The European Union: Common Foreign, Security and Defence Policy

Saturday, 8 July 2017 - 11:00 am (CET/MEZ) Berlin | Author/Destination:
Category/Kategorie: Editorial, European Union, General

European External Action Service

European External Action Service

(Latest update: 24 September 2020)
Foreign relations of the European Union
Although there has been a large degree of integration between European Union member states, foreign relations is still a largely intergovernmental matter, with the 28 members controlling their own relations to a large degree. However, with the Union holding more weight as a single bloc, there are attempts to speak with one voice, notably on trade and energy matters. The EU’s foreign relations are dealt with either through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, decided by the European Council or the economic trade negotiations handled by the European Commission. The leading EU diplomat in both areas is the High Representative Federica Mogherini. The number of delegates began to rise in the 1960s following the merging of the executive institutions of the three European Communities into a single Commission. Until recently some states had reservations accepting that EU delegations held the full status of a diplomatic mission. Article 20 of the Maastricht Treaty requires the Delegations and the Member States’ diplomatic missions to “co-operate in ensuring that the common positions and joint actions adopted by the Council are complied with and implemented”. As part of the process of establishment of the European External Action Service envisioned in the Lisbon Treaty, on 1 January 2010 all former European Commission delegations were renamed European Union delegations and till the end of the month 54 of the missions were transformed into embassy-type missions that employ greater powers than the regular delegations. These upgraded delegations have taken on the role previously carried out by the national embassies of the member state holding the rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union and merged with the independent Council delegations around the world. Through this the EU delegations take on the role of co-ordinating national embassies and speaking for the EU as a whole, not just the Commission. The first delegation to be upgraded was the one in Washington D.C., the new joint ambassador was João Vale de Almeida who outlined his new powers as speaking for both the Commission and Council presidents, and member states. He would be in charge where there was a common position but otherwise, on bilateral matters, he would not take over from national ambassadors. All delegations are expected to be converted by the end of 2010. Some states may choose to operate through the new EU delegations and close down some of their smaller national embassies, however France has indicated that it will maintain its own network around the world for now. The EU sends its delegates generally only to the capitals of states outside the European Union and cities hosting multilateral bodies. The EU missions work separately from the work of the missions of its member states, however in some circumstances it may share resources and facilities. In Abuja is shares its premises with a number of member states. Additionally to the third-state delegations and offices the European Commission maintains representation in each of the member states.

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions. CFSP deals only with a specific part of the EU’s external relations, which domains include mainly Trade and Commercial Policy and other areas such as funding to third countries, etc. Decisions require unanimity among member states in the Council of the European Union, but once agreed, certain aspects can be further decided by qualified majority voting. Foreign policy is chaired and represented by the EU’s High Representative, currently Federica Mogherini. The Union as a whole is increasingly representing its members in international organisations. Aside from EU-centric organisations (mentioned above) the EU, or the Community, is represented in a number of organisations:

The EU is also one part of the Quartet on the Middle East, represented by the High Representative. At the UN, some officials see the EU moving towards a single seat on the UN Security Council. The European Union is expected to accede to the European Convention on Human Rights (the Convention). In 2005, the leaders of the Council of Europe reiterated their desire for the EU to accede without delay to ensure consistent human rights protection across Europe. There are also concerns about consistency in case law – the European Court of Justice (the EU’s supreme court) is already treating the Convention as though it was part of the EU’s legal system to prevent conflict between its judgements and those of the European Court of Human Rights (the court interpreting the Convention). Protocol No.14 of the Convention is designed to allow the EU to accede to it and the Treaty of Lisbon contains a protocol binding the EU to joining. The EU would not be subordinate to the Council, but would be subject to its human rights law and external monitoring as its member states are currently. It is further proposed that the EU join as a member of the Council once it has attained its legal personality in the Treaty of Lisbon. Where the EU itself isn’t represented, or when it is only an observer, the EU treaties places certain duties on member states:

  • Member States shall coordinate their action in international organisations and at international conferences. They shall uphold the Union’s positions in such forums. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy shall organise this coordination. In international organisations and at international conferences where not all the Member States participate, those which do take part shall uphold the Union’s positions.
  • In accordance with Article 24(3), Member States represented in international organisations or international conferences where not all the Member States participate shall keep the other Member States and the High Representative informed of any matter of common interest. Member States which are also members of the United Nations Security Council will concert and keep the other Member States and the High Representative fully informed. Member States which are members of the Security Council will, in the execution of their functions, defend the positions and the interests of the Union, without prejudice to their responsibilities under the provisions of the United Nations Charter. When the Union has defined a position on a subject which is on the United Nations Security Council agenda, those Member States which sit on the Security Council shall request that the High Representative be invited to present the Union’s position.

Common Security and Defence Policy

Common Security and Defence Policy

Common Security Policy
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), formerly known as the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union (EU) and is the domain of EU policy covering defence and military aspects, as well as civilian crisis management. The ESDP was the successor of the European Security and Defence Identity under NATO, but differs in that it falls under the jurisdiction of the European Union itself, including countries with no ties to NATO. Formally, the Common Security and Defence Policy is the domain of the European Council, which is an EU institution, whereby the heads of member states meet. Nonetheless, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, currently Federica Mogherini, also plays a significant role. As Chairperson of the external relations configuration of the Council, the High Representative prepares and examines decisions to be made before they are brought to the Council. European security policy has followed several different paths during the 1990s, developing simultaneously within the Western European Union, NATO and the European Union itself.

The European Security Strategy was written in 2003 and was the policy document that guided for a time the European Union’s international security strategy. Its headline reads: “A Secure Europe In A Better World”. The document was approved by the European Council held in Brussels on 12 December 2003 and drafted under the responsibilities of the EU High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy CFSP Javier Solana. With the emergence of the ESDP, it is the first time that Europe has formulated a joint security strategy. It can be considered a counterpart to the National Security Strategy of the United States. The document starts out with the declaration that “Europe has never been so prosperous, so secure nor so free”. Its conclusion is that “The world is full of new dangers and opportunities”. Along these lines, it argues that in order to ensure security for Europe in a globalising world, multilateral cooperation within Europe and abroad is to be the imperative, because “no single nation is able to tackle today’s complex challenges”. As such the ESS identifies a string of key threats Europe needs to deal with: terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, regional conflict, failed states, and organised crime. The document was followed by the 2008 Report of the Implementation of the European Security Strategy: Providing Security in a Changing World. It concludes with the admonition “To build a secure Europe in a better world, we must do more to shape events. And we must do it now.” The 2009 Treaty of Lisbon renamed the ESDP to Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). Unanimous decisions in the Council of the European Union continue to instruct the EU foreign policy and CSDP matters became available to enhanced co-operation.

The common security and defence policy shall include the progressive framing of a common Union defence policy. This will lead to a common defence, when the European Council, acting unanimously, so decides. It shall in that case recommend to the member States the adoption of such a decision in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.

The policy of the Union in accordance with this article shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states, which see their common defence realised in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, under the North Atlantic Treaty, and be compatible with the common security and defence policy established within that framework.

Lisbon also led to the termination of the Western European Union in 2010 as, with the solidarity clause (deemed to supersede the WEU’s military mutual defence clause) and the expansion of the CSDP, the WEU became redundant. All its remaining activities are to be wound up or transferred to the EU by June 2011. Lisbon extends the enhanced co-operation mechanism to defence issues and also envisions the establishment of a Permanent Structured Cooperation in Defence. The following permanent political and military bodies were established after the approval of the European Council.

The following agencies has been established after the incorporation of the Western European Union within the EU

The CSDP is furthermore strongly facilitated by the European External Action Service.

© eubulletin.com

© eubulletin.com

Common Defence Policy
The Common Foreign and Security Policy sees the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) as responsible for the territorial defence of Europe and reconciliation. However, since 1999, the European Union is responsible for implementing missions such as peacekeeping and policing of treaties. A phrase often used to describe the relationship between the EU forces and NATO is “separable, but not separate”. The same forces and capabilities form the basis of both EU and NATO efforts, but portions can be allocated to the European Union if necessary. Defence co-operation takes place within the Common Security and Defence Policy. However, it is planned that defence co-operation and integration between member states will be improved by establishing a Military Planning and Conduct Capabilities (MPCC) unit focused on military operations.

(It should be kept in mind that after the end of the First World War, the United States largely demilitarized itself, following the motto "If we have no army, we will neither be attacked nor drawn into war". This ended with Hitler seizing power and Germany raging in Europe. President Franklin D. Roosevelt realized that Germany could conquer the United States with a relatively low level of military intervention, whereupon the production of weapons of war was resumed and miliarization began on a large scale. In 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, followed by the declaration of war by Germany and Italy on the United States, after which the country entered the Second World War. As in so many other things, Hitler had completely underestimated the United States' considerable capacity, efficiency, productivity and innovative strength. Roosevelt ended American isolationism, which was only revived with the election of Donald Trump in 2016, and completely reorganized American foreign policy, laying the foundation for the development of the United States into a superpower. So if someone thinks anti-Americanism is appropriate, he should complain to the German Nazis and the Italian fascists in particular, because without them the United States would have seen no need to become a superpower.)

(It should be kept in mind that after the end of the First World War, the United States largely demilitarized itself, following the motto “If we have no army, we will neither be attacked nor drawn into war”. This ended with Hitler seizing power and Germany raging in Europe. President Franklin D. Roosevelt realized that Germany could conquer the United States with a relatively low level of military intervention, whereupon the production of weapons of war was resumed and miliarization began on a large scale (especially in the race between Nazi Germany and the USA in the development of the atomic bomb (Otto Hahn and J. Robert Oppenheimer)). In 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, followed by the declaration of war by Germany and Italy on the United States, after which the country entered the Second World War. As in so many other things, Hitler had completely underestimated the United States’ considerable capacity, efficiency, productivity and innovative strength. Roosevelt ended American isolationism, which was only revived with the election of Donald Trump in 2016, and completely reorganized American foreign policy, laying the foundation for the development of the United States into a superpower. So if someone thinks anti-Americanism is appropriate, he should complain to the German Nazis and the Italian fascists in particular, because without them the United States would have seen no need to become a superpower. The USA are founded by Europeans. How to come up with the idea to despise the United States on the other side of the pond therefore remains puzzling. Of course, Trump can be considered a completely incompetent and corrupt Baron Munchausen, but he is not the United States. He is only one of 327 million Americans, the majority of whom have very clear and liberal values.)

The European Defence Agency (EDA) was established in July 2004 and is based in Brussels. It supports the EU Member States in improving their military capabilities in order to complete CSDP targets as set out in the European Security Strategy. In that capacity, it makes proposals, coordinates, stimulates collaboration, and runs projects. The Member States themselves, however, remain in charge of their defence policies, planning and investment. Four strategies form the framework to guide the activities of the Agency and its 26 participating Member States: 1) the Capability Development Plan (CDP), 2) the European Defence Research & Technology; 3) the European Armaments Cooperation (EAC) and 4) the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB). The EU Institute for Security Studies (EU-ISS) was inaugurated in January 2002 and is based in Paris. Although an EU agency, it is an autonomous think tank that researches EU-relevant security issues. The research results are published in papers, books, reports, policy briefs, analyses and newsletters. In addition, the EU-ISS convenes seminars and conferences on relevant issues that bring together EU officials, national experts, decision-makers and NGO representatives from all Member States.

The first deployment of European troops under the ESDP, following the 1999 declaration of intent, was in March 2003 in Macedonia. “EUFOR Concordia” used NATO assets and was considered a success and replaced by a smaller police mission, EUPOL Proxima, later that year. Since then, there have been other small police, justice and monitoring missions. As well as the Republic of Macedonia, the EU has maintained its deployment of peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as part of EUFOR Althea mission. Between May and September 2003 EU troops were deployed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during “Operation Artemis” under a mandate given by UN Security Council Resolution 1484 which aimed to prevent further atrocities and violence in the Ituri Conflict and put the DRC’s peace process back on track. This laid out the “framework nation” system to be used in future deployments. The EU returned to the DRC during July–November 2006 with EUFOR RD Congo, which supported the UN mission there during the country’s elections. Geographically, EU missions outside the Balkans and the DRC have taken place in Georgia, Indonesia, Sudan, Palestine, and UkraineMoldova. There is also a judicial mission in Iraq (EUJUST Lex). On 28 January 2008, the EU deployed its largest and most multi-national mission to Africa, EUFOR Tchad/RCA. The UN-mandated mission involves troops from 25 EU states (19 in the field) deployed in areas of eastern Chad and the north-eastern Central African Republic in order to improve security in those regions. EUFOR Tchad/RCA reached full operation capability in mid-September 2008, and handed over security duties to the UN (MINURCAT mission) in mid-March 2009 (see Military operations of the European Union).

From 1 January 2007, the EU Operations Centre began work in Brussels. It can command a limited size force of about 2000 troops (e.g. a battlegroup). In addition to the EU centre, 5 national operational headquarters have been made available for use by the Union; Mont Valérien in Paris, Northwood in London, Potsdam, Centocelle in Rome and Larissa. The EU can also use NATO capabilities. With effect from 1 January 2007, the EU will have a third option for commanding, from Brussels, missions and operations of limited size (that is, like that of a battlegroup: some 2,000 troops). On that date, the new EU Operations Centre (EUOC) within the EU Military Staff (EUMS) will be ready for action. Using some EUMS core staff, as well as some extra “double-hatted” EUMS officers and so-called “augmentees” from the Member States, the EU will have an increased capacity to respond to crisis management situations. So far, the EU has had two options as to how to run a military operation at the Operation Headquarters (OHQ) level. One option is, in a so-called “autonomous” operation, to make use of facilities provided by any of the five Operation Headquarters (OHQs) currently available in European Member States. A second option is, through recourse to NATO capabilities and common assets (under the so-called Berlin Plus agreement), to make use of command and control options such as Operation Headquarters located at Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Mons, Belgium and D-SACEUR as the Operation Commander. The key question, which critics of the solution in particular have to face more and more often, is “What happens if we do not deploy the army, what are the risks and challenges and how could they be dealt with alternatively?” The answers are as sobering as they are enlightening, because there are no viable alternatives given. The earlier everyone realize this, the sooner we can start building the EU army. After all, nothing says more clearly and unequivocally “We belong together and there will never again be war between us” as a common EU army. Money can be replaced, human lives can’t. Of course, all of this takes time, but the first successful steps have been made (e.g. including PESCO, in addition to cooperations between the armies of the EU states (EU cooperation on security and defence)).

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Media coverage: Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), European Intervention Initiative, European Defence Fund, Coordinated Annual Review on Defence (CARD), DW, 15 February 2018: Changing Europe revives interest in an EU military, Politico.eu, 3 June 2018: Merkel endorses Macron’s EU military plan, Handelsblatt, 4 September 2019: Germany outlines radical hike in defense spending, Politico.eu, 11 November 2018: Macron wants Europe to buy its own military hardware, The New York Times, 14 January 2019: Trump Discussed Pulling U.S. From NATO, Aides Say Amid New Concerns Over Russia, New York Times, 14 January 2019: Trump discussed pulling U.S. from NATO, aides say amid new concerns over Russia, France24, 15 February 2019: Timeline of US withdrawal from Syria remains vague after Munich conference, NATO, 15 February 2019: Secretary General at Munich Security Conference: “If we stand united we will be ready to face the future.”, Gov.uk, 15 February 2019: Speech: The Munich Security Conference, The New York Times, 15 February 2019: What Is the Munich Security Conference, and Why Does It Matter?, Times of Israel, 15 February 2018: Gantz to speak at Munich security conference after Netanyahu cancels, Politico.eu, Munich Security Conference: Live blog, Times of Israel, 16 February 2018: Pence doubles down on call for EU to quit Iran nuclear deal, The Washington Post, 16 February 2019: Democrats on ‘reassurance tour’ for European allies worried about Trump, Jerusalem Post, 16 February 2019: Pence says time has come for EU to withdraw from from Iran Nuclear Deal, Times of Israel, 16 February 2019: EU, Germany reject US call to leave Iran nuclear deal, Times of Israel, 16 February 2019: Merkel warns US pullout from Syria risks boosting Iran, Russia, Haaretz, 16 February 2019: Merkel Defends European Stance on Iran as Pence Campaigns Against Nuclear Deal, The New York Times, 16 February 2019: Merkel Rejects U.S. Demands That Europe Pull Out of Iran Nuclear Deal, The Washington Post, 16 February 2019: Trump foreign policy under attack from all sides at European security conference, Times of Israel, 16 February 2019: Sissi: Israeli-Palestinian conflict is main source of instability in Middle East, The Guardian, 17 February 2019: Trump: EU must take back 800 Isis fighters captured in Syria, The Washington Post, 17 February 2019: Democrats offer European allies the promise of a post-Trump future. But can they deliver?, Times of Israel, 17 February 2019: Iran’s Zarif says there is ‘great risk’ of war with Israel, The New York Times, 17 February 2019: Rift Between Trump and Europe Is Now Open and Angry, Jerusalem Post, 17 February 2019: Qatar: Palestinian issue core stumbling block to ties with Israel, The Guardian, 18 February 2019: Why Trump and his team want to wipe out the EU, The New York Times, 18 February 2019: Europe to Mike Pence: No, Thank You, CNN, 18 January 2019: New York Times: Trump raised withdrawing the US from NATO several times in 2018, Politico.eu, 14 March 2019: Germany under fire over NATO defense spending (no wonder that the rest of the EU is turning to the Trump course. Actually, there is a rare chance here to work on joint projects as the beginning of a future EU army. Due to the refusal attitude of the SPD this chance is given away. Once again, the SPD makes it clear that it is not fit for the EU if it is not even involved in a core issue such as “EU security” and the resulting demands of the EU eastern enlargement. There are fair weather politicians at work who are overwhelmed with the current challenges. Beyond the security of the EU, a change of the security and political landscape is currently taking place. The US is increasingly retreating and rightly expects that the EU will not only take care of itself, but also assume military responsibility for itself and the “backyard” (Eastern Europe, Levant and North Africa). In view of the developments in the region, the EU has already lost considerable space here to Russia and Iran. It does not matter how your point of views on the subject are: foreign policy is only credible and effective, if it can be enforced militarily when needed. If this can not be done, foreign policy positions on the receiver side are at best perceived as recommendations for action, in the worst case dismissed as pure ramblings. Not only the EU states, but also the NATO states, rightly expect that Germany, as Europe’s largest economic power, will fulfill its given role militarily as well. Unlike a few decades ago, today in NATO there is no fear of Germany’s strength, but rather of the obvious and worrying weakness of the country), Reuters, 22 March 2019: Germany must meet military spending commitments: conservative leader, NPR, 2 April 2019: Trump’s Tough Talk On German Defense Spending Is Straining A Decades-Long Friendship, BBC, 3 April 2019: Nato chief Stoltenberg reaffirms bond in US Congress address, Reuters, 3 April 2019: NATO chief warns of Russia threat, urges unity in U.S. address (following the old guiding principle “Si vis pacem para bellum” (If you want peace, prepare for war or Arm yourself to the teeth and let it see all potential attackers, so they do not even come up with stupid ideas)), France24, 3 April 2019: Pence calls Germany stance in NATO ‘unacceptable’, The Atlantic, 3 April 2019: Trump Learns to Live With NATO—And Vice Versa, France24, 3 April 2019: NATO chief warns US Congress of rising threat from Russia, The Washington Free Beacon, 20 March 2019: Why Germany Should Love a World Dominated by America, Reuters, 14 May 2019: ‘Poison pills’: Pentagon tells EU not to block U.S. companies from defense pact, DefenseNews, 14 May 2019: European Union’s defense-collab push could fizzle, report warns, DefenseNews, 16 May 2019: European Union rejects US claims to internal defense coffers, D-Day, France24, 3 June 2019: D-Day: The forgotten battles beyond the beaches of Normandy, CNN, 5 June 2019: D-Day: What happened during the Normandy landings?, Reuters, 5 June 2019: ‘Thank You’ – Queen Elizabeth and world leaders applaud D-Day veterans, The Guardian, 5 June 2019: Trump, Macron and May address veterans in Portsmouth D-day commemoration – live news, BBC, 5 June 2019: Donald Trump joins Queen for 75th D-Day anniversary, The Guardian, 5 June 2019: Britain must not turn its back on the world made possible by D-Day, France24, 5 June 2019: Live: Queen joins world leaders, WWII veterans for 75th D-Day anniversary, The New York Times, 5 June 2019: For France, a D-Day Ceremony Laced With Paradox, BBC, 5 June 2019: The Queen praises the ‘courage and sacrifice’ of D-Day, Times of Israel, 5 June 2019: Foe, now friend: Germans find place at D-Day sites in France, France24, 5 June 2019: D-Day: US veteran returns to France for first time in 75 years, The New York Times, 5 June 2019: The Donald Thinks D-Day Is About Him, The Guardian, 6 June 2019: Boris Johnson’s backers are cynics enabling disaster, France24, 6 June 2019: France remembers Resistance fighters killed on D-Day, The New York Times, 6 June 2019: Trump Honors D-Day Soldiers on 75th Anniversary: Live Updates, The Guardian, 6 June 2019: D-day anniversary: Macron and Trump to meet again on Normandy beaches, NPR, 6 June 2019: D-Day 75th Anniversary: Trump, Macron And Other Leaders Mark A Historic Day, France24, 6 June 2019: Trump the transatlantic nightmare? Not for these D-Day vets, The Guardian, 6 June 2019: World leaders pay tribute to veterans at D-day ceremony in Normandy – live news, BBC, 6 June 2019: D-Day: Veterans and world leaders mark 75th anniversary, Normandy for Peace World Forum, Washington Times, 5 July 2019: Joe Biden: There will be ‘no more NATO’ if Donald Trump is reelected, Jerusalem Post, 7 July 2019: NATO no more? Biden says Trump will lead to the organization’s implosion, France24, 13 July 2019: Macron announces creation of French space force, France24, 14 July 2019: As it happened: European leaders join Macron for Bastille Day parade, The New York Times, 23 July 2019: The World Used to Fear German Militarism. Then It Disappeared., Politico.eu, 12 September 2019: EU defense commissioner may face turf wars, Politico.eu, 5 November 2019: UK, US could take part in EU military projects under draft plan, DW, 7 November 2019: Germany must play active military role, says defense minister, BBC, 7 November 2019: Nato alliance experiencing brain death, says Macron, France24, 7 November 2019: Macron claims NATO is suffering ‘brain death’, The National, 7 November 2019: Nato dying in light of US neglect, Emmanuel Macron claims, DW, 7 November 2019: Angela Merkel condemns Macron’s ‘drastic words’ on NATO, Politico.eu, 8 November 2019: Von der Leyen praises NATO, in contrast to Macron, Arab News, 9 November 2019: Biggest threat to European stability and security comes not from without, but within, Arab News, 9 November 2019: Europe, Turkey and a ticking time bomb, Politico.eu, 10 November 2019: Jens Stoltenberg deploys to Washington, Politico.eu, 10 November 2019: Germany’s ‘brain dead’ defense debate, Politico.eu, 12 November 2019: France dominant in new flurry of EU military projects, France24, 12 November 2019: Macron promotes multilateral solutions for global problems at Paris Peace Forum, Politico.eu, 13 November 2019: Emmanuel Macron’s transatlantic turbulence, France24, 15 November 2019: Trump to attend NATO summit in London to urge defence spending hike, Politico.eu, 17 November 2019: German defense minister hits back at Macron’s NATO criticism, Politico.eu, 19 November 2019: US ambassador to NATO questions Macron’s rationality, The Detroit News, 19 November 2019: California to stop buying GM, Fiat Chrysler cars over mpg fight, Politico.eu, 20 November 2019: NATO to Macron: We’ll get back to you, Politico.eu, 25 November 2019: Will the real NATO please stand up?, Politico.com, 25 November 2019: NATO’s Next Threat: Its Own Leaders, The Guardian, 26 November 2019: Nato to consider expert panel after Macron brain-dead claim, France24, 28 November 2019: France’s Macron defends ‘brain death’ criticism after talks with NATO chief, BBC, 28 November 2019: Macron is a sponsor of terrorism, says Turkish foreign minister, The Guardian, 28 November 2019: Macron defends ‘brain-dead Nato’ remarks as summit approaches, Gulf Times, 28 November 2019: Macron sticks by NATO criticism; Germany warns it could divide Europe, France24, 29 November 2019: Turkish FM counters Macron’s Syria criticism by accusing him of sponsoring terrorism, Politico.eu, 29 November 2019: Erdoğan to Macron: Get your own ‘brain death’ checked first, France24, 29 November 2019: France to summon Turkey’s ambassador after Erdogan slams Macron’s NATO comments, The Guardian, 29 November 2019: The Guardian view on the Nato summit: the Watford credibility gap, France24, 29 November 2019: NATO chief ‘optimistic’ that allies will support France in Sahel region, The National, 30 November 2019: Are you ‘brain-dead’? Erdogan asks Macron ahead of Nato meeting, The National, 1 December 2019: Turkey crisis threatens to spoil Nato’s 70th birthday party, Haaretz, 1 December 2019: Turkey, Not Trump, Is the Biggest Threat to NATO Right Now, The Washington Post, 2 December 2019: NATO hopes to get through 70th anniversary without explosions from Trump or Macron, The Guardian, 2 December 2019: Trump re-election could sound death knell for Nato, allies fear, CNN, 2 December 2019: NATO is showing its age as the alliance turns 70, The National, 2 December 2019: Nato meeting to reset fraying relations between allies, Arab News, 2 December 2019: NATO summit faces new row, BBC, 3 December 2019: Nato summit: Trump blasts Macron ‘brain dead’ comments as ‘nasty’, Politico.eu, 3 December 2019: Allies unite to defend NATO — against Macron, France24, 3 December 2019: Trump criticises European allies ahead of NATO’s 70th anniversary summit, Gulf Times, 3 December 2019: Trump launches NATO summit with attack on ‘nasty’ France, Politico.com, 3 December 2019: Disruptor-in-chief Trump bulldozes into NATO gathering, The Guardian, 3 December 2019: Macron clashes with both Erdoğan and Trump at Nato summit, France24, 3 December 2019: France’s Macron accuses Turkey of ‘sometimes working with IS group proxies’, CNN, 3 December 2019: Trump and Macron clash at NATO summit, Politico.eu, 3 December 2019: Jens Stoltenberg’s (Trump) mission accomplished, DW, 3 December 2019: NATO recognizes China ‘challenges’ for the first time, Politico.eu, 3 December 2019: Now playing in London: The Donald and Emmanuel Show, Al Jazeera, 3 December 2019: Macron stands by NATO ‘brain death’ comment in clash with Trump, Arab News, 3 December 2019: Macron says time for Turkey to clarify ambiguous Daesh stance, The National, 3 December 2019: France accuses Turkey of supporting ISIS ‘proxies’ fighting its Nato allies, The Washington Post, 3 December 2019: As impeachment inquiry rages at home, Trump unsettles the world stage at NATO, The New York Times, 3 December 2019: For Trump and Europe, a Surprising Role Reversal, The Guardian, 4 December 2019: How does Nato look at the age of 70? It’s complicated, France24, 4 December 2019: NATO unity on the line as sparring leaders mark 70 years, The Guardian, 4 December 2019: Trump cuts short Nato summit after fellow leaders’ hot-mic video, Politico.com, 4 December 2019: The Trump reality show: NATO edition, The Guardian, 5 December 2019: What’s it like to stand stark naked on the world stage? Ask Donald Trump, The New York Times, 5 December 2019: NATO Is Full of Freeloaders. But It’s How We Defend the Free World., Arab News, 5 December 2019: Joschka Fischer: Europe must act as though NATO is already dead, Die Zeit, 4 December 2019: No More Excuses, Berlin!, Israel Hayom, 6 December 2019: If NATO is going to fight terrorism, it needs Israel (from an Israeli point of view, it would certainly be a good idea to attempt to become a member of NATO so that, in accordance with Article 5, NATO would then have to fight Israeli wars. NATO participation in the “Centennial Adventure Middle East Conflict” could only be endorsed by crazy fanatics, of whom there are some in the EU and US, but fortunately without decision-making power. However, NATO’s reception conditions stipulate that new members are not involved in wars during the admission in order to exclude the aforementioned scenario. Israel, however, is at the same time with several countries in a state of war, so that the reception desire remains what it is: An unfulfillable desire. Since Netanyahu and his right-wing to right-wing extremist coalition have proven remarkably unable to make peace and a political turn towards the center can be ruled out in the next few years, it will take decades before the issue could be seriously on the table (Major non-NATO ally). The same applies to Netanyahu’s aspiration to Israel’s accession to the EU. The hurdles for this are even a lot higher), Arab News, 8 December 2019: Disillusionment at NATO despite policy shifts, The Guardian, 11 December 2019: Senate committee passes bipartisan bill to stop Trump withdrawing from Nato, Israel Hayom, 16 December 2019: NATO’s strategy to protect Europe is doomed to fail, The National, 16 December 2019: Nato says Saudi and Omani attendance at anniversary celebration ‘good sign’ of progress, Politico.eu, 16 December 2019: EU capitals missing targets on collaborative defense spending, The National, 16 December 2019: Nato vows stronger Gulf ties at Kuwait ceremony to mark initiative anniversary, CNN, 18 December 2019: China’s first domestically-built aircraft carrier officially enters service, Arab News, 18 December 2019: Turkey warns of ‘escalation’ if US ends Cyprus arms embargo, Politico.eu, 23 December 2019: NATO’s Stoltenberg says he’s ‘ready’ to meet with Putin, Gulf Times, 27 December 2019: Russia says first hypersonic missiles enter service, The Guardian, 27 December 2019: Russia deploys first hypersonic missiles, Politico.eu, 8 January 2020: As EU stumbles, Putin and Erdogan take charge in Libya, Arab News, 10 January 2020: Turkey treads a fine line amid US-Iran tensions, France24, 11 January 2020: Forces loyal to Libyan strongman Haftar announce ceasefire, The Guardian, 12 January 2020: Britain must prepare to fight wars without US help, says defence secretary, Gulf Times, 14 January 2020: Berlin summit to build on shaky Libyan ceasefire, France24, 16 January 2020: Turkey’s Erdogan says country sending troops to Libya, France24, 16 January 2020: Turkey’s Erdogan says country sending troops to Libya, Arab News, 17 January 2020: Chances of ‘Berlin breakthrough’ in doubt after Turkish threat, France24, 17 January 2020: Libya strongman Haftar in Greece for talks ahead of Berlin peace conference, Politico.eu, 17 January 2020: The Libyan conflict explained, BBC, 18 January 2020: Global Hawk drones: A look at Nato’s new spy tool, DW, 18 January 2020: EU cuts pre-accession aid to Turkey by 75%, Taiwan News, 18 January 2020: EU cuts pre-accession aid to Turkey by 75%, France24, 18 January 2020: Europe will face terror threat if Tripoli govt falls: Erdogan, Politico.eu, 18 January 2020: Erdogan: Road to peace in Libya goes through Turkey, Al Jazeera, 18 January 2020: All eyes on Berlin as Libya rivals, world powers set for talks, Arab News, 18 January 2020: UN Libya mission ‘deeply concerned’ over disruption in oil production, urges restraint, The National, 18 January 2020: ‘Protesters’ close east Libyan oil terminals, cutting exports in half, Gulf Times, 18 January 2020: Putin to attend Berlin’s Libya peace talks as Russia expects progress, France24, 18 January 2020: Can Europe, caught scrapping or napping, mend its credibility at Berlin talks on Libya?, The Guardian, 18 January 2020: Libya: blockade of oil ports threatens Berlin ceasefire plan, Politico.eu, 18 January 2020: Borrell suggests EU military mission to protect cease-fire in Libya, Al Arabiya, 19 January 2020: Leaders vow to form multilateral committee at Berlin summit on Libya, Arab News, 19 January 2020: Turkish, Syrian forces must leave Tripoli, Macron tells Libya peace summit, Al Jazeera, 19 January 2020: Libya rivals, world powers talk peace at Berlin summit, The National, 19 January 2020: Leaders of Libya’s warring factions in Berlin in bid to end conflict, France24, 19 January 2020: World powers agree to strengthen arms embargo in Libya’s war, France24, 19 January 2020: World powers agree to strengthen arms embargo in Libya’s war, Arab News, 19 January 2020: Leaders in pledge to stay out of Libya war, The National, 19 January 2020: Libya Berlin summit ends in pledge to enforce weapons embargo, Al Jazeera, 20 January 2020: Berlin summit on Libya conflict: What did world powers agree?, Al Arabiya, 20 January 2020: EU must consider ways to support ceasefire in Libya: Borrell, Jerusalem Post, 21 January 2020: Berlin confab on Libya ends with call to enforce arms embargo, Arab News, 21 January 2020: Will Turkey abide by provisions of Berlin Summit?, Politico.eu, 22 January 2020: Von der Leyen: EU must develop ‘credible military capabilities’, DW, 22 January 2020: EU’s von der Leyen: Europe needs ‘credible military capabilities’, France24, 7 February 2020: Macron unveils nuclear doctrine, warns EU ‘cannot remain spectators’ in arms race, Politico.eu, 7 February 2020: Macron calls for European dialogue on French nuclear arms, The National, 7 February 2020: Macron urges greater EU role in curbing nuclear threats, The National, 10 February 2020: UK must maintain security links with Europe after Brexit, says report, The Guardian, 10 February 2020: Macron’s post-Brexit nuclear ambitions are destined to fail, Politico.eu, 13 February 2020: Europe’s geopolitical year ended before it began, Politico.eu, 13 February 2020: European defense plans: What could possibly go wrong? (in addition to the general sluggishness, especially in Germany, in the further development of the EU (this is not just about building a common EU defense structure – individual armies of the states can no longer master the growing challenges alone – but also about the credible further integration and deepening of the EU as such, which are the building blocks for the survival and future viability of the EU), of course particularly disruptive forces from within (the nationalistically led EU southeast and east enlargements, Johnson’s United Kingdom) and from outside (Putin’s Russia, Erdogan’s Turkey, Trump’s USA, Netanyahu’s Israel, China and Iran) play very negative roles), DW, 14 February 2020: John Kerry says Trump’s handling of global challenges is ‘unacceptable’, BBC, 14 February 2020: Global defence spending is on the rise in an unstable world, Politico.eu, 14 February 2020: Emmanuel Macron’s Russian roulette, Politico.eu, 14 February 2020: The world’s most dangerous people? They’re in office., DW, 15 February 2020: Munich Security Conference: NATO secretary-general defends trans-Atlantic ties, CNBC, 15 February 2020: Pompeo says criticism of Trump’s ‘America First’ policy doesn’t ‘reflect reality’ (Pompeo might be right, that the West is winning. For sure not because of the current and dysfunctional US administration, but anyway), Politico.eu, 15 February 2020: POLITICO Brussels Playbook: Munich Security Conference Special Edition: Pompeo’s pep talk — Macron not mad — Fading five-star HQ, DW, 15 February 2020: Munich Security Conference: France’s Macron envisions new era of European strength, Politico.eu, 15 February 2020: State Department keeps quiet as Pompeo meets Lavrov in Munich, France24, 15 February 2020: Macron calls for better long-term relations with Russia, Politico.eu, 15 February 2020: Europe turns deaf ear to US warnings on Chinese 5G, Al Arabiya, 16 February 2020: NATO chief dismisses France’s Macron nuclear call, The Guardian, 16 February 2020: ‘Westlessness’: is the west really in a state of peril?, Politico.eu, 16 February 2020: ‘Global Britain’ is missing in action, Al Jazeera, 16 February 2020: Is the West losing influence to other global powers?, Politico.com, 16 February 2020: Trump camp finds no appeasement at Munich, Politico.eu, 17 February 2020: After Pompeo speech fell flat, Pelosi says messenger may be to blame, Arab News, 23 February 2020: Democratic powers can combat ‘Westlessness’ by working together, Gulf Times, 3 March 2020: A European strategy is missing in action, Politico.eu, 4 March 2020: Europe must step up, German leadership hopeful Röttgen says, Reuters, 19 March 2020: NATO scales down exercises due to coronavirus, Politico.eu, 26 March 2020: NATO sets up expert panel to help it reflect, Politico.eu, 4 April 2020: Meet Macron’s Mr. NATO, Politico.eu, 1 May 2020: NATO preparing for second wave of coronavirus infections: report, DW, 2 May 2020: Germany: SPD call to withdraw US nuclear arms stokes debate (the corona virus has apparently affected him severely. However, questioning nuclear participation and thus Germany’s security is completely unacceptable), Politico.com, 3 May 2020: Members of Germany’s ruling coalition tell Trump to take U.S. nukes home, DW, 4 May 2020: Germany underscores commitment to US nuclear deterrence, The Guardian, 12 May 2020: Europe must prepare for US exit from vital Russia treaty, former Nato generals warn, The Guardian, 13 May 2020: World nuclear arms spending hit $73bn last year – half of it by US, France24, 21 May 2020: Trump to withdraw US from ‘Open Skies’ treaty, BBC, 21 May 2020: Open Skies Treaty: US to withdraw from arms control deal, The New York Times, 21 May 2020: Trump Will Withdraw U.S. From Another Major Arms Accord, Arab News, 21 May 2020: US says pulling out of Open Skies treaty, citing Russian violations, The Guardian, 21 May 2020: Trump loyalist John Ratcliffe confirmed as new US intelligence chief, DW, 22 May 2020: NATO allies alarmed, annoyed by US Open Skies exit, The New York Times, 23 May 2020: European Defense and ‘Strategic Autonomy’ Are Also Coronavirus Victims, Politico.eu, 29 May 2020: European defense hopes live to fight another day (just), Der Spiegel, 3 June 2020: Biden Advisers on Nuclear Sharing: Striking at the Heart of the Trans-Atlantic Bargain, France24, 5 June 2020: US planning to slash troops in Germany: report (it is not surprising that Trump is an enemy of free democracies and the West as a whole. Instead, he prefers dictatorships. In this respect, this step follows his long-term strategy to transform the United States into a Russian-style dictatorship. Stationing the troops in Poland is just another building block. “The West” now only consists of Western Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand), The Guardian, 5 June 2020: Trump orders 9,500 US troops to leave Germany, DW, 6 June 2020: German conservatives slam reported US troop withdrawal (of course it is a mistake, but above all a gift for Trump’s campaign aid Putin by further weakening NATO. At the same time, it is the ultimate wake-up call for the EU to organize its own security independently. As a counter reaction, the order for the 45 F-18 jets should be canceled and instead the European projects should be significantly strengthened and expanded (Eurofighter and others). This also includes the fleet of armable drones from European productions. The same applies to the army and navy. On the one hand, the 2% NATO spending target will be achieved, on the other hand, the money remains in the family. It should also be considered to replace the US nuclear warheads stored in Germany with European models. The topic of “security” is just too sensitive to be dependent on the daily-based mood of Trump. In any case, the EU must become much more independent from China and the United States anyway if it wants to successfully overcome the emerging challenges not only in the military area at all levels and in all areas), The Guardian, 6 June 2020: ‘Regrettable’: Germany reacts to Trump plan to withdraw US troops, Politico.eu, 6 June 2020: Trump orders large withdrawal of US forces from Germany, The New York Times, 6 June 2020: Has ‘America First’ Become ‘Trump First’? Germans Wonder, DW, 7 June 2020: German foreign minister laments decline of US ties, DW, 7 June 2020: Opinion: Trump is playing election games with US troops in Germany, The Washington Post, 10 June 2020: Trump pulling troops from Germany is yet another decision made from petulance, Politico.eu, 11 June 2020: US to pull troops from Germany, ex-ambassador Grenell confirms (Trump’s lapdog couldn’t get done anythng in Germany and is now weakening America’s vital security interests by removing stuff from U.S. infrastructures, needed to takle challenges in the Middle East and Africa. Germany doesn’t need a single of these soldiers for its security. Good riddance and enjoy your stay in eastern Poland. What a joke he is! :-D ), Arab News, 14 June 2020: Plan to withdraw US troops from Europe a mistake, Jerusalem Post, 15 June 2020: Nuclear powers decreasing but modernizing their arsenals, Der Spiegel, 15 June 2020: Withdrawal of U.S. Troops: Trump’s Former Ambassador to Germany Gets His Revenge, France24, 15 June 2020: EU foreign ministers to hold talks with US counterpart Pompeo as rifts fester, Der Spiegel, 15 June 2020: Wolfgang Schäuble on Germany and Europe: “We Germans Have Reached Agreements with NATO and We Must Adhere to Them”, Politico.com, 15 June 2020: Trump confirms he wants to pull thousands of U.S. troops from Germany (Trump obviously need once again urgent campaign support from Moscow for the presidential election. On the other hand, American isolationism has only weakened the United States. Russia and China will thank Trump and make further gains. At the same time, Trump believes that more than 200,000 corona-dead Americans are perfectly acceptable for his campaign), Military Times, 15 June 2020: Trump confirms plans to pull some US troops out of Germany, CNN, 16 June 2020: Trump indicates he’s not budging on reducing number of US troops in Germany, Politico.eu, 16 June 2020: After blindsiding allies, US gives no details on Trump’s troop plan, DW, 16 June 2020: Berlin says Washington benefits from US troops in Germany, DW, 16 June 2020: US military in Germany: What you need to know, BBC, 17 June 2020: Why Trump’s plan to withdraw US troops has dismayed Germany, The Guardian, 17 June 2020: German ministers hit back at Trump plan to withdraw US troops, Politico.eu, 19 June 2020: Portuguese defense minister: Macron is wrong on NATO (despite Trump), DW, 20 June 2020: How will Europe guarantee its security without the US?, The Spectator, 22 June 2020: Matthew Lynn: Trump is right to pick a fight with Germany, DW, 23 June 2020: NATO chief Stoltenberg: World needs more German leadership, DW, 23 June 2020: Stoltenberg: US presence in Europe is important for NATO, The Washington Post, 23 June 2020: The Daily 202: Trump faces mounting GOP blowback over order to pull troops out of Germany, Politico.eu, 24 June 2020: Trump says he will ‘probably’ reassign troops from Germany to Poland (for Western Europe, this decision is a definite turning point in time, which moves the original line of defense from the Cold War, the former German-German border, finally to Poland’s eastern border with Russia. Basically, this was already clear when Poland joined the EU, but is now being formalized by the transfer of the US troops to Poland, so that with the transfer, Poland will form the buffer zone between Russia and Western Europe. Could be worse), Arab News, 25 June 2020: Trump tears up traditional US approach to Europe, France24, 25 June 2020: Trump says US moving some troops from Germany to Poland after Duda meeting, Arab News, 27 June 2020: Why Middle East and North Africa is ranked the world’s ‘least peaceful region’, Politico.eu, 30 June 2020: Macron wants greater European involvement in Sahel counterterrorism, DW, 1 July 2020: Donald Trump approves plan to pull 9,500 troops from Germany, The Guardian, 4 July 2020: ‘Alarm bells’: how China’s assertiveness led to Australia’s defence overhaul, DW, 6 July 2020: Opinion: A year in the service of Germany can’t do any harm, Politico.eu, 12 July 2020: Trump national security adviser heading to Europe for talks on China, The Guardian, 13 July 2020: The world needs grown-up leadership. Time for Germany to step up, CNN, 14 July 2020: US allies once seemed cowed by China. Now they’re responding with rare coordination, DW, 16 July 2020: Germany seeking unity on identifying threats to the EU, DW, 17 July 2020: NATO spending rules need revising due to coronavirus, German defense chief says, Arab News, 19 July 2020: Blow to Erdogan as US boots Turkey out of F-35 strike fighter program, Reuters, 23 July 2020: Putin and Trump discussed arms control, Iran in phone call: Kremlin, The Hill, 23 July 2020: Trump talks coronavirus, arms control in phone call with Putin, DW, 26 July 2020: Putin says Russian navy will be armed with hypersonic weapons, DW, 29 July 2020: US to withdraw or relocate more troops in Germany than previously thought (with his election defeat in sight, he wants to do his boss in the Kremlin a favor and follow the suggestions of the running gag Richard Grenell to cushion the expected crushing defeat. It will cost the U.S. billions and reputation in the international community. A minority of Americans voted for the old fool, so they wanted the result), France24, 29 July 2020: US to withdraw 11,900 troops from Germany, about half to be redeployed in Europe, CNN, 29 July 2020: US to withdraw nearly 12,000 troops from Germany in move that will cost billions and take years, Politico.eu, 29 July 2020: US to pull 12,000 troops from Germany after Trump calls country ‘delinquent’ (DW, 26 April 2020: SIPRI: Germany significantly increases military spending), NPR, 29 July 2020: Defense Secretary Esper Says U.S. Plans To Cut Troops In Germany By A Third, BBC, 29 July 2020: US to withdraw 12,000 troops from Germany in ‘strategic’ move, DW, 29 July 2020: Former US commander: Troop withdrawal from Germany ‘gift to Kremlin’, The National, 30 July 2020: US to take 6,400 troops home from Germany and move 5,600 more, The Guardian, 30 July 2020: Russia-aligned hackers running anti-Nato fake news campaign – report, DW, 31 July 2020: Germany’s Bundeswehr to help German states after US pullout (we can only hope that Minister Kramp-Karrenbauer will be successful. The negotiations so far have not been very promising. However, since the general conditions have changed, Trump could have accidentally pushed a positive development so that the EU becomes more militarily independent and, above all, capabilities are developed and produced in Europe), DW, 1 August 2020: UAE launches Arab world’s first nuclear power plant (even if the path from a nuclear power plant to a nuclear weapon is much further than one might think, the concerns against the background of the Qatar crisis since 2017 must be taken seriously. If Qatar does actually perceive the nuclear power plant as a potential threat, an arms race in the Persian/Arabian Gulf can quickly occur), CNN, 2 August 2020: Trump’s Germany troops pullout may be his last gift to Putin before the election, DW, 4 August 2020: Nearly half of Germans support withdrawal of US troops: survey, DW, 9 August 2020: Why nuclear weapons will always be with us, Politico.eu, 12 August 2020: The old transatlantic relationship ain’t coming back, DW, 15 August 2020: Pompeo signs deal to move US troops from Germany to Poland (in the light of the current developments in EU’s eastward expansion, Germany should now invest a large amount of money to significantly strengthen the EU defense structure and therefore only invest in European defense industry. Since there is currently the far rightist of the EU’s eastward expansion and in the White House are of no use at all, it is now a matter of time of bringing the other EU states together and establish a EU army. The challenges that are looming on the horizon cannot be mastered otherwise. No single state is strong enough on its own to adequately address them), BBC, 15 August 2020: Pompeo signs deal to redeploy troops from Germany to Poland, Politico.com, 15 August 2020: U.S., Poland sign defense cooperation deal, Politico.eu, 19 August 2020: Why the Mali coup matters to Europe and the world, Al Jazeera, 19 August 2020: Mali coup leaders promise elections after Keita overthrow, DW, 19 August 2020: Mali coup leaders pledge transition leading to fresh elections, CNN, 19 August 2020: Why the Mali coup could worry Donald Trump and Emmanuel Macron, BBC, 19 August 2020: Mali coup: Military promises elections after ousting president, Al Jazeera, 19 August 2020: For weeks, Malians protested for change. Then a coup happened, DW, 21 August 2020: Germany, France, Britain to keep troops in Mali despite coup, CNN, 21 August 2020: Satellite photos appear to show Chinese submarine using underground base, CNN, 22 August 2020: Trump’s planned troop pullout from Germany has many military holes, Jerusalem Post, 5 September 2020: Russia, US, Turkey and EU have military tensions that border Middle East, The National, 12 September 2020: Is Erdogan interested in a deal with Europe?, DW, 12 September 2020: Greece announces ‘robust’ arms purchase amid tension with Turkey, The National, 12 September 2020: Erdogan warns Macron not to ‘mess with Turkey’ over eastern Mediterranean, France24, 12 September 2020: Erdogan warns Macron ‘not to mess with Turkey’ amid Mediterranean tensions, The Guardian, 12 September 2020: Erdoğan warns Macron: ‘Don’t mess with Turkey’, DW, 13 September 2020: Turkish gas exploration ship leaves contested waters in Mediterranean, U.S. News, 13 September 2020: Turkey’s Oruc Reis Survey Vessel Back Near Southern Shore, Ship Tracker Shows, Arab News, 17 September 2020: Erdogan ordered to back down in eastern Med, Al Jazeera, 17 September 2020: Turkey open to Mediterranean Sea talks but ‘determined’: Erdogan, DW, 21 September 2020: German military launches space junk tracking system, DW, 21 September 2020: UN marks 75th anniversary as coronavirus ‘lays bare’ world’s fragility, The National, 22 September 2020: After 75 years, where does the UN stand?, Arab News, 23 September 2020: How Erodgan-led Turkey went from NATO ally to liability, Politico.eu, 24 September 2020: 2020: The year diplomacy died.

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