thank Trump and make further gains. At the same time, Trump believes that more than 200,000 corona-dead Americans are perfectly acceptable for his campaign), Military Times, 15 June 2020: Trump confirms plans to pull some US troops out of Germany, CNN, 16 June 2020: Trump indicates he’s not budging on reducing number of US troops in Germany, Politico.eu, 16 June 2020: After blindsiding allies, US gives no details on Trump’s troop plan, DW, 16 June 2020: Berlin says Washington benefits from US troops in Germany, DW, 16 June 2020: US military in Germany: What you need to know, BBC, 17 June 2020: Why Trump’s plan to withdraw US troops has dismayed Germany, The Guardian, 17 June 2020: German ministers hit back at Trump plan to withdraw US troops, Politico.eu, 19 June 2020: Portuguese defense minister: Macron is wrong on NATO (despite Trump), DW, 20 June 2020: How will Europe guarantee its security without the US?, The Spectator, 22 June 2020: Matthew Lynn: Trump is right to pick a fight with Germany, DW, 23 June 2020: NATO chief Stoltenberg: World needs more German leadership, DW, 23 June 2020: Stoltenberg: US presence in Europe is important for NATO, The Washington Post, 23 June 2020: The Daily 202: Trump faces mounting GOP blowback over order to pull troops out of Germany, Politico.eu, 24 June 2020: Trump says he will ‘probably’ reassign troops from Germany to Poland (for Western Europe, this decision is a definite turning point in time, which moves the original line of defense from the Cold War, the former German-German border, finally to Poland’s eastern border with Russia. Basically, this was already clear when Poland joined the EU, but is now being formalized by the transfer of the US troops to Poland, so that with the transfer, Poland will form the buffer zone between Russia and Western Europe. Could be worse), Arab News, 25 June 2020: Trump tears up traditional US approach to Europe, France24, 25 June 2020: Trump says US moving some troops from Germany to Poland after Duda meeting, Arab News, 27 June 2020: Why Middle East and North Africa is ranked the world’s ‘least peaceful region’, Politico.eu, 30 June 2020: Macron wants greater European involvement in Sahel counterterrorism, DW, 1 July 2020: Donald Trump approves plan to pull 9,500 troops from Germany, The Guardian, 4 July 2020: ‘Alarm bells’: how China’s assertiveness led to Australia’s defence overhaul, DW, 6 July 2020: Opinion: A year in the service of Germany can’t do any harm, Politico.eu, 12 July 2020: Trump national security adviser heading to Europe for talks on China, The Guardian, 13 July 2020: The world needs grown-up leadership. Time for Germany to step up, CNN, 14 July 2020: US allies once seemed cowed by China. Now they’re responding with rare coordination, DW, 16 July 2020: Germany seeking unity on identifying threats to the EU, DW, 17 July 2020: NATO spending rules need revising due to coronavirus, German defense chief says, Arab News, 19 July 2020: Blow to Erdogan as US boots Turkey out of F-35 strike fighter program, Reuters, 23 July 2020: Putin and Trump discussed arms control, Iran in phone call: Kremlin, The Hill, 23 July 2020: Trump talks coronavirus, arms control in phone call with Putin, DW, 26 July 2020: Putin says Russian navy will be armed with hypersonic weapons, DW, 29 July 2020: US to withdraw or relocate more troops in Germany than previously thought (with his election defeat in sight, he wants to do his boss in the Kremlin a favor and follow the suggestions of the running gag Richard Grenell to cushion the expected crushing defeat. It will cost the U.S. billions and reputation in the international community. A minority of Americans voted for the old fool, so they wanted the result), France24, 29 July 2020: US to withdraw 11,900 troops from Germany, about half to be redeployed in Europe, CNN, 29 July 2020: US to withdraw nearly 12,000 troops from Germany in move that will cost billions and take years, Politico.eu, 29 July 2020: US to pull 12,000 troops from Germany after Trump calls country ‘delinquent’ (DW, 26 April 2020: SIPRI: Germany significantly increases military spending), NPR, 29 July 2020: Defense Secretary Esper Says U.S. Plans To Cut Troops In Germany By A Third, BBC, 29 July 2020: US to withdraw 12,000 troops from Germany in ‘strategic’ move, DW, 29 July 2020: Former US commander: Troop withdrawal from Germany ‘gift to Kremlin’, The National, 30 July 2020: US to take 6,400 troops home from Germany and move 5,600 more, The Guardian, 30 July 2020: Russia-aligned hackers running anti-Nato fake news campaign – report, DW, 31 July 2020: Germany’s Bundeswehr to help German states after US pullout (we can only hope that Minister Kramp-Karrenbauer will be successful. The negotiations so far have not been very promising. However, since the general conditions have changed, Trump could have accidentally pushed a positive development so that the EU becomes more militarily independent and, above all, capabilities are developed and produced in Europe), DW, 1 August 2020: UAE launches Arab world’s first nuclear power plant (even if the path from a nuclear power plant to a nuclear weapon is much further than one might think, the concerns against the background of the Qatar crisis since 2017 must be taken seriously. If Qatar does actually perceive the nuclear power plant as a potential threat, an arms race in the Persian/Arabian Gulf can quickly occur), CNN, 2 August 2020: Trump’s Germany troops pullout may be his last gift to Putin before the election, DW, 4 August 2020: Nearly half of Germans support withdrawal of US troops: survey, DW, 9 August 2020: Why nuclear weapons will always be with us, Politico.eu, 12 August 2020: The old transatlantic relationship ain’t coming back, DW, 15 August 2020: Pompeo signs deal to move US troops from Germany to Poland (in the light of the current developments in EU’s eastward expansion, Germany should now invest a large amount of money to significantly strengthen the EU defense structure and therefore only invest in European defense industry. Since there is currently the far rightist of the EU’s eastward expansion and in the White House are of no use at all, it is now a matter of time of bringing the other EU states together and establish a EU army. The challenges that are looming on the horizon cannot be mastered otherwise. No single state is strong enough on its own to adequately address them), BBC, 15 August 2020: Pompeo signs deal to redeploy troops from Germany to Poland, Politico.com, 15 August 2020: U.S., Poland sign defense cooperation deal, Politico.eu, 19 August 2020: Why the Mali coup matters to Europe and the world, DW, 19 August 2020: Mali coup leaders pledge transition leading to fresh elections, CNN, 19 August 2020: Why the Mali coup could worry Donald Trump and Emmanuel Macron, BBC, 19 August 2020: Mali coup: Military promises elections after ousting president, DW, 21 August 2020: Germany, France, Britain to keep troops in Mali despite coup, CNN, 21 August 2020: Satellite photos appear to show Chinese submarine using underground base, CNN, 22 August 2020: Trump’s planned troop pullout from Germany has many military holes, Jerusalem Post, 5 September 2020: Russia, US, Turkey and EU have military tensions that border Middle East, The National, 12 September 2020: Is Erdogan interested in a deal with Europe?, DW, 12 September 2020: Greece announces ‘robust’ arms purchase amid tension with Turkey, The National, 12 September 2020: Erdogan warns Macron not to ‘mess with Turkey’ over eastern Mediterranean, France24, 12 September 2020: Erdogan warns Macron ‘not to mess with Turkey’ amid Mediterranean tensions, The Guardian, 12 September 2020: Erdoğan warns Macron: ‘Don’t mess with Turkey’, DW, 13 September 2020: Turkish gas exploration ship leaves contested waters in Mediterranean, U.S. News, 13 September 2020: Turkey’s Oruc Reis Survey Vessel Back Near Southern Shore, Ship Tracker Shows, Arab News, 17 September 2020: Erdogan ordered to back down in eastern Med, DW, 21 September 2020: German military launches space junk tracking system, DW, 21 September 2020: UN marks 75th anniversary as coronavirus ‘lays bare’ world’s fragility, The National, 22 September 2020: After 75 years, where does the UN stand?, Arab News, 23 September 2020: How Erodgan-led Turkey went from NATO ally to liability, Politico.eu, 24 September 2020: 2020: The year diplomacy died, DW, 29 September 2020: Germany’s UN reform bid revives an old ambition, Politico.eu, 29 September 2020: Macron calls on Europe to quit dependency on US arms (it’s high time to do so), Arab News, 29 September 2020: US intensifying plans to move military assets from Incirlik to Greece, Politico.eu, 1 October 2020: John Bolton: Trump could pull US out of NATO, The National, 3 October 2020: German Unity Day: Celebrations 30 years after reunification, DW, 5 October 2020: US, Russia meet to discuss nuclear arms pact, Politico.eu, 6 October 2020: EU court ruling threatens EU-UK data flows, Arab News, 7 October 2020: Europe’s contradictions exposed by Middle East crises, Israel Hayom, 15 October 2020: Russia, US divided over extending last nuclear arms pact, The Guardian, 15 October 2020: Military spending to be increased by 40% as tension with Russia grows, Politico.eu, 20 October 2020: Reporter’s Notebook: Trump, Biden and the ‘f****** Germans’ (one can probably assume that the German government would have even voluntarily let Nord Stream 2 disappear into oblivion, if the nutjobs of the governments of the EU eastward expansion and the Trump administration had not so vehemently demanded it. Instead, completing the project has now become a matter of credibility. After Trump’s dealings with the EU and individual EU states over the past four years, it is of course also about not making a single political success possible for him before the presidential elections, no matter how small, and that works surprisingly well. Although the Trump administration is currently trying desperately to promote the “Three Seas Initiative” in order to increase its influence on the EU eastward expansion along the way, the USA can directly bury its economic goals without the cooperation of the EU core countries. Neither Paris, Rome nor Berlin will submit to the Trump dictation. This, of course, against the background that Trump’s policies are just as insane as Putin’s policies. However, this cannot hide the fact that neither Berlin, Paris nor Brussels have any convincing counter-strategies. “We wait for the next US president” is neither sufficient nor a strategy at all. All current and many future challenges are already known, so that appropriate concepts for investments can be developed, which in the end should lead to much more European self-sufficiency in order to, among other things, decouple from Trump’s trade war with China. Also in other areas, such as NATO / Common Security (the EU sees itself as “soft power”, but without appropriate armament and defense structures that take part in solving problems in Europe, the Levant and North Africa with credible clout, from “soft power” only “chat room” remains) or international treaties (e.g. the Iran deal), it is clear that the EU has to develop its own lines and solutions in order to be able to keep up with future global competition), The Washington Post, 20 October 2020: Trump administration and Russia near deal to freeze nuclear warheads, extend New START pact, Politico.com, 20 October 2020: Agreement on warheads brings U.S., Russia closer to extending nuclear treaty, DW, 21 October 2020: China has the world’s largest navy — what now for the US?, Politico.eu, 21 October 2020: US and Russia poised to extend New START arms treaty, Al Jazeera, 23 October 2020: Erdogan defends testing Russian S-400, shrugs off US criticism, Politico.com, 23 October 2020: Hopes dim for nuclear agreement with Russia before Election Day, Al Jazeera, 23 October 2020: Greece and Turkey agree to cancel war games: NATO chief, France24, 25 October 2020: UN treaty banning nuclear weapons to take effect as 50th country ratifies text, Al Arabiya, 29 October 2020: How might a potential Biden win change US policy on Turkey?, Haaretz, 30 October 2020: Former U.S. Ambassador Warns Trump Might Ditch NATO, ‘Turning America’s Back’ on Israel, DW, 2 November 2020: Trans-Atlantic ties paramount to European security: German defense minister (regardless of how the US presidential elections will turn out: As already written several times above, one should not assume that there will be a 180 ° turn in US politics with a US President Joe Biden. The realignment of US foreign policy has already been initiated under Barack Obama, but the EU and its states refused to believe it. The catastrophic, incompetent and criminal Trump administration has now made things clear. But neither the EU nor its federal states have learned from this sufficiently and at the necessary speed. Should Joe Biden be able to win the election, the EU would only have gained a little time, but would still have to speed up considerably on the subject of “Common Security”. If the corrupt Trump were to succeed in stealing the US elections through some sort of manipulation (it could even happen, albeit unlikely, that there are enough fools among US voters who might re-elect the ridiculous clown), the EU should prepare better today than tomorrow for the fact that he will push the US out of NATO. At the same time, that would be the end of the “West” as we know it, because that would also be the beginning of the exit from all transatlantic cooperation. This would have a considerable negative effect on both sides, but it would at least give the EU the positive impetus to finally get its butt up and to form a real union within a very short time if the individual states do not want to go south), Arab News, 3 November 2020: Allies must take note of Iran’s belligerence, says Saudi FM, DW, 3 November 2020: Austria attack: World leaders condemn ‘horrifying’ shootings in Vienna, Politico.eu, 4 November 2020: Trump or Biden, Europe is the loser (it is apparently time to take off the rose tinted glasses when assessing the USA and its democratic basis. The US has never been a so-called “full democracy” according to the Democracy Index. Even US experts estimate the situation in such a way that “the USA is on the way to democracy”. Trump has now made it clear for four years that this path is not his path. This has been foreseeable for years and has noticeable consequences in practice. In the US institutions hollowed out by Trump, one can often no longer find any contact persons because thousands of positions are vacant. It cannot be made clearer that there is no interest in a dialogue. What does this mean for Germany and the EU? For Germany, first of all, what has already been described several times in some of the articles on this blog, namely the much clearer assumption of personal responsibility and initiative in many areas (trade, economy, climate, security, etc.). For the EU, this should mean, among other things, a considerably deepened Union, possibly in connection with the concentration on the core EU, in order to be able to act quickly. And what about NATO? With Trump’s second term in office, only a rump organization with Canada, the EU (Common Security and Defense Policy), Great Britain and Australia would remain. In addition to the various negative consequences for the EU, this has the remarkable advantage of a multi-trillion investment program for domestic demand, if only to become largely self-sufficient in the areas of energy, technology and weapons technology), Politico.eu, 4 November 2020: Time for Europe to move past ‘pax Americana’, DW, 5 November 2020: Germany approves billion-euro purchase of 38 Eurofighter jets, France24, 5 November 2020: Macron urges Europe to strengthen border controls after terror attacks, Al Jazeera, 8 November 2020: Europe’s ‘Muslim question’ and the new secular crusade, The National, 9 November 2020: Second Trump term ‘could have killed off Nato’, Politico.eu, 9 November 2020: Germany promises not to backtrack on defense spending after Trump, The National, 10 November 2020: The Middle East’s fault lines are constantly shifting, DW, 10 November 2020: Germany’s imams seen as key in combating radicalization, France24, 10 November 2020: France calls for ‘rapid and coordinated’ European front against terrorism, Politico.eu, 10 November 2020: Reality lags behind rhetoric in EU leaders’ push on terrorism, The National, 10 November 2020: Macron pushes Europe for crackdown on ISIS ticking timebomb threats, Al Arabiya, 10 November 2020: Europe must stand united against all extremism: Hamas, Hezbollah & Muslim Brotherhood, CNN, 10 November 2020: Trump’s ousting of officials and elevation of loyalists could have lasting effects, DW, 11 November 2020: EU weighs tighter border controls after Paris terrorism summit, CNN, 11 November 2020: Trump administration removes senior defense officials and installs loyalists, triggering alarm at Pentagon, Politico.eu, 13 November 2020: EU ministers vow to step up terror fight, but migration deal slips away, Politico.eu, 15 November 2020: Europe’s Biden bind: Stick with US or go it alone?, The Washington Post, 16.11.2020: French and German foreign ministers: Joe Biden can make transatlantic unity possible (a very good, promising and open approach to initiate the “New Deal”. Joe Biden and Kamala Harris need relief and support measures from the Europeans, who have an obligation here to help ensure that the presidency of the two can also be successful in terms of foreign policy), DW, 16 November 2020: France’s Macron calls for European independence ahead of Pompeo meeting, Politico.eu, 16 November 2020: Berlin stresses US ties after Macron knocks minister’s pro-American op-ed, France24, 16 November 2020: Macron walks diplomatic tightrope while hosting Trump ally Pompeo, The New York Times, 16 November 2020: Trump Said to Be Preparing Troop Cuts in Afghanistan, Iraq and Somalia, Politico.eu, 17 November 2020: German defense minister to Macron: EU depends on US security guarantee, France24, 17 November 2020: Trump orders troop cuts in Iraq and Afghanistan, CNN, 17 November 2020: US announces further drawdown of troops in Afghanistan and Iraq before Biden takes office, DW, 18 November 2020: Afghanistan: NATO girds for US troop withdrawal (that the in every respect incompetent, corrupt and criminal Trump clan has absolutely nothing to do with democracy and instead maintains the closest friendships to the autocrats and dictatorships of this world is well documented. The love that has now been added to Islamist terrorists, in this case the Taliban, is astonishing, but of course it cannot be a surprise), France24, 18 November 2020: Taliban hails US troop drawdown from Afghanistan as ‘good step’ (Donnie’s Taliban friends are still in love with him), DW, 18 November 2020: Germany’s Maas: Hasty US troop drawdown in Afghanistan could hinder peace process, DW, 19 November 2020: Afghanistan withdrawal: ‘We’re sending a message that the US can’t be trusted’, Politico.eu, 20 November 2020: Low defense spending puts strategic autonomy at risk, EU review says, DW, 21 November 2020: Opinion: What role will the EU play in foreign affairs?, DW, 22 November 2020: US officially withdraws from Open Skies transparency pact, CNN, 22 November 2020: US formally withdraws from Open Skies Treaty that bolstered European security, Politico.eu, 25 November 2020: Europe’s alliance with the US is the foundation of its security, The National, 25 November 2020: The Iranian spy whose Paris ‘bomb plot’ could have sparked a war, Politico.eu, 27 November 2020: Terror trial in Antwerp to test EU-Iran relations, Al Arabiya, 28 November 2020: Belgium court charges Iranian diplomat with 20-year prison term over terrorism, Politico.eu, 28 November 2020: Greece blasts Berlin for shunning plea for Turkey arms embargo (and he has every reason to do so. Instead of delivering the submarines to Turkey, Federal Minister of Defense Kramp-Karrenbauer should take over the submarines for the German Navy, whose fleet is already weakened and are deploying them in the eastern Mediterranean, especially since Turkey is obviously less and less a NATO partner country), Politico.eu, 29 November 2020: EU military boost would bring benefits, says bloc’s top general, France24, 30 November 2020: Iranian official blames Paris-based opposition, Israel for death of nuclear scientist (the Iranian leadership is playing a dangerous game here. If, on the one hand, it takes on Netanyahu’s Israel and Trump’s America, the bitter opponents of the JCPOA, and, on the other hand, on France and the EU, the clear supporters of the JCPOA, then the country threatens to end up empty-handed), Politico.eu, 30 November 2020: Europe must step up on defense, German Greens leader says, NPR, 30 November 2020: Biden Is Good News For Europe, But China Challenges Await, France24, 1 December 2020: ‘Less unpleasant but not fundamentally different’: Transatlantic divides after Biden win, Politico.eu, 1 December 2020: US and Turkey target each other in NATO meeting, DW, 4 December 2020: US defense bill challenges Trump’s Germany troop withdrawal, Der Spiegel, 4 December 2020: Germany’s Foreign Minister on the Future of Trans-Atlantic Relations: “We Have Waited a Long Time for This”, DW, 4 December 2020: Opinion: Germany never took Trump’s troop threat seriously, The National, 4 December 2020: Who is Helga Schmid, the new head of the OSCE?, DW, 5 December 2020: Germany: Human chain against weapons exports outside Bundestag (they still do not understand that the fully comprehensive insurance of the US Army for Germany and the EU has expired and therefore a lot more must be invested in equipment and armament. Internal and external security are the foundation of a democracy, without which, by the way, the right to demonstrate cannot be guaranteed. Alternatively, the peace movements could present credible (this is exactly why it will fail) agreements with Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Xi Jinping, Hassan Rohani/Ali Chamenei, Bashar al-Assad, the various groups of Islamist extremists and terrorists on their demilitarization so that the Eu itself could think about it too. It can be assumed, however, that those named will not be very impressed that the peace movements can dance their names), DW, 7 December 2020: US, China ruled global arms market in 2019: SIPRI, Jerusalem Post, 8 December 2020: Will Austin’s appointment see Israel move from EUCOM to CENTCOM? (United States European Command (EUCOM), United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM)), DW, 8 December 2020: Friend or foe: China has NATO worried, Europa.eu, 9 December 2020: Security Union: A Counter-Terrorism Agenda and stronger Europol to boost the EU’s resilience, The Times, 11 December 2020: Nato needs more than brave words to survive, DW, 11 December 2020: Ban on Syria deportations will be allowed to expire, Haaretz, 11 December 2020: U.S. vs. Turkey: The 7 Rifts That Divide the Key NATO Allies, The National, 11 December 2020: EU agrees to map out sanctions on Turkey over Mediterranean drilling, France24, 11 December 2020: EU Summit: Turkey says European sanctions plan is ‘biased, unlawful’, DW, 11 December 2020: Study shows how Islamic State built arsenal in Middle East, Politico.eu, 11 December 2020: EU leaders move toward sanctioning Turkey, DW, 14 December 2020: No armed drones for the German army — for now (hard to believe: after four years of total madness, the Trump administration actually made one correct decision), France24, 14 December 2020: US imposes sanctions on Turkey over purchase of Russian air defence system, DW, 14 December 2020: US sanctions Turkey over purchase of Russian air defense system, Times of Israel, 14 December 2020: US sanctions NATO ally Turkey for buying Russian S-400 air defense system, Arab News, 14 December 2020: US sanctions NATO ally Turkey over Russian missile defense system, Jerusalem Post, 15 December 2020: The US has sanctioned NATO ally Turkey – now what?, The National, 15 December 2020: Turkey left ‘shaken’ by US sanctions over S-400 missile system, DW, 15 December 2020: NATO dismisses new anti-nuclear UN treaty as risky, ineffective, DW, 16 December 2020: Will NATO miss Donald Trump?, Al Jazeera, 17 December 2020: What do US sanctions on Turkey mean for NATO?, Politico.eu, 18 December 2020: German SPD under attack after shooting down armed drones, The Times, 19 December 2020: Chinese military expansion into Pacific ‘poses greatest threat to America and allies’, The Scotsman, 19 December 2020: New Cold War: World’s democracies must wake up to a chilling new reality after massive cyberattack on US – Scotsman comment, The Times, 19 December 2020: ‘To win against Russia and China we must beat them at their own game’, Foreign Policy, 21 December 2020: China Used Stolen Data to Expose CIA Operatives in Africa and Europe, Politico.eu, 21 December 2020: Germany, stop worrying about boosting military spending, Reuters, 22 December 2020: ‘Good riddance,’ China says as Germany leaves U.N. Security Council (that the two injustice regimes would prefer to see further dictatorships represented in the UN Security Council is of course understandable from their point of view. It is all the more important to regularly confront them with reality. It’s nice to see that they still jump over every stick that you hold out to them. It shows how much they are under pressure. Ambassador Heusgen obviously did everything right), Politico.eu, 22 December 2020: Sweden edges closer to NATO membership, DW, 28 December 2020: What’s next for NATO after Donald Trump?, Al Jazeera, 29 December 2020: US sanctions no obstacle to Russia-Turkey military ties: Lavrov, Foreign Policy, 31 December 2020: What Merkel Really Thinks About China—and the World, Irish Times, 1 January 2021: Ireland takes seat on powerful UN Security Council, aiming to be ‘consensus builder’, Arab News, 5 January 2021: New UN Security Council members share resolve to end regional conflicts, CNN, 5 January 2021: UK says its aircraft carrier strike group is ready to deploy. China’s already watching, Foreign Policy, 8 January 2021: What Could Stop an ‘Unhinged’ U.S. President From Ordering a Nuclear Strike?, Arab News, 10 January 2021: Why Biden has chance to reopen door to Turkey, The Wall Street Journal, 14 January 2021: Trump Orders Military Shift to Spur Israeli-Arab Cooperation Against Iran (United States Central Command (CENTCOM), United States European Command (EUCOM) – at least some good news in these days. A win-win situation for all parties involved), Military Times, 15 January 2021: In waning days, Trump shakes up CENTCOM to increase Arab-Israeli efforts against Iran, Jerusalem Post, 15 January 2021: Regional ramifications as Trump seeks to include Israel in CENTCOM, The National, 15 January 2021: Russia to follow US out of Open Skies treaty, Al Arabiya, 15 January 2021: Russia withdraws from Open Skies Treaty after US departure, France24, 15 January 2021: Pentagon includes Israel in Middle East command area, Jerusalem Post, 18 January 2021: Israel under CENTCOM: Why does it matter?, The Washington Post, 21 January 2021: Biden administration to seek five-year extension on key nuclear arms treaty in first foray with Russia, Foreign Policy, 21 January 2021: Why Attempts to Build a New Anti-China Alliance Will Fail, Politico.eu, 22 January 2021: NATO chief backs New START nuclear weapons treaty extension, NPR, 22 January 2021: U.N. Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Takes Effect, Without The U.S. And Other Powers, The New York Times, 22 January 2021: Kremlin Welcomes Biden’s Offer to Extend Nuclear Treaty, Politoc.eu, 23 January 2021: German Greens go nuclear over call to renew NATO vows (A New Agreement, 20 January 2021: More Ambition, Please!, Al Jazeera, 29 January 2021: Italy permanently halts arms sales to Saudi Arabia, UAE, Israel Hayom, 1 February 2021: NATO 2030 and Israel (now, that’s a big amount of wishful thinking, which most likely will not materialize), Politico.com, 3 February 2021: Europe troop withdrawal plans ‘on hold,’ top general says, Al Jazeera, 3 February 2021: US and Russia extend nuclear arms control treaty to 2026, DW, 5 February 2021: Germany welcomes Biden plan to halt US troop withdrawal, The Times, 5 February 2021: China’s plans for $39bn port city alarm Australia, DW, 5 February 2021: Drone, jet and tank projects top Merkel-Macron defense talks, Arab News, 7 February 2021: The Empires Strike Back at Europe, DW, 7 February 2021: Germany reports record €53 billion in NATO defense spending, Al Jazeera, 9 February 2021: Turkey signals compromise with US over Russian S-400 missiles, CNN, 9 February 2021: North Korean hackers stole more than $300 million to pay for nuclear weapons, says confidential UN report, France24, 11 February 2021: UN report: N. Korea used millions in stolen cryptocurrencies to support banned weapons programmes, Haaretz, 11 February 2021: Illegal Missile Sale to ‘Asian Country’ Could Harm Israel-U.S. Ties, DW, 12 February 2021: Wolfgang Ischinger: Europe is surrounded by a ‘ring of fire’, Politico.com, 12 February 2021: Austin to press NATO allies on defense spending, Politico.eu, 15 February 2021: NATO defense chiefs to discuss staying in Afghanistan a bit longer, Al Jazeera, 15 February 2021: NATO will leave Afghanistan when ‘time is right’: Stoltenberg, Al Arabiya, 16 February 2021: In NATO debut, Biden’s Pentagon aims to rebuild trust damaged by Trump, The National, 16 February 2021: Joe Biden to reinvigorate ‘sacred’ Nato after divisive Donald Trump era, DW, 16 February 2021: NATO in a quandary as it awaits Joe Biden’s Afghanistan plans, Al Arabiya, 18 February 2021: Russian Su-27 fighters intercept French jets approaching border over Black Sea (feeding the Russians with their own medicine. The only thing they will understand. That’s exactely how the West should act on almost all Russian borders, to keep them busy and at the same time dry up their defense budget – like during Cold War I), DW, 18 February 2021: Taliban threat in Afghanistan ‘will significantly rise,’ says German defense minister, The National, 18 February 2021: Nato chief dismisses early withdrawal of Afghan troop trainers, DW, 18 February 2021: Munich Security Conference brings trans-Atlantic’s Fantastic Four back together, Politico.eu, 18 February 2021: Live blog: Biden at Munich Security Conference, France24, 18 February 2021: NATO to expand Iraq mission to around 4,000 personnel, Politico.eu, 18 February 2021: US defense chief charms allies during NATO debut, Arab News, 18 February 2021: Why the West may be on the march again, NPR, 19 February 2021: Biden Takes His ‘America’s Back’ Message To The World In Munich Speech, The New York Times, 19 February 2021: World Leaders Meet on Security and Democracy: Live Updates, The National, 19 February 2021: Joe Biden warns the global dynamic has shifted to a focus on meeting shared challenges, Al Arabiya, 19 February 2021: Democracy ‘under assault,’ Biden says in first message to international community, Gulf News, 19 February 2021: US President Joe Biden: The ‘transatlantic alliance is back’, Mercator Institute for China Studies, 21 February 2021: Towards ‘extreme competition’: Mapping the contours of US-China relations under the Biden administration, The National, 25 February 2021: Global military spending grows as US dominance is ‘being challenged’ by China, DW, 26 February 2021: Germany committed to Afghan peace process, minister says, Politico.eu, 26 February 2021: EU leaders, eyeing autonomy, get noisy on defense, Asia Society policy Institute, 26 February 2021: The Decade of Living Dangerously: The Impact of U.S.-China Strategic Competition on Asia, The National, 5 March 2021: Nato chief Jens Stoltenberg: EU cannot defend Europe by itself, The New Yorker, 5 March 2021: Letter from Biden’s Washington: What Does National Security Even Mean Anymore?, CNN, 6 March 2021: China has built the world’s largest navy. Now what’s Beijing going to do with it?, DW, 7 March 2021: China warns US not to cross ‘red line’ on Taiwan, The Algemeiner, 8 March 2021: Germany Can Show True Repentance by Confronting Iran (not the first time, that pro-Netanyahu lobbyists are trying to drag Germany and the EU into the Crime Minister’s Middle East Bullsh!t Bingo and for sure not the last time that it won’t work. The most important reason is, that it would be against the fundamental selfinterests of Germany and the EU, including security interests. The second one is, that Netanyahu massively contributed to the Israel-Iran dispute, not least by pushing Trump to abonden the Iran deal, without having a reasonable alternative at hand and by doing so enabling Iran to develop own nuclear war heads or in other words: “you break it, you own it”. Meanwhile Germany and the EU are trying to keep the Iran deal alive, e.g. by maintainig the INSTEX mechanism, to bring US President Joe Biden in the position to re-start negotiations. Netanyahu did never anything good to Israel and is only interested in his self-enrichment through various criminal actions. Sooner or later the Israelis will pay a price for that. Iran is also a challenge for Germany. The bigger task, however, is to protect the Israelis from their greatest enemy, and that is clearly Netanyahu), DW, 10 March 2021: NATO must reduce military emissions — Jens Stoltenberg, Israel Hayom, 11 March 2021: Israeli president, IDF chief of staff to visit Europe next week, The National, 13 March 2021: Britain to set out biggest international strategy review in decades with a defence overhaul, The Algemeiner, 14 March 2021: IDF Chief, Israeli President to Lobby European Leaders Against Iran Deal Starting Tuesday (no leader in Germany, France or Austria is nearly as stupid as Trump, and, unlikle Trump’s senior advisor for the conflict, Jared Kushner, they have read far more than just seven books about the Middle East conflicts, so that the lobbying efforts won’t work), CNN, 14 March 2021: Biden administration started outreach to North Korea last month, but country is unresponsive, BBC, 14 March 2021: North Korea ‘not responding’ to US contact efforts, DW, 16 March 2021: German and Israeli presidents discuss Middle East and the coronavirus (it is remarkable how very different the views on the Iran deal are. Here it becomes clear once more), Times of Israel, 16 March 2021: In Germany, Rivlin says he trusts Europe will ‘stand by us’ against ICC probe, Jerusalem Post, 16 March 2021: Rivlin heads for diplomatic trip to Europe, warning of Iranian danger, France24, 16 March 2021: US Secretary of State Blinken warns China over ‘coercion’ on first Asia visit, DW, 16 March 2021: UK pledges to increase nuclear warhead stockpile, boost Asian ties following foreign policy report, BBC, 16 March 2021: Integrated review: UK to lift cap on nuclear stockpile, CNN, 16 March 2021: UK labels Russia top security threat, issues warning on China, and promises to build more nuclear warheads, Politico.eu, 16 March 2021: UK move to lift nuclear cap is ‘insurance policy,’ says minister, NPR, 16 March 2021: Pentagon Pushes For Bigger Effort To Deter China’s Growing Military Might, DW, 17 March 2021: Biden says Putin is a killer and ‘will pay a price’ for election interference (where he’s right, he’s right! Just think of the numerous Russian war crimes in Syria, the annexation of Crimea, the attacks on eastern Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, Tajikistan and Chechnya. Putin can get away with the term “killer” instead of “war criminal”. On the other hand: As head of state, Biden could and should have found more diplomatic words in order to make the same statement), The Guardian, 17 March 2021: Biden: Putin is a ‘killer’ and will pay for interference in US election, France24, 17 March 2021: Russia recalls US ambassador after Biden threatens sanctions for election-meddling, The Hill, 17 March 2021: Russia recalls ambassador after Biden says Putin will ‘pay a price’ for interference, The Times, 17 March 2021: Boris Johnson attacked for pushing trade links with China, DW, 17 March 2021: Russia warns UK nuclear arsenal plan harms global security, CNN, 17 March 2021: US sanctions 24 Hong Kong and Chinese officials ahead of Blinken meeting with Beijing, The Times, 18 March 2021: ‘Killer Putin’ will pay for poll meddling, vows Biden, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 19 March 2021: Israel: Below the Surface (The New York Times, 7 April 2019: Will the Israeli ‘King’ Be Recrowned?), The Times, 19 March 2021: US and China trade barbs at Alaska talks, DW, 20 March 2021: US seeks to strengthen security ties with India, The National, 21 March 2021: US in joint military exercises with France, Belgium and Japan in Gulf of Oman, Jerusalem Post, 21 March 2021: Iran, Russia and Turkey signal growing alliance, The National, 21 March 2021: US confirms new security pact with Jordan, DW, 23 March 2021: Blinken seeks to ‘revitalize’ NATO alliance, The Guardian, 23 March 2021: Taiwan China threat to invade is ‘closer than most think’, says US admiral, DW, 23 March 2021: NATO chief: Melting Arctic ice could heat up geopolitical tensions, Al Arabiya, 23 March 2021: NATO affirms unity, attempts to put Trump era behind it, The National, 23 March 2021: Blinken promises to work with Nato allies on Afghan withdrawal, BBC, 23 March 2021: North Korea missiles: Biden says launch ‘not provocation’ (the North Koreans will never get over the fact that, despite the support of China and Russia, they completely screwed up their attack on South Korea (Korean conflict). Since then, the regime is seeking revenge and has made anti-Americanism a raison d’être, which is visible in every corner of the country and on which everything else is based, including the silly saber rattling. The regime is of course aware that 20 minutes after a North Korean missile hits US territory, North Korea will cease to exist. For years, the regime has only been kept alive by donations from all over the world, especially from China. Russia and China have a keen interest in it, especially since a united Korea under South Korean leadership would mean that US soldiers would stand at the borders of Russia and China to pat them on the fingers when things are going the wrong direction. From their point of view, it is more pleasant to promote the nuclear-armed North Korean terror regime. Against the background, it doesn’t really matter what the Biden administration does, especially since nothing will change anyway. Kim Dim Sum will continue to seek for international attention in order to be able to fool his slaves into believing that he has an international say, although this is of course anything but true and the country will experience another painful military defeat in the event of another attack on, for example, South Korea), Financial Times, 23 March 2021: North Korea nuclear tensions: US plays down first North Korean rocket test under Biden presidency, DW, 24 March 2021: US Secretary of State Blinken calls on NATO allies to help counter ‘aggressive and coercive’ China, Politico.eu, 24 March 2021: US and EU resuscitate ‘dialogue on China’, Arab News, 24 March 2021: Chinese FM reveals initiative to protect MidEast: Al Arabiya, The National, 24 March 2021: US and Turkey break the ice in Nato meeting but deep disagreements remain, Arab News, 25 March 2021: Middle Eastern NATO would increase stability and prosperity, DW, 25 March 2021: Can China impose military force against Taiwan?, Xinhua, 25 March 2021: China, Hungary agree to strengthen cooperation in various fields, Mercator Institute for China StudiesN, 26 March 2021: Likeminded coordination boosted, with Chinese pushback, Israel Hayom, 26 March 2021: ‘I don’t regret helping my people and my land’, Jerusalem Post, 26 March 2021: Pollard: Jews ‘will always have dual loyalty’ & should consider spying for Israel, Arab News, 26 March 2021: China, Saudi Arabia to cooperate in new ways, Jerusalem Post, 26 March 2021: China, Iran expected to sign 25-year accord, Iranian state media says (the West had it’s chance to start re-integrating Iran in its influence sphere, but actively missed out on this possibility by massively overplaying its hand. Now it’s China’s turn), Al Jazeera, 26 March 2021: Taiwan reports largest ever incursion by Chinese air force, Arab News, 26 March 2021: EU extends olive branch to Ankara with key conditions, The Times, 26 March 2021: I’ll save world from an over-mighty China, vows Biden, DW, 28 March 2021: German submarines fitted with Russian technology: report, CNN, 30 March 2021: NATO scrambles jets 10 times to track Russian military planes across Europe, Haaretz, 30 March 2021: China Is Involved in a Sensitive Israeli Project. Israeli Government Claims It Didn’t Know, CNN, 30 March 2021: NATO scrambles jets 10 times to track Russian military planes across Europe, The New York Times, 30 March 2021: Fighting Escalates in Eastern Ukraine, Signaling the End to Another Cease-Fire, DW, 1 April 2021: Ukraine accuses Russia of ‘aggravating’ situation in Donbass (so the war criminals from the Kremlin want to ignite the next stage), France24, 1 April 2021: Ukraine says Russia massing troops on border, US warns Moscow, CNBC, 1 April 2021: The West waits for Putin’s next move as Russia-Ukraine tensions rise, Al Jazeera, 1 April 2021: Ukraine accuses Russia of ‘muscle-flexing’ as tensions rise, DW, 1 April 2021: US pledges support for Ukraine amid tensions with Russia, The National, 1 April 2021: Ukraine leader says Russia creates threatening atmosphere in ceasefire talks, The Washington Post, 1 April 2021: The administration could be facing its first serious test with Russia, France24, 2 April 2021: NATO condemns Russian military build-up as Moscow warns escalation could ‘destroy’ Ukraine, DW, 2 April 2021: Russia warns West against sending troops to back Ukraine (of course, the war criminal Putin want to slaughter as many Ukrainians as possible without being interrupted by the West), France24, 3 April 2021: Biden offers Ukraine ‘unwavering support’ over Russia standoff, DW, 3 April 2021: South Korea and China seek progress on denuclearization, CNN, 3 April 2021: Doing business in China is difficult. A clash over human rights is making it harder (Added to this is the closer cooperation that has just been concluded between China and Russia, including on security issues, in order to split the Asian region among one another. The EU’s path is then already mapped out and, out of pure self-interest, it will not lead to closer cooperation with the extremely dubious regimes in China or Russia), DW, 4 April 2021: Germany, France condemn Ukraine escalation, call for restraint, The National, 4 April 2021: Will the China-Iran deal change the Middle East?, Arab News, 5 April 2021: Lack of international accountability has emboldened war criminals, DW, 6 April 2021: US asks Russia to explain Ukrainian border ‘provocations’, DW, 6 April 2021: Ukraine urges NATO to set up membership path, The Guardian, 6 April 2021: Ukraine Country pressures Nato for membership as Russia amasses troops at border, The Washington Post, 7 April 2021: China builds arms systems using American chip technology, CNN, 7 April 2021: China flanks Taiwan with military exercises in air and sea, Jerusalem Post, 7 April 2021: China sends more jets; Taiwan says it will fight to the end if there’s war, Foreign Policy, 7 April 2021: Philippines Leaning Toward Allowing U.S. Troops After All, Reuters, 8 April 2021: China says U.S. to blame for tensions over Taiwan, DW, 8 April 2021: Opinion: Vladimir Putin hedges his bets on Ukraine, The Hill, 8 April 2021: Pentagon chief to visit Europe, Israel amid tensions with Russia, Iran, DW, 8 April 2021: Germany urges Russia to reduce troop presence near Ukraine, The New Yorker, 8 April 2021: Vladimir Putin Has a Message: “Hey, Joe, Are You Listening?”, The New York Times, 8 April 2021: Biden Backs Taiwan, but Some Call for a Clearer Warning to China, Foreign Policy, 8 April 2021: Japan Toughens on China as Beijing Issues Threats, Reuters, 9 April 2021: Analysis: Russian military buildup raises stakes as fighting in Ukraine intensifies, The Guardian, 9 April 2021: Russia Kremlin officials say they ‘will not stand aside’ if Kyiv launches assault (the war criminals from the Kremlin wants to be seen as victims? *hahaha*), CNN, 9 April 2021: Russian forces are massing on Ukraine’s border. Bluff or not, Putin is playing with fire, DW, 9 April 2021: Russia, after sending troops to Ukraine border, calls escalation ‘unprecedented’, Al Jazeera, 9 April 2021: Ukraine rules out offensive against Russia-backed separatists, CNN, 9 April 2021: South Korea rolls out the KF-21, joining elite group of global supersonic fighter jet makers (the “bad hair day” guy from North Korea will like it), Arab News, 9 April 2021: Ukraine must remain independent and sovereign, The National, 9 April 2021: Could Europe’s reemergence in Asia be a win-win this time?, EU vs Disinfo, 9 April 2021: Donbas: Creating Fakes on the Ground, CNN, 9 April 2021: US considering sending warships to Black Sea amid Russia-Ukraine tensions, Reuters, 10 April 2021: Ukraine says it could be provoked by Russian ‘aggression’ in conflict area, Politico.eu, 10 April 2021: Western countries ‘regret’ Russia’s rebuff of meeting on Ukraine, The Guardian, 11 April 2021: Ukraine Soldier reportedly killed in artillery fire from Russia-backed troops, Al Jazeera, 11 April 2021: Ukraine says soldier killed in shelling by Russia-backed forces, The Guardian, 11 April 2021: US: Blinken warns against Chinese aggression on Taiwan, Politico.com, 11 April 2021: Trudeau government threatens Halifax Security Forum over proposed Taiwan award, Al Arabiya, 11 April 2021: US warns of ‘consequences’ if Russia acts ‘aggressively’ in Ukraine, Al Jazeera, 11 April 2021: Ukraine turns to Turkey as Russia threatens full-scale war, The Hill, 11 April 2021: Blinken to return to Brussels to discuss Russia, Ukraine tensions, Politico.com, 11 April 2021: Blinken warns China, Russia about military action, CNN, 12 April 2021: Ukraine’s President heads to the trenches as Russia masses its troops, DW, 13 April 2021: Biden talks to Putin about Ukraine, suggests meeting, France24, 13 April 2021: Nato demands Russia withdraw troops from border with Ukraine amid growing tensions, DW, 13 April 2021: Ukraine: NATO slams Russia’s troop buildup on border, France24, 13 April 2021: US officials tour Europe to shore up allied support on Russia, China and Iran, Politico.eu, 13 April 2021: US to deploy 500 additional troops to Germany this year, The Guardian, 13 April 2021: Ukraine: Biden urges Russia to de-escalate tensions in call with Putin, Politico.eu, 13 April 2021: How the showdown between Russia and Ukraine could go wrong, NPR, 13 April 2021: Biden’s National Security Team Lists Leading Threats, With China At The Top, DW, 14 April 2021: Japan seeks German help to counter China’s clout in Indo-Pacific, The Guardian, 14 April 2021: Ukraine still outgunned as Russia prepares for larger conflict, DW, 14 April 2021: US sends unofficial delegation to Taiwan, angering China, Al Arabiya, 14 April 2021: US, NATO to work together on Afghanistan withdrawal plan: Blinken, Al Jazeera, 14 April 2021: Biden’s goal: Ending ‘America’s longest war’ in Afghanistan, The Times, 14 April 2021: US withdrawal from Afghanistan: Return to barbarism is all but certain, The National, 14 April 2021: Biden pledges imminent end to US military campaign in Afghanistan, NPR, 14 April 2021: ‘It’s Time To End This Forever War.’ Biden Says Forces To Leave Afghanistan By 9/11 (it is astonishing that a not small part of the US population knows nothing at all about the ongoing war or that their country is involved in it. The majority of those who know it have been calling for an end to the operation for a long time, even if that means that in the future, due to the renewed strength of the Taliban, another operation could be necessary. Ultimately, however, one must also recognize that Afghanistan cannot be pacified. All the great powers and their allies tried for decades and ultimately had to withdraw without any results), The New York Times, 14 April 2021: ‘Time to End America’s Longest War,’ Biden Says, Defending Afghan Exit, BBC, 15 April 2021: Afghanistan: ‘We have won the war, America has lost’, say Taliban, Arab News, 15 April 2021: As US withdraws, new players to dominate Afghan scene, The Times, 15 April 2021: We beat you and will take power in Afghanistan, Taliban taunt Joe Biden, Arab News, 15 April 2021: Europe and Middle East would be stronger together, CNN, 15 April 2021: Biden starts to execute on policies Trump abandoned by crossing off another campaign promise, Al Arabiya, 15 April 2021: German, French defence ministers to discuss joint combat jet, DW, 16 April 2021: Germany’s Angela Merkel speaks with Ukrainian and French leaders over Russia’s border maneuvers, France24, 16 April 2021: Russia tensions on menu as Macron holds talks with Ukraine’s Zelensky, Al Jazeera, 16 April 2021: Ukraine may seek nuclear weapons if left out of NATO: Diplomat (that would only be logical. After all, Ukraine only got rid of its nuclear weapons because of a non-aggression pact with Russia. Russia broke this agreement years ago. In order to increase Ukrainian security and to counter Russia’s permanent aggressions towards Ukrainw, the purchase of new nuclear weapons is practically imperative), The Guardian, 16 April 2021: What did 20 years of western intervention in Afghanistan achieve? Ruination, Reuters, 16 April 2021: Hungary blocks EU statement criticising China over Hong Kong, diplomats say, Israel Hayom, 16 April 2021: For Biden and the West, it’s ‘take 2’ on Turkey, DW, 17 April 2021: Russia sends warships for maneuver amid tension near Crimea, France24, 17 April 2021: Macron urges ‘clear red lines’ with Russia amid buildup near Ukraine, France24, 18 April 2021: Ukrainian soldiers sceptical that Western sanctions will deter Russian troops (and they are of course absolutely right about it. You can’t deal with a war criminal like Putin like with sane people. A triple strategy is needed here. Ukraine’s wish to become more and more quickly integrated into NATO should be granted immediately. At the same time, military support for Ukraine from the West should be massively increased. Ultimately, the West’s sanctions regime against Russia should be significantly expanded and hit where it really hurts, namely at the revenues from oil and natural gas. Russia will then try to sell more to China. However, the Chinese only pay 1/3 of what the West pays. That would put Russia on the same path as the former Soviet Union and would have the same result, namely state bankruptcy), France24, 18 April 2021: Macron says world must ‘define clear red lines’ with Russia as tensions rise over Ukraine, Politico.eu, 18 April 2021: Europe’s strategic long-shot: more warships in the Indo-Pacific, DW, 19 April 2021: EU discusses Russia strategy as tensions grow in Ukraine, Politico.eu, 19 April 2021: Borrell offers ‘hope’ — but no EU action — on Russia-Ukraine standoff, Al Jazeera, 19 April 2021: EU warns ‘spark’ could set of escalation at Ukraine borders, Politico.eu, 20 April 2021: Merkel: Retreat from multilateralism is world’s ‘biggest threat’, Al Jazeera, 20 April 2021: ‘Unprovoked escalation’: US slams Russian plan to block Black Sea, CNN, 20 April 2021: Top military official warns China and Russia are modernizing nuclear weapons faster than US, The New York Times, 20 April 2021: ‘We Know How to Defend Our Interests’: Putin’s Emerging Hard Line, DW, 21 April 2021: Vladimir Putin warns against crossing Russia’s ‘red line’ (instead of looking for solutions to the problems he has created himself, the war criminal continues to threaten others), France24, 21 April 2021: Putin warns of ‘quick and tough’ response to any provocation by the West, DW, 21 April 2021: Opinion: Russia’s Vladimir Putin counts on the EU to help him again, CNN, 21 April 2021: Protesters across Russia call for Alexey Navalny’s release on same day as Putin’s annual address, The New York Times, 21 April 2021: Putin Warns of a Russian ‘Red Line’ the West Will Regret Crossing, Der Spiegel, 22 April 2021: Clouds of War in Ukraine: Tensions Rise in Crimea and Donbass as Russia Deploys Troops, DW, 22 April 2021: Russia orders soldiers back from Ukraine border after weeks of tension, Politico.eu, 22 April 2021: Russian troops to pull back from Ukrainian border, DW, 23 April 2021: West needs to do more to help Ukraine fend off Putin threat, ex-US diplomat says, Politico.com, 26 April 2021: Spy chiefs look to declassify intel after rare plea from 4-star commanders, CNN, 27 April 2021: Britain is sending a huge naval force through some of the most tense waters in Asia, Haaretz, 29 April 2021: America No Longer Considers Turkey a Strategic Partner (when someone behaves like a wild boar, he will be treated as such. That simple), France24, 2 May 2021: North Korea accuses Biden of pursuing hostile policy, warns of reprisal, The National, 2 May 2021: North Korea warns US it will respond to Joe Biden’s deterrence policy, NPR, 2 May 2021: North Korea Warns U.S. Over Biden’s ‘Big Blunder’, Al Jazeera, 2 May 2021: China’s carrier group conducts exercises in South China Sea, Jerusalem Post, 3 May 2021: Iran wants to use China to counter US – what are the implications?, Al Jazeera, 3 May 2021: In arms race for air superiority, Russia challenges US hegemony, DW, 3 May 2021: What’s behind Putin’s troop maneuvers at the Ukraine border?, France24, 4 May 2021: David Petraeus: US troop withdrawal ‘is not going to end the endless war in Afghanistan’, DW, 4 May 2021: Germany eyes new Afghanistan role after troop withdrawal, Politico.eu, 5 May 2021: US to join EU project on military mobility, Der Spiegel, 6 May 2021: The U.S.-China Confrontation: “We Need To Avoid Stumbling into a Major War”, Politico.eu, 6 May 2021: Green leader says Germans must ‘take more responsibility for own security’, The Times, 7 May 2021: China eyes two new foreign bases to cement growing naval power, DW, 13 May 2021: Opinion: In Ukraine conflict, Putin hits NATO’s credibility, Al Arabiya, 14 May 2021: Pentagon may delay moving Israel to US CENTCOM area of responsibility after violence, Politico.eu, 16 May 2021: EU foreign ministers to discuss Israel-Palestine conflict on Tuesday, The Guardian, 18 May 2021: Analysis EU sidelined and divided as war rages again in Middle East (the EU states merely pursue different economic interests in the region and understandably have no interest in further involvement. After all, they would have to be powdered with a clasp bag if they were to allow themselves to be militarily drawn into the more than 100-year-old Middle East conflict and thus finally bring the Middle East conflict to Europe, including the influx of even more Muslim and Jewish extremists and terrorists), Politico.eu, 18 May 2021: Borrell calls for Israeli-Palestinian ceasefire, but Hungary blocks joint EU position (not very surprising. Still, it is interesting that the only supporter of Netanyahu is his autocratic colleague from Hungary. In the past few months, backbenchers and Israel lobbyists have called for the country to join the EU. There is at least one clear answer to that: Forget about it!), DW, 18 May 2021: Middle East seeks a mediator as Israel strikes Gaza, Politico.eu, 18 May 2021: On Israel-Palestine, Americans and Europeans swap scripts (on scripts only, as the EU still lacks a working security architecture to be able do deliver more than just babbling), Al Arabiya, 21 May 2021: Iran displays long-range drone, names it ‘Gaza’ in honor of Palestinians’ struggle, Arab News, 24 May 2021: As US scales back in Middle East, China may step in: US general, Forbes, 27 May 2021: Russian Bombers In Syria Are A Threat 40 Years In The Making (later, the simpletons from the Kremlin will try again to claim that “NATO is threatening Russia”. Of course, only right-wing and left-wing extremists will believe it), DW, 28 May 2021: Scorched earth: The climate impact of conflict, France24, 28 May 2021: Croatia to buy 12 used Rafale fighter jets from France for €1 billion, Irish Times, 28 May 2021: Ireland had to rely on EU ship to patrol fishing waters due to Naval shortages, Politico.eu, 28 May 2021: In Europe, a coronavirus boom for foreign surveillance firms, DW, 1 June 2021: NATO ministers meet to lay groundwork for summit, Politico.eu, 1 June 2021: Ahead of NATO summit, France urges Europe to muscle up, CNN, 2 June 2021: US and allies send message to Russia with NATO state flyover, Foreign Affairs, 3 June 2021: The Taiwan Temptation, Reuters, 4 June 2021: Ukraine must show good will if it wants Russian gas transit, Putin says (is Nord Stream 2 just an economic project? Obviously not. It is a political weapon of the Kremlin. The partner countries’ warnings about Russian reprisals are becoming true. Berlin has to take countermeasures here and shouldn’t even start gas deliveries through the pipeline), DW, 6 June 2021: NATO: Jens Stoltenberg warns Russia and Belarus, The Guardian, 6 June 2021: Joe Biden: US president trumpets democracy abroad in Post op-ed – as threats spread at home, DW, 6 June 2021: Germany: Russian spy activity becomes ‘more brutal’, The National, 6 June 2021: Biden looks to reset relations with Europe trip, DW, 6 June 2021: Biden says US stands with European allies ahead of Putin summit, The Hill, 7 June 2021: Biden invites Ukraine’s president to the White House, DW, 7 June 2021: Germany warns: AI arms race already underway, Jerusalem Post, 7 June 2021: Iran hopes Russia and China oppose US role in MidEast, Central Asia, DW, 7 June 2021: Russia officially withdraws from Open Skies treaty, DW, 7 June 2021: UN nuclear watchdog warns on North Korea and Iran, Atlantic Council, 7 June 2021: Secretary General Stoltenberg explains why NATO is getting serious about cyber and China ‘is not an adversary’, France24, 8 June 2021: Director-general Audrey Azoulay: UNESCO members must support peace ‘in the long term’, The Times, 8 June 2021: Russia’s meddling in Germany ‘returns to Cold War levels’, DW, 9 June 2021: Munich Security Report: Is China a partner, rival or both?, France24, 10 June 2021: Macron announces the end of France’s anti-Islamist Operation Barkhane in the Sahel, The Hill, 10 June 2021: Russia prepping to give Iran advanced satellite system that will boost military spying capabilities, The Washington Post, 11 June 2021: Russia is preparing to supply Iran with an advanced satellite system that will boost Tehran’s ability to surveil military targets, officials say, Al Jazeera, 11 June 2021: What to expect from Biden’s first NATO summit as US president, Jerusalem Post, 11 June 2021: UAE, Albania, Brazil, Gabon, Ghana elected to UN Security Council, France24, 11 June 2021: NATO chief says worsening security situation in Sahel region ‘of great concern’, CNN, 11 June 2021: Iran says its naval vessels have reached the Atlantic for the first time, The National, 11 June 2021: UAE and four others elected to UN Security Council, The Washington Post, 11 June 2021: Biden’s test in Europe: Drawing red lines with Putin and Erdogan, France24, 14 June 2021: Biden tells NATO allies: I want Europe to know the U.S. is there, CNN, 14 June 2021: President Biden arrives at NATO for first visit as President, France24, 14 June 2021: China, Russia, climate and cyberattacks: What to know about NATO summit, BBC, 14 June 2021: Nato summit: Nato must face up to China’s rise, alliance chief says, Politico.eu, 14 June 2021: Biden embraces NATO, but European allies are weak, CNN, 14 June 2021: Biden is about to confront two relentless forces that could seriously hamper his presidency, Reuters, 14 June 2021: At NATO, Biden says defence of Europe a “sacred obligation”, Politico.com, 14 June 2021: NATO Summit: NATO searches for brain life, France24, 14 June 2021: ‘NATO is critically important for US interests,’ Biden tells alliance at first summit post-Trump, CNN, 14 June 2021: Biden preparing intensely for Putin’s tactics with aides and allies, The Guardian, 14 June 2021: Nato summit: Leaders to agree that China presents security risk, Arab News, 14 June 2021: NATO summit statement: ‘We call on Iran to stop all ballistic missile activities’, The National, 14 June 2021: Nato summit: leaders adopt tough stance on Russia and China, Al Arabiya, 14 June 2021: NATO to expand collective defense clause to jointly respond to attacks in space, Al Jazeera, 14 June 2021: NATO says China presents ‘systemic’ challenges, The Hill, 14 June 2021: Biden reflects on ‘diminished’ GOP at NATO in wake of post-Trump fallout, The Atlantic, 14 June 2021: The Wreckage Donald Trump Left Behind, DW, 14 June 2021: NATO must ‘stand up’ to authoritarian regimes China and Russia, says Stoltenberg, Politico.eu, 16 June 2021: EU’s Borrell on Russia: Prepare for relations to get worse, BBC, 16 June 2021: Germany withdraws platoon from Nato mission in Lithuania, Politico.eu, 17 June 2021: Biden-Putin summit gives US allies hope of better Russia ties, DW, 18 June 2021: Merkel, Macron: ‘Russia is a big challenge for us’, The Sunday Times, 20 June 2021: Chest-thumping Xi marks regime’s centenary with Taiwan show of force, The New Yorker, 20 June 2021: Joe Biden, Vladimir Putin, and the Weight of History, The Times, 21 June 2021: Taiwan is ill prepared for China’s harassment, The National, 22 June 2021: Europol warns of extremist plots to use Covid as a biological weapon, BBC, 22 June 2021: Russian jets and ships target British warship, DW, 23 June 2021: Russia says it fired warning shots at UK destroyer in Crimean waters, The Guardian, 23 June 2021: Crimea Royal Navy ship sparks diplomatic row between Russia and UK, CNN, 23 June 2021: Russian forces confront British warship in Black Sea military encounter, The Times, 23 June 2021: Russia is a threat, says minister amid Black Sea ‘clash’ confusion, Financial Times, 23 June 2021: Berlin and Paris propose reset for EU relations with Moscow, BBC, 24 June 2021: Dutch PM Rutte: No place in EU for Hungary with anti-LGBT law (of course, Mark Rutte is right and there is more. Orban’s role as the leader of the inner-European EU haters would justify his expulsion. In addition, he is the sales representative and main gateway for all non-European enemies of the EU, from Vladimir Putin to Xi Jinping to Benjamin Netanyahu. The expulsion of Hungary would be problematic insofar as the absolute majority of Hungarians are EU supporters, which is why a regime change should be worked on), DW, 24 June 2021: Why Putin and NATO are facing off on the Black Sea, BBC, 27 June 2021: Classified Ministry of Defence documents found at bus stop, The Sunday Times, 27 June 2021: Classified MoD documents found dumped behind bus stop in Kent, The Hill, 27 June 2021: Russia-China alignment strengthens dangerously while US alliances atrophy, DW, 28 June 2021: US and allies begin large-scale naval drill in Black Sea, Reuters, 28 June 2021: Ukraine, U.S. to start Black Sea military drills despite Russian protest, DW, 29 June 2021: Sea Breeze: Ukraine, US Black Sea drills raise tensions with Russia, BBC, 30 June 2021: Afghanistan: US military ‘days away’ from completing pull-out, DW, 30 June 2021: US and NATO withdraw from an Afghanistan still at war: What you need to know, The Times, 30 June 2021: You have failed, Karzai tells allies leaving Afghanistan after 20 years, Arab News, 30 June 2021: Germany withdraws last troops from Afghanistan, CNN, 2 July 2021: China is building a sprawling network of missile silos, satellite imagery appears to show, Politico.eu, 2 July 2021: Orbán, Le Pen, Salvini join forces to blast EU integration, The Washington Post, 2 July 2021: Ransomware attack likely hit ‘thousands’ of companies, researchers say, The New York Times, 2 July 2021: Hundreds of Businesses, From Sweden to U.S., Affected by Cyberattack, DW, 3 July 2021: Russia: Putin approves strategy to counter Western influence, NPR, 3 July 2021: A ‘Colossal’ Ransomware Attack Hits Hundreds Of U.S. Companies, A Security Firm Says, BBC, 3 July 2021: Swedish Coop supermarkets shut due to US ransomware cyber-attack, DW, 3 July 2021: Russian warplanes carry out drills in Black Sea, TechCrunch, 3 July 2021: A new ‘digital violence’ platform maps dozens of victims of NSO Group’s spyware, The Hill, 3 July 2021: Biden: ‘Initial thinking’ recent ransomware attack not Russian government, France24, 4 July 2021: Massive US ransomware attack forces Swedish shops to shut, FBI investigating, France24, 4 July 2021: Hackers demand $70 million to restore data after massive US cyberattack, Reuters, 5 July 2021: Hackers demand $70 mln to restore data held by companies hit in cyberattack – blog, DW, 10 July 2021: DW joins NATO’s Sea Breeze naval training in Black Sea, DW, 11 July 2021: North Korea, China vow cooperation in the face of ‘hostile forces’, CNN, 12 July 2021: US warns China it stands behind South China Sea ruling and is committed to Philippine defense, DW, 12 July 2021: Beijing defiant five years since the South China Sea ruling, Arab News, 12 July 2021: History repeating itself as Western troops leave Afghanistan, DW, 13 July 2021: Japan warns Taiwan tensions pose ‘regional security risk’, CNN, 14 July 2021: Biden administration looks to set up ‘red phone’ to China for emergency communications, Arab News, 14 July 2021: Why EU should play a greater role in Gulf security, Politico.eu, 15 July 2021: Why Merkel can’t stop apologizing, The New York Times, 17 July 2021: Israeli Companies Aided Saudi Spying Despite Khashoggi Killing (Pegasus (spyware)), Washington Post, 18 July 2021: Private spy software sold by NSO group found on cellphones of journalists, activists worldwide, Haaretz, 18 July 2021: The Pegasus Project: How NSO’s Pegasus Is Used to Spy on Journalists, The Washington Post, 18 July 2021: Invisible surveillance: How spyware is secretly hacking smartphones, The Washington Post, 18 July 2021: Takeaways from the Pegasus Project, The Guardian, 18 July 2021: What is Pegasus spyware and how does it hack phones?, The Hill, 18 July 2021: Surgeon general: ‘We are still seeing a proliferation of misinformation online’, Politico.com, 18 July 2021: Spyware used to target journalists and activists around the world, reports indicate, BBC, 19 July 2021: Pegasus: Who are the alleged victims of spyware targeting?, The Guardian, 19 July 2021: NSO clients spying disclosures prompt political rows across world, DW, 19 July 2021: Pegasus spying reports ‘completely unacceptable,’ says EU’s von der Leyen (in the end, a middle ground that has been developed in-house and networked from state to state or an EU-wide network will be the most sensible solution. The tools that are used in Germany and France, for example, have not only failed to prevent the terrorist attacks of recent years. The terrorists themselves acted out of nowhere. If security services are required by law to be blind and deaf, then they cannot do their job properly. The only ones who benefit from it are those from whom the populations are supposed to be protected), France24, 19 July 2021: Morocco and Hungary deny reports that they infiltrated phones with Pegasus spyware, BBC, 19 July 2021: China accused of cyber-attack on Microsoft Exchange servers, Politico.eu, 19 July 2021: Europe joins US to condemn cyberattacks from China, Politico.com, 19 July 2021: NATO’s next mission: Find a new boss, Politico.eu, 19 July 2021: Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine see joint path to EU, CNN, 20 July 2021: US blames China for hacks, opening new front in cyber offensive, Haaretz, 20 July 2021: Spyware Revelations Place Israel on the Bad Guys’ Side, Politico.com, 20 July 2021: State Department nominee: Russia’s use of chemical weapons ‘chilling and shocking’, Irish Times, 20 July 2021: The Irish Times view on Israeli spyware: big brother is listening, France24, 20 July 2021: Phones of Macron and some French ministers targeted in Pegasus affair, French media reports, Haaretz, 20 July 2021: The Pegasus Project: Where Netanyahu Went, NSO Followed: How Israel Pushed Cyberweapon Sales, The Guardian, 20 July 2021: The Pegasus project: French minister’s phone shows traces linked to NSO spyware, DW, 21 July 2021: Pegasus spyware allegations leave Indian democracy hanging by a thread, Haaretz, 21 July 2021: Macron Calls for Probe After Being Targeted by Israeli Spyware Pegasus, Irish Times, 20 July 2021: Macron targeted in project Pegasus spyware case on behalf of Morocco, The Washington Post, 20 July 2021: France voices anger over world leaders’ presence on list, orders spyware probe, DW, 21 July 2021: Pegasus — the favorite cyber weapon of dictators (no wonder that Netanyahu has massively promoted the exports. After all, he himself has constantly shown that he has no understanding or sympathy for democracy and the rule of law. In addition, he has expressed himself increasingly hostile toward the EU in recent years, so that no one need to be surprised about such actions), Haaretz, 21 July 2021: Israel’s NSO and Pegasus Are a Clear and Present Danger to Democracy Around the World, DW, 21 July 2021: US, Japan, S. Korea hold talks on N. Korea’s nuclear threat, The Washington Post, 21 July 2021: ‘Somebody has to do the dirty work’: NSO founders defend spyware they built, The Guardian, 22 July 2021: Why Israel is more concerned about Ben & Jerry’s than the Pegasus revelations, Politico.eu, 22 July 2021: Pegasus: Macron changes one of his numbers and cellphones, France24, 22 July 2021: Pegasus Affair: Macron changes phone, reinforces security in wake of spyware allegations (Anyone can count the result of the “investigation” on one finger, especially since it is already clear beforehand what will come of it in the end, namely “We are totally innocent and have done everything right”. Here, too, Israel acts like Russia and China: Deny it until the facts are so overwhelming that they can no longer deny them), Times of Israel, 22 July 2021: Israeli panel to review potential misuse of NSO spyware around world, Politico.eu, 22 July 2021: US Space Force seeking alliances in Europe to guard orbit, Haaretz, 22 July 2021: NSO’s Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Week Is Just the Start, DW, 22 July 2021: Tajikistan holds largest-ever military drill amid Taliban advance, Haaretz, 22 July 2021: Israel’s Drone Diplomacy Tries to Offset Heavy Loses in Ice Cream War, The Algemeiner, 22 July 2021: Israeli Air Force Holds ‘First of Its Kind’ International Drone Exercise, Haaretz, 23 July 2021: Was Israel Aware of NSO Clients’ Surveillance Targets?, Times of Israel, 25 July 2021: Firms like NSO are causing direct harm to Israel, says diaspora affairs minister (as was to be expected. In addition to the diverse challenges in connection with Israel, there is now the fact that Israel is a security problem for the West), CNN, 25 July 2021: Global phone hacks expose darker side of Israel’s ‘startup nation’ image, The Guardian, 25 July 2021: The Pegasus project: Emmanuel Macron ‘pushes for Israeli inquiry’ into NSO spyware concerns, The Sunday Times, 25 July 2021: All the bad guys loved an Uzi. Now Israeli cyberspies are the autocrat’s weapon of choice, The Hill, 25 July 2021: WhatsApp chief: US allies’ national security officials targeted with NSO malware).

The linked articles and contributions reflect the views, opinions and analyzes of the respective editorial offices, authors and journalists that we do not adopt.

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The Nobel Peace Prize for 2012

The Nobel Peace Prize for 2012

[caption id="attachment_6597" align="alignleft" width="266"] Photo: Thomas Widerberg © The Nobel Foundation 2007. Nobel Prize® and the Nobel Prize® media design mark are the registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation.©[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided that the Nobel Peace Prize for 2012 is to be awarded to the European Union (EU). The union and its forerunners have for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe. ...

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Albertville in the Alps

Albertville in the Alps

[caption id="attachment_150613" align="aligncenter" width="590"] Place Charles Albert © Tiia Monto/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Albertville is a commune in the Savoie department in the Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. Albertville is situated on the Arly River, close to the confluence with the Isère River. Nearby mountains include: Belle Etoile, Dent de Cons, Négresse, Roche Pourrie, Mirantin, Pointe de la Grande Journée, and Chaîne du Grand Arc. Nearby mountain ranges include: the Bauges; the Beauforta...

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Therme Erding, the largest thermal bath complex in Europe

Therme Erding, the largest thermal bath complex in Europe

[caption id="attachment_27443" align="aligncenter" width="590"] © Therme Erding/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]Therme Erding is the largest thermal bath complex in Europe at 145,000 square metres (36 acres). It is 30 minutes northeast of Munich by car and is visited by around 4000 people every day. On 12 February 1983, the American oil company Texaco drilled 2,350 metres (7,710 ft) below ground, just outside the town of Erding, Bavaria, Germany. Instead of oil, they discovered sulphorous water. Initially a 'mini thermal...

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Theme Week Wales - St Davids

Theme Week Wales - St Davids

[caption id="attachment_151365" align="aligncenter" width="590"] St Davids Cathedral © Chrisrivers/cc-by-sa-3.0[/caption][responsivevoice_button voice="UK English Female" buttontext="Listen to this Post"]St Davids, is a city and community in Pembrokeshire. Lying on the River Alun on St David's Peninsula, it is Britain's smallest city in terms of both size and population, the final resting place of Saint David, the country's patron saint, and the de facto ecclesiastical capital of Wales. St Davids was given city status in the 16th century due to the presence of St David's Cathedral but lost th...

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